tabak 1n An answer to a question; reply to an argument or proposal. 1.1n That which is used to answer, reply or to use as a rebuttal to an argument or proposal. Woy ta rò ogkagi to igtabak ko du-on insò. We should not give an answer until there is a question. ant: insò 1. 2v To answer or reply. see fr.: apul 3; ant: insò 2.
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apul 1n Argument. 2adj Argumentative. Songo apul dò ian ka so-i otow no konò no litos ka apul din. This person is just being argumentative whose argument is not correct. 2.1deriv n A person who is excessively argumentative. Ka otow no apulon, konò oghagtonghagtong to ogkagi. The excessively argumentative person won't quit talking. 3v To argue; talk back. Amana so-i batò no og-apul to ignangon to inoy. This child who talks back to that which his mother tells him [to do] is too much. [as child resisting instructions.] see: tabak 2. 3.1v The subject of an argument or what he is arguing about. Di nigkagi ka inoy, “Amana so-i batò no konò ogka-awa-an to ig-apul din.” But the mother said, “That's enough from this child who won't get rid of the subject of his arguing/what he is arguing about.” [In the example, the subject of the children's arguing (and fighting) was not appropriate because the one's falling over was an accident and not something the other deliberately did.] 4v To argue with one another. 4.1v That about which [people] are arguing with each other. Og-inso-on ta ko nokoy ka ligkatan to igpa-ap-apuloy rin. We will ask what the source of the argument was.
insò 1n question Woy ta rò ogkagi to igtabak ko du-on insò. We should not give an answer until there is a question. ant: tabak 1.1. 2v To ask, inquire about something. Oghun-a a ogpurut to kuddò nu no asolom ka pad on oghondiò to baloy ku no og-insò ko du-on igbayad ku. I will take your horse ahead of time and then the next day you will go to my house and inquire whether I have something to use for payment. Nig-utang ku pad ka kuddò nu no ka sukut, og-inso-on nu ka bayad to kuddò nu. I credited your horse first and then [as for] collecting, you will ask about the payment for your horse. ant: tabak 2. 3n Something used to open the door to an inquiry. Magi-insò ka igbogoy ku no babuy kaniu, ig-antog ku to doromdom nu ko kalingawan nu ka kanak? The pig which I am giving to you is being used to open the door to inquiry to jog your memory (lit. thinking) if you are unintentionally forgetting that which is mine [that is, an unpaid debt for help with a bride price]? [such as a pig that is given to someone to open the door to ask about an outstanding debt for help with a brideprice.] 4n question 5To investigate, interrogate. 6v Inquire around, investigate.
agap 1v To race, involving just two people. Darua ka og-agap no ulì diò to baloy. Two people will race [each other] to return home. Nig-a-agap ka darua. The two people were racing [each other]. 2v To race one another, esp. of three or more people. Ka sikan no ogpa-ag-agapoy, li-agan. Ogtagù to saku no ogpallaguy. Ka ogpakaponga, ian ogpakaro-og. That [word] race each other is a game. They get in sacks and run. The one who is able to finish [first] is the one who wins. Ogpa-ag-agapoy ka mgo kuddò. The horses are racing each other. [such as in a game with multiple participants or when racing horses.] 3v To chase and catch up with someone or something. Ko du-on darua no ogpalawod no ka sagboka oghun-a, og-agapan ka oghun-a. If two [people] are going downriver [by raft/canoe] and one gets ahead, the other will chase and catch up with the one which got ahead. [The term agapan “catch up” includes the components of the words gapun “chase” and ogko-umaan “overtake”.] osyn: liu 1. 4vs To be overtaken and passed so that the other person will reach a destination ahead of him/her; beaten to a destination. Ko du-on taga Maguimon no ogligkat to Patil di nig-ulì on sikandan, no du-on nasinundul no og-ulì diò to Maambago, kagi sikandin to, “Ogka-agapan ka Usì.” Ogtabak ka taga Maguimon to, “Balagad. Hun-a ka rò du-on.” If there is someone from Maguimon who is leaving from Patil but he has left to return home, and there are others who have followed later who are returning to Maambago, they will say, “Usì, you will be inadvertently passed up.” The person from Maguimon will answer, “Nevermind. You just go on ahead.” Darua ka og-agap no ulì diò to baloy. Kagi to sagboka, “Ko ogka-agapan ka, koykow ka ogsakaru. Two were racing to return to the house. One said, “If you happen to be beaten [to the destination], you will be the one to fetch water.”
