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Grammar

  Basic morphosyntax   Nouns Balochi has no gender distinctions in the noun system. The case forms in Balochi are direct case, oblique case, genitive case, object case, and vocative case. Direct case is used for subjects of intransitive verbs and for transitive verbs in the present-future tense as well as for all direct objects in the past tense and for indefinite direct objects in the present-future tense as well. Oblique case is used for definite direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, subjects of transitive verbs in the past tense, and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for indirect objects in the past tense. Gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions. Vocative case is used for direct address.  
Singular Plural
Direct case mát ‘mother’ مات mát مات
Oblique case mátá ماتا mátán ماتان
Object case mátárá ماتارا mátáná ماتانا
Genitive case mátay ماتئے mátáni ماتانی
Vocative case mát مات mátán ماتان
  The basic form of a noun denotes either a generic or a definite concept. To denote a singular indefinite, often specific entity the specificity clitic =é is added to the noun.  
mát > máté مات < ماتے mother > a mother
shap > shapé شپ < شپے night > a night
  Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives in Balochi have two forms, the basic form and the attributive form. Most adjectives add the suffix -én to the basic form when they stand in attributive position. Adverbs can occasionally take the attributive suffix -én.  
Basic form Attributive form English gloss
warná ورنا warnáén ورناێن ‘young’
pir پیر pirén پیرێن ‘old’
ráhat راهت ráhatén راهتێن ‘comfortable’
mazan مزن mazanén مزنێن ‘big’
kasán کسان kasánén کسانێن ‘small’
  The comparative form of adjectives and adverbs is formed by adding -ter to the basic form. The attributive comparative form adds -én to the comparative form. It is also used as the superlative form.  
Basic form Comparative form Attributive comparative form Superlative form
warná ورنا warnáter ورناتر warnáterén ورناترێن
pir پیر pirter پیرتر pirterén پیرترێن
mazan مزن master مستر masterén مسترێن
kasán کسان kaster کستر kasterén کسترێن
  Pronouns The pronominal system in Balochi consists of personal pronouns for the 1st and 2nd persons and demonstrative pronouns of proximal and distal deixis that function as personal pronouns for the 3rd person. In the 1st person plural Balochi has two pronouns, one which is commonly used as the default pronoun and one inclusive which is used when the emphasis is on the fact that both the speaker(s) and the addressee(s) are included. The 3rd person demonstrative pronouns can also be used as demonstrative determiners. The conjunction of the personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns is slightly different from each other. In the 1st and 2nd persons, direct/oblique case form is used for all subjects and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for direct and indirect objects and gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions.  In the 3rd person, the case forms are used in the same way as the case forms of nouns.  
Person Direct/oblique Object Genitive
1SG man من maná منا mani منی
2SG taw تئو tará ترا tai تئیی
1PL com. ما márá مارا may مئے
1PL incl. máshomá ماشما máshomárá ماشمارا mayshomay مئیشمئے
2PL shomá شما shomárá شمارا shomay شمئے
   