alunggun 1n A married couple, man and wife. Ka sikan no alunggun, sikan ka iam no nig-asawa di warò pad anak. As for that married couple, that is the one which has newly been married but does not yet have an offspring. see: lunggun 1. 1.1deriv n Just a married couple, no children. Ko du-on pad og-insò ko hontow ka duma nu, ogkagi sikandan to, “Al-alunggun koy rò. Warò pad anak noy”. If there would be someone who would ask who your companion is, they would say, “We are just a married couple. We don't have any children (lit. offspring) yet.” [This form may be used when asking or responding to a question. The form applies whether the couple is newly married or has been married for a long time but does not have children.] 2deriv n Family. 2.1deriv n Families, especially speaking of them as a group. Du-on og-insò ko pila no mal-alunggun ka nig-ugpò to sikan no baranggay. Ka tabak, “Moon-ing ka mal-alunggun ka nig-ugpò kai.” There is someone who asks how many families live in that baranggay. The reply is, “There are many families who live here.” [This form is used when asking a question as the preceding example.]
andu cf: losung 1. n Pestle such as used for pounding grain; a metal rod used as a pestle for tapping tabacco. Ogngaran to andu ka igbinayu woy ko igdokdok to mamo-on woy ko tabakù. That which is used to pound [grain] or that which is used to tap betelnut or tabacco is called a pestle. [Term also applys to a a small pestle used with a small mortar for pulverizing medicine. The small mortar would still be a losung and the pestle called andu even though the tablet is crushed and not pounded. DB 18/Jan/2006] spec: susu to dalaga.
bonnal 1n An accusation. Ko tu-tu-u ian ka bonnal to nakasalò, ogbotad dan on ka nakasalò to husayan. If the accusation is true that [a person] has done wrong, they will pay up front for the settlement of one who has sinned. [The leaders of the village will collect what is needed to settle the issue if the person accused doesn't have mon] 2v To make an issue or accusation about something; such as when someone takes a comment to be an insult so wants payment for the allenged offense. Ka ogbobonnal, du-on songo otow no ogkagi no ogmohushusayoy on. As for the person who makes an issue about something, someoneelse will have to speak in order to make a settlement [for the issue.]. 3To be convicted; to establish guilt Ogpatigda-an to kagi. Ogkabonalan on. Konò ogpakatabak ka otow. [They will use] speech that hits the mark. It will establish [the truth of the matter. The person cannot answer back. 4v To demand a retribution for assumed guilt such as ridicule or for not keeping an appointment; a forfeit. Ka otow dongan, konò ogkali-ag su maga-an ogbobonal no ogbuyù to dakol no ighusoy. As for people long ago, they weren’t able to play because they would be quick to demand retribution and then would ask for a large settlement. [Would apply to demanding payment for any other real or assumed fault. In the culture, if a stranger hears laughter he may assume that he is being ridiculed and demand anything in payment. If not given he may instigate a raid on the village or kill someone. If an animal is given scraps from someone and the animal dies, he may demand payment for the animal.] 5v For something to be forfeited as compensation for a loss. Ko du-on igholon ku to nati to kalabow di ko konò ku ogkato-od to igbayad, konad ig-ulì ka inkoholon ku no salapì su igbonnal on. If I have made a deposit on a carabao calf but I cannot follow through to pay for it, the money I paid to hold it will not be returned because it will be forfeited [as compensation to the owner of the carabao.]
bu-og v 1Invitation to wrestle playfully. Kagi to sagboka, “Usì, bubu-og ki.” Ogtabak ka dangob to, “Ho-o, ogbubu-og ki, ian,” no ogpabugbu-ogoy on. One says, “Usi, lets wrestle.” The other says, “Yes, let’s wrestle,” and so then they wrestle with each other. 2Wrestle each other playfully. Ogpabubu-oyoy ka darua no lukos ko hontow kandan ka dayagangon. Two men wrestle with each other to discover who is the strongest. gen: pabakbakusoy.
bugsong v 1To obstruct, as a path or one's view. [DB comment regarding having words and meanings jumbled/pass by too quickly. (ck TA) DB contrasted this with a view from a mountain top that is unobstructed, straight and clear.] see: atang 2; ant: taloytoy. 2To be hindered as by clutter. Ko oghipanow ki diò to dalan no du-on kayu no napolod no konò ki ogpakabayò, nabugsongan ka ogbaya-an ta. Nabugsongan ka dalan su konad ogkabaya-an to otow. If we are walking on a path and there is a tree which has fallen and we cannot pass by, our pathway has been obstructed. Our path has been obstructed because people cannot get through.; DB 24/Feb/2009 Ko ogkabugsong, konò ta ogkakita-an ka ogkabaya-an. If something is cluttered, one cannot see where he is going. see: bunbun 1; ant: taloytoy1. 3To interrupt. Ko ogkagi a no du-on otow no ogtampod to kagi ku, ogbugsong. Ko og-ampawan din ka kagi rin, igdo-isok. If I am speaking and there is a person who cuts off my speech, he interrupts. If someone overrides [another's words] with his words, it is disrespectful to (lit. belittles) [the other person]. [as when a person's speech is interrupted] 4To be interrupted as of speech, or cut off as of electric current if uf a line has been broken Nabugsong ko du-on kinagian no konò ogka-ayun. [The meaning] is jumbled when there are words which don't fit. Ko du-on abogaru no ogkaro-og no warad igkatabak din, ogkabugsong on sikandin. see: tampod 1. 5To initiate. Ko oghunno-on og-unuk ka langlanguan, no ogbugsongan ka batò ka ogtulin. When the face [of a baby] fills in, then the child's growth is initiated. see: bunsud 1.
bulung 1n Remedy, cure, medicine. see fr.: alang 2; see fr.: tambal 2. 2v To cure, remedy Niggoram a nokai to sikan no alap-ap no malintok a pad di nigbulungan ku to kayu no kapigsula no ogtubù diò to pantad. Some time ago when I was still a child, I had an ailment called alap-ap but I cured it with the plant kapigsula [which grows on ] the beach. 3v To satisfy or satiate such as one’s hunger or desire to relax. An-anokon din ka lawa rin. Ogbulungon din ka lawa rin to woig. His body was refreshed. He was satisfying his body in the water. 44.1v To be cured or treated for something. 4.2vs To be full or satiated as from food. 5v To use something as a treatment, or medicine, for something. Ka doun kunakun, igtotomug to homoy no igbulung to ulod. The leaves [called] kunakun are fed into the fire as a treatment for bugs. see: tambal (Ceb). 6deriv n Medication or treatment. Ka maro-ot no otow ka ogsugù no og-ubatan din ka songo otow to ibudbud nu ka so-in no bogas to tabaku su bubulungoy to sakit. A bad person is the one who gives a deceiving order to some person to sprinkle this tabacco seed [on the ground] because it is medication for illness.
do-os 1v To dive in and eat heartily. "Ogko-on kinow on." Ogtabak ka duma rin to, "Ho-o, ogdo-os kinow on." “Let’s eat!” Hs companion will reply, “Yes, let’s dive in and eath heartily. [At a feast the host will start by inviting the guests to eat. A guest may reply, “Yes, let’s dive in and eat.” That response is considered appropriate.] 2v To gobble up as an animal that is getting into someones corn that is drying. Awaa ka babuy su ganna rò ka ogdo-osan ka agoloy. Shoo away the pig because it has been gobbling up the corn for some time. 3v Go ahead and gobble up that which was offered. Do-osi nu ka noutol no babuy. Go ahead and gobble upt the pig which was caught. [The following invitation is a rebuke to a guest iwho is gluttonous and keeps coming back for extra helpings.] 4n A gluttonous person as one who keeps coming back for more food. 5To be a glutton, always coming back for food even after others have finished eating. [Not considered to be appropriate.]