Person Direct Oblique Object Genitive
3SG prox. é اے eshiá اِشیا eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3SG dist. á آ áiá آییا áiárá آییارا áiay آییئے
3PL prox. é اے eshán اِشان eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3PL dist. á آ áyán آیان áyáná آیانا áyáni آیانی
  Balochi has enclitic pronouns, which attach to one of the other constituents in the clause, normally to the first non-subject element in the clause. They can function as subject of transitive verbs in the past tense, direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, genitive attributes and objects of postpostions.  
Person Latin script Arabic script
1SG =on =ُن
SG =et =ِت
3SG =i
1PL =en =ِن
2PL
3PL =esh =ِش
  The reflexive pronoun is wat and it functions in all persons. There are two interrogative pronouns in Balochi, kay ‘who’ (declined) denoting a person and ché ‘what’ (not declined) denoting a thing. The indefinite pronouns in Balochi that refer to persons are harkas ‘everybody, all’, hechkas/kass ‘nobody’, and dega ‘someone else, another one’.   Adpositions In Balochi there are both prepositions and postpositions. Objects of prepositions take the oblique case and objects of postpositions take the genitive case. The most common ones are pa ‘for’, gón ‘with’, cha ‘from, than’, and mán ‘in’. There is a large number of postpositions in Balochi. They are originally nouns in the oblique case, which show location or direction, and they therefore end in the oblique case ending .  
Balochi Latin Balochi Arabic Gloss
tahá تها ‘in, into’
tóká تۆکا ‘in, into’
talá تلا ‘in, inside’
poshtá پُشتا ‘behind, after’
démá دێما ‘in front of, against’
chérá چێرا ‘under’
kerrá کرّا ‘beside, at the side of’
nyámá نیاما ‘between, among’
sará سرا ‘on’
  Numeral The cardinal numerals are as follows:
0 sepr سِپر 30 si سی
1 yak یک 31 si o yak سی و یک
2 do دو 32 si o do سی و دو
3 say سئے 40 chel چِل
4 chár چار 50 panjáh پنجاه
5 panch پنچ 60 shast شست
6 shash شش 70 haptád هپتاد
7 hapt هپت 80 hashtád هشتاد
8 hasht هشت 90 nawad نئود
9 noh نه 100 yaksad, sad یکسد، سد
10 dah ده 101 sad o yak سد و یک
11 yázdah یازده 110 sad o dah سد و ده
12 dwázdah دوازده 120 sad o bist سد و بیست
13 sézdah سێزده 200 dosad دوسد
14 chárdah چارده 300 sésad سێسد
15 pánzdah پانزده 400 chársad چارسد
16 shánzdah شانزده 500 panchsad پنچسد
17 habdah هبده 600 shashsad ششسد
18 hazhdah هژده 700 haptsad هپتسد
19 nózdah نۆزده 800 hashtsad هشتسد
20 bist بیست 900 nohsad نهسد
21 bist o yak بیست و یک 1 000 hazár هزار
22 bist o do بیست و دو 2 000 do hazár دو هزار
23 bist o say بیست و سئے 5 000 panch hazár پنچ هزار
24 bist o char بیست و چار 10 000 dah hazár ده هزار
25 bist o panch بیست و پنچ 100 000 yak lakk یک لکّ
26 bist o shash بیست و شش 1 000 000 yak milyun یک میلیون
27 bist o hapt بیست و هپت 10 000 000 yak korórh یک کرۆڑ
Ordinal numerals add the suffix -(o)mi to the cardinal numeral. Only the first ordinal numeral is irregular. Some consonants are geminated when the ending -omi is added.
1st awali ائولی 20th bistomi بیستمی
2nd domi دومی 21st bist o yakkomi بیست و یکّمی
3rd saymi سئیمی 22nd bist o domi بیست و دومی
4th cháromi چارمی 30th siomi سیمی
5th panchomi پنچمی 40th chellomi چلّمی
6th shashomi ششمی 50th panjáhomi پنجاهمی
7th haptomi هپتمی 60th shastomi شستمی
8th hashtomi هشتمی 70th haptádomi هپتادمی
9th nohomi نهمی 80th hashtádomi هشتادمی
10th dahomi دهمی 90th nawadomi نئودمی
11th yázdahomi یازدهمی 100th sadomi سدمی
12th dwázdahomi دوازدهمی 1 000th hazáromi هزارمی

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Vernacular – English Dictionary

 
Compilers

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© 2015 Sponsoring Organization®
   
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SIL International®

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This web edition may be cited as:
Compiler's last name, first name. 2015. "Vernacular - English Dictionary." Webonary.org. SIL International. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.

Acknowledgements

  We want to thank Lutz Rzehak for kindly allowing us to use the digital version of Abdul Rahman Pahwal's Balochi Galband which was a starting point for this dictionary. We would like to thank all those who have worked on this dictionary, including Behrooz Barjasteh Delforooz, Siddik Azat, Aziz Dadiar, Taj Baloch, Mehlab Naseer, Mousa Mahmoudzehi, Sajid Hussain, Carina Jahani and Ron Lockwood.  

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Alphabets and phonology

  There are two alphabets for Balochi, one is based on the Arabic script and the other one on the Latin script.