dokdok v 1Pound, as with a hammer, stone or other object. Ko oghimu ki to baloy, oggamiton ta ka martiliu no ogdokdok to lansang. When we make a house, we use a hammer to pound a nail. Ko ogkuò ki to ig-alabat to baloy no linas to langilan, ogdokdokon ta ka laplap din oyow oglokò. When we get the bark of the langilan [tree] to wall a house, we pound its outer layer (lit. skin) so that it will come loose. 2Pound with a small pestle, such as tobacco or betelnut. Ka mo-ilow pad no doun to tabakù woy ko mamo-on, ogdokdokon to maintok no losung. Maintok no putow ka igdokdok. As for the still green leaves of tobacco, or betel nut, they are pounded in a small mortar. A small piece of iron is used to pound it. An-anayan, ogdokdokan dan pad to kayu. Ko ogmalunoy on, oghalinon dan on diò to do-isok no losung no diò dan ogbinayuan. First, they pound it will a small [piece of] wood. When it has become smooth, they transfer it to a small mortar and then they pound it there with a pestle. see: binayu 1. 3see: dukduk.
gugud 1v To tell or relate something to someone. Ogguguran ku sikaniu to so-ini no nangnangonon. I’ll relate this story/information to you. see: nangon 2. 1.1v To tell or relate multiple kinds of news or information such as how the people in one’s village are doing. Panggugud ka ko nokoy ka kaniu no pog-ugpò. Tell things about your living situation. 2deriv n News; general information. Ogtabak to, "So-ini ka igkanangonnangon ku no guguron diò to kanami no ugpa-an." He would answer, “This is the news which I have to tell about our place. see: nangon 1; see: batbat.
kampò adj A clever response to another’s joke or criticism meaning that whatever applies to one applies to the other. here. Similar to English idiom, “the shoe fits you”. Agad sikoykow. Kampò ka “Even you. The shoe fits you. Ogkagi ka songo otow dut dangob no ogpangispiu to, "Pangispiu ki rò ko maroyow ki." Ogtabak ka nigpitow to ispiu, "Kampò ka. Nahan no songo maroyow." One person says to another who is looking in a mirror, “We just look in a mirror if we are pretty.” The one looking in the mirror will reply, “Same to you. [He/she] also thinks he is pretty!” 1.1adj An more empathetic response identifying with another meaning something like, “same here”. Og-iling ka duma ta to, "Warò a noirogò ganna." No no tabak a, "Kampò a. Warò a songo noirgò." Our companion says something like, “I didn’t sleep last night.” And then I reply, “Same here. I also could not sleep.”
kobbu-ung 1adj Something which have been cooked to a softened state, especially of kernels of mature corn or driedbeans Ka agoloy no kobbu-ung, ogsugbo-on ka nalupù no mohilow pad As for corn which has been cooked to a softened state which waere shelled whien [the corn] was still raw, it is cooked. 2n A cooked preparation of whole kernels, especially of corn that has begun to mature and harden. It is cooked in the afternoon but eaten the next day so the kernels become softened. Ka ogkobu-ung, sikan ka oglupu-on ka agoloy no matasan no mo-ilow. Sikan ka ogsugbo-on no ogkobbu-ungon on. The corn which is cooked to a softened state, that is the shelled corn which mature and raw. That is cooked until it is softened. 3v To cook something to a softened state, such as dried beans or matured corn. Og-insò ko, “Nokoy ka ogsugbo-on nu?” Ogtabak a to, “Ogkokobbu-ung a rò du-on to agoloy.” Someone asks, “What are you cooking?” I will answer, “Im just cooking corn to a softened state.” see: latà; gen: sugba 1.
kopkop 1v To embrace one another as sign of affection or reconciliation. [Embracing is practiced when one sees a friend or loved one whom one has not seen for a long time. It is often a part of a reconciliation.] 2v To have people embrace such as when reconciling them. Pinogkopkop kow on su su nokog-ulì on ka goinawa now. You led to embrace each other because you had been reconciled (lit. your breath has returned to each other). 3v To hold someone in an embrace, such as to restrain. [After a death, even if it is from disease, one person may hold the bereaved person in an embrace while another takes away his/her knife lest that person use it hurt himself or others during the first moments of grief and frustration.] 4To cause something to adhere to something else as a bandage or a wad of wet tabacco placed against the skin. Ko du-on kogang, ogluiton ka tabakù no igpakopkop to palì no ig-atang to langow. If someone has an infected sore, [he will] peal off some tabacco and cause it to adhere [to the sore] to keep off the flies. 5v Hug oneself especially to keep oneself warm.
ngolat v To raise one's eyebrows Ka ubal, ko ogkita kanta, ogpangongolat to kiloy. If a monkey sees us, he will raise his eyebrows. Ko du-on otow no ogkatagbu ta, ko og-insa-an ta, “Oghondo-i ka,” ogtabak to ogpangongolat. If we happen to meet a person [on the path], [and] if we ask [that person], “Where are you going?”, he will answer by raising his eyebrows. [As in examples below, the verbal form of this word can be used with or without making kiloy “eyebrow” explicit.]
otow 1n A human being, a person. 1.1n Who is/are that person (or those people)? “Hontow otawa ka du-on no nigligad?” Nigtabak sikandan to, “Ligkat koy to Kapugi no du-on tu-ud noy diò to Patil.” “Who are [those] people who have just passed by?” They replied, “We have come from Kapugi no du-on tu-ud noy diò to Patil.” [This is a request for identity which is generally given in terms of where a person is from and other relevant information. It is generally not appropriate to request peoples’ names.] 2n An image or idol. 3vs To be born. Hondo-i ka no-otow? Where were you born? Ka mgo otow, no-otow no du-on mgo mata. As for people, they have eyes when they are born. [This term applies also to animals and other living creatures.] 3.1vs To be born in a live state, such as certain fish. Ka po-it, ka alu-an woy ka pantat, ogparagas ogko-otow ka igpanganak dan. The po-it fish, the mudfish and the catfish are directly born in a live state when they give birth. 4v Birth, of people or animals. Ka batò no ogko-omaw, ogligkat to pogko-otow rin taman to ogkabuyag on sikandin no omaw rod ian sikandin. As for a child who is mute, he will be mute from [the time that] he is born until he has become old (lit. it comes from his being born) until he is already old that he will still be mute.) 4.1v Age. Du-on anak noy no do-isok pad, mgo songo tu-id pad ka pogko-otow rin. We have a small child [whose] age is about one year. 4.2v One's life or manner of living. Ko og-ay-ayaran ta ka batasan ta, ogmatapid ka kanta no pogko-otow. If we are careful about our conduct, our lives will be orderly. see: batasan. 5v To be brought back to life; to revive as someone who has fainted. No-otawan on. (He) was brought back to life [from death]. [DB indicated that no-otawan is similar to no-uyag but lo-in ka tu-ud “they have a different purpose (i.e. sense)”. DB says the no-otawan “reviving/recovering [from death]” is a result of nig-uyag i.e. of God “having given life”.] osyn: uyag 2; see fr.: alimukow 2. 6v To materialize or to make an appearance as in a vision or dream, especially of spirit beings but also of people who may appear in a vision. 6.1n A vision, especially the appearance of a person or spirit in a vision or dream.