1. The Arabic script for Balochi

The Arabic script runs from right to left and the letters have five possible shapes; one in initial position, one after a letter that does not connect to the left, one in word-medial position after a letter that connects to the left, one in word final position after a letter that connects to the left, and one in word final position after a letter that does not connect to the left. For several letters, the same shape of the letter appears twice or more. The letters marked with an asterisk (*) do not connect to the left.   Table 1. Balochi Arabic alphabet
Examples (for meaning, see below) Arabic script Name of letter
آپ، راه، کار، تها، سرا آ، ا، ـا، ـا، ا آ *
برات، گیابان، هبر، رُمب، کتاب بـ، بـ، ـبـ، ـب، ب بے
پت، باپاری، کپگ، شپ، لاپ پـ، پـ، ـپـ، ـپ، پ پے
تهل، هاترا، اۆشتگ، راست، مات تـ، تـ، ـتـ، ـت، ت تے
ٹال، لۆٹگ، لێٹگ، پُٹ، چَوَٹ ٹـ، ٹـ، ـٹـ، ـٹ، ٹ ٹے
جنک، بۆجگ، پنجاه، راج، بُنگێج جـ، جـ، ـجـ، ـج، ج جے
چۆن، رۆچگ، بچک، پنچ، رۆچ چـ، چـ، ـچـ، ـچ، چ چے
خلیج، خمار، دسختّ خـ، خـ، ـخـ، ـخ، خ خے
دۆست، بادشاه، پدا، هێد، پاد د، د، ـد، ـد، د دے *
ڈئول، سرڈگار، گُڈسرا، گوَنڈ، چُنڈ ڈ، ڈ، ـڈ، ـڈ، د ڈے *
رۆچ، ورگ، برات، دێر، کار ر، ر، ـر، ـر، ر رے *
ماڑی، گُڑا، مِڑ، ناجۆڑ ڑ، ڑ، ـڑ، ـڑ، ڑ ڑے *
                   زندگ، دروازگ، پانزده، باز، چیزّ ز، ز، ـز، ـز، ز زے *
ژند، رُژن، بَژن ژ، ژ، ـژ، ـژ، ژ ژے *
ساهت، دست، تُسگ، کس، آس سـ، سـ، ـسـ، ـس، س سے
شپ، گوَشگ، لشکر، گێش، گۆش شـ، شـ، ـشـ، ـش، ش شے
غئیرت/گئیرت، بالغ/بالگ غـ، غـ، ـغـ، ـغ، غ غے
فئون/پئون، فوتبال/پوتبال فـ، فـ، ـفـ، ـف، ف فے
کار، هرکَس، بلکێن، یک، تاک کـ، کـ، ـکـ، ـک، ک کے
گهار، اگن، بێگاه، مُرگ، لۆگ گـ، گـ، ـگـ، ـگ، گ گے
لُنٹ، هالیگ، هَلک، گَل، دِل لـ، لـ، ـلـ، ـل، ل لے
مُندریگ، اُمر، همساهگ، هم، نام مـ، مـ،/ ـمـ، ـم، م مے
نون، باندا، کندگ، رۆگن، دان نـ، نـ، ـنـ، ـن، ن نے
باں، تاں، ماں ں ں
واب، باور، گوات و، و، ـو، ـو، و وے *
دور، نون، تمبو، دارو او، و، ـو، ـو، و او *
اۆشتگ، رۆچ، کۆه، چۆ، چُرّۆ اۆ، ۆ، ـۆ، ـۆ، و اۆ *
ائولی، رئوگ، تئوار، کلئو، هئو ائو، ئو، ـئو، ـئو، ئو ائو *
هئور، ساهت، تهار، بێه، مۆه هـ، هـ، ـهـ، ـه، ه هے
یات، شریت، نیاما یـ، یـ، ـیـ، ـی، ی یے
ایمان، دیوال، شیر، ٹێکی، پاری ایـ، یـ، ـیـ، ـی، ی ای
اێرهت، دێم، شێر، همے، وهدے اێـ، ێـ، ـێـ، ـے، ے اے
ائیب، دئیگ، سئیل، کئے، بئے ائیـ، ئیـ، ـئیـ، ـئے، ئے ائے
The short vowels are not fully represented in the Balochi Arabic script. Only at the beginning and end of the word are they represented with a letter. In the middle of a word, there are optional diacritics that can be used to represent the short vowels. The names of these diacritics are zabar, zér, and pésh. When the /a/ marks the verb as present-future or continuous past, it is written with a zabar.   Table 2. Representation of short vowels
Phoneme Word-initial Word-medial Word-final Examples (for meaning, see below)
a ا، اَ َ (زَبَرzabar/) ـه، ه،  َ اَسپ، گَرم، مَرد، چه، کارَ کنت
e ا، اِ ِ (زێرzér/) ـه، ه اِمبری، پِت،زِر، بَله
o ا، اُ ُ (پێشpésh/) ـو، و اُرش، بُرز، سُهر، و
  There are two other diacritics used in the Balochi Arabic script, shadd and sokun. Shadd is used to indicate a double consonant and sokun indicates the absence of a vowel after the consonant it is placed on.   Table 3. Other diacritics
Examples (for meaning, see below) Name of diacritic
چیپّک، ربّ، سوتّ، پدّر، گَٹّ، هَڈّ، چُکّ، لگّگ، پسّئو، وشّ، مُزّ، هُژّار، مَچّ، هُجّ، چَمّ، تُنّیگ، زَرّ، بَلُّک ّ (شدّshadd/)
گْوات، بْرات، بُرْز، مُندْریگ، رُژْن، بَژْن ْ (سُکون(sokun/

2. The Latin script for Balochi

The Latin script runs from left to right and the letters have two shapes, one capital letter used at the beginning of a sentence and at the beginning of proper names (names of persons, countries, months etc.) and one small letter used elsewhere.   Table 4. Balochi Latin alphabet
Name of letter Latin script Examples (for meaning, see below)
á Á, á áp, ráh, kár, gwát, tahá, sará
a A, a asp, garm, mard, cha
B, b brát, bér, gyábán, habar, romb, ketáb
ché Ch, ch chón, róchag, bachak, panch, róch
D, d dóst, bádsháh, padá, héd, pád
dhé Dh, dh dhawl, sardhagár,godhsará, gwandh, hódh
é É, é éraht, dém, shér, hamé, wahdé
e E, e embari, pet, zer, bale
F, f
G, g gohár, agan, bégáh, morg, lóg
ghé Gh, gh
H, h hawr, sáhat, tahár, béh, móh
i I, i imán, diwál, shir, théki, pári
J, j jenek, bójag, panjáh, ráj, bongéj
K, k kár, harkas, balkén, yak, ták
khé Kh, kh
L, l lonth, hálig, halk, gal, del
M, m mondrig, omr, hamsáheg, ham, nám
N, n nun, bándá, kandag, rógen, dán
ó Ó, o óshtag, róch, kóh, chó, chorró
o O, o orosh, borz, sohr, o
P, p pet, pocch, bápári, kapag, shap, láp
R, r róch, warag, brát, dér, kár
rhé Rh, rh márhi, gorhá, merh, nájórh
S, s sáhat, dast, tosag, kas, ás
shé Sh, sh shap, gwashag, lashkar, gésh, gósh
T, t tawár, tahl, háterá, óshtag, rást, mát
thé Th, th thál, lóthag, léthag, poth, chawath
u U, u dur, nun, dáru, tambu
W, w wáb, báwar, gwát, awali, rawag, tawár, kolaw, raw
Y, y yát, sharyat, nyámá, ayb, dayag, sayl, kay, waray
Z, z zendag, darwázag, pánzdah, chiz, báz
zhé Zh, zh zhand, rozhn, bazhn
Double consonants are represented by two letters. If the consonant is already represented by two letters, the first h is removed when it is doubled. Table 5. Examples of double consonants
Name of letter Latin script Examples (for meaning, see below)
á Á, á áp, ráh, kár, gwát, tahá, sará
a A, a asp, garm, mard, cha
aw Aw, aw awali, rawag, tawár, kolaw, haw
ay Ay, ay ayb, dayag, sayl, kay, bay
B, b brát, bér, gyábán, habar, romb, ketáb
ché Ch, ch chón, róchag, bachak, panch, róch
D, d dóst, bádsháh, padá, héd, pád
dhé Dh, dh dhawl, sardhagár,godhsará, gwandh, chondh
é É, é éraht, dém, shér, hamé, wahdé
e E, e embari, pet, zer, bale
F, f fawn/pawn, futbál/putbál
G, g gohár, agan, bégáh, morg, lóg
ghé Gh, gh ghayrat/gayrat, bálegh/báleg
H, h hawr, sáhat, tahár, béh, móh
i I, i imán, diwál, shir, théki, pári
J, j jenek, bójag, panjáh, ráj, bongéj
K, k kár, harkas, balkén, yak, ták
khé Kh, kh khalij, khomár, daskhatt
L, l lonth, hálig, halk, gal, del
M, m mondrig, omr, hamsáheg, ham, nám
N, n nun, bándá, kandag, rógen, dán