pangabaga 1n a spokesperson or representative of a higher leader Pangabaga a nu; igkarua a nu no igbuyag. “You are my master/leader; you are my second leader.” Kagi to songo otow, “Uripon ka na-an nikandin.” Ogtabak a to, “Ho-o ian su pangabaga a rin.” One person says, “You are his slave after all..” I will respond, “Yes indeed because I am his pangabaga “representative” (??). [DB said it is like this person has been ordered by his leader then he is recognized by the people as their leader because he carries the authority of his leader. DB also said pogbuyagon is now being used more in the mountains to refer to a leader.; DB said that this representative has been ordered by his [own] leader. Then the people will recognize the representative as their leader. He also said that pogbuyagon is now being used more upriver.] 2 3 4 5 6
pulù 1n The very top of the head where hair parts in different directions. [Some people have two or three places where the hair parts in different directions.] 2n Island. Pulù ka Cebu su tibò woig ka ilis. Cebu is an island because its edge is all water. [A pulù “island” is a portion of land which is isolated from other land by water. If a portion of land has become isolated from the rest by a flood, it is napulù.] 3v To become isolated, such as land which has been separated from other land. by water. Ko du-on tanò no nasamò to woig no nigsamba, sikan ka napulù. If there is land which is left over by water which has flooded, that is what has become isolated. Ka tanò no Mindanao, su nalingutan to dagat, napulù no tanò The land of Mindanao, because it is surrounded by the ocean, it is isolated from the land. 4v A leftover section, such as of field not yet weeded or harvested. Songo lian na-an dò ko kapulù. When the leftover section [is harvested] there will be just one basketful left [to be gathered]. [DB said in the following example, it seems the people have purposed to leave a section.] osyn: samò. 5v To section off, as a portion of land. Ko du-on ogsamo-on ta no ogboni-on, ogpulù ki diò to ilis ka maroyow no ogkabonì. If we have [a part of the field] which we will leave over, we will isection off that good part near the edge [of the field] for seed. Kagi to songo otow to, “Maniò to so-ini no nig-alad?” Ogtabak koy to, “Nigpulù noy su ogboni-on.” A person says, “Why is this fense [here]” We will reply, “We have sectioned it off for seed (lit. because it will be seed.) osyn: indan 1. 6num Ten. 7Tenth. 8Ten days.
tangkap 1v To spread something out, as stones on a road. Nigtangkap ka pogtapid din to nakatkat no batu su nigkarasan din. He spread out the scattered stones as he arranged them because he raked them. see fr.: bolobog 1. 2Cause to spread. Ko oghimu ka to kahun, du-on nu igpatangkap ka igbudbud nu no tabakù. When you make a box, that is where you will cause to spread out the tabacco which you will sprinkle. [In the following example, DB said one is sprinkling the seed back and forth so that the box will be full of plants.] 3To propagate, as a message. Igpatangkap ta ka kinagian to Magbobo-ot. We propagate (lit. cause to spread) the word of God. [DB sees the last two examples as being the same.]
tigda-an v Something, as speech, that hits its mark, or is to the point. Ogpatigda-an to kagi. Ogkabonalan on. Konò ogpakatabak ka otow. Speech that hits the mark. It boomerangs. People cannot answer back. [TA description apparently applied to Cebuano word saway.] see: sugat 1; see fr.: baghot 1.1.
tokod v 1To recognize. Wà ka tokora su niglobag ka bo-bò nu. You were’nt recognized because your mouth was swollen. see fr.: tolom 2; see fr.: abin 5.1; osyn: tilaa 2; see: tilala. 2acknowledge 3cause to be acknowledged Ko nigtokoran a nu rod no duma nu, songo nigtokod nu rod si Unisimu. Ka tabak to so-ini, “Maniò to konò ki ogtokod to duma ta rod.” If you acknowledge me as your companion, you also have acknowleged Unisimu. The response to this is, “Why shouldn't we acknowledge [him] when [he] is also our companion?” [The word for “recognize” is often used in the sense of “acknowledge”. DB said that in the following exchange, if a person did not respond to the challenge to recognize/acknowledge someone, it would imply that the person did not care for us any more. (ck TA is tenses of example are correct as recorded.)] 4Cause to be recognized, as a name igpatokod to ngaran cause [someone's] name/position to be acknowleged [as great] 5imply Ko konò ki ogkasagman to duma ta, ogpatokod to mariù ki kandin. If our companion does not pay attention to us, he is letting us know (lit.causing us to recognize) that we are not closely related to him. [The form below would be a deliberate action.] 6To let someone know something, that is, to indicate Ko moon-ing on ka alibutod no ogna-asna-as, ogpatokod to nokoghulanghulang on to galung no pula. When there are many grubs which are making a whispering noise, it lets us know that the [grubs] in the palm trunk have broken through [to each other] knotched palm. Ko oglanos on ka tibolus to agoloy, ogpatokod to ogtasikan ka agoloy. If the tassels(s) wilt, it indicates (lit. causes to be recognized) that the corn is being blighted/diseased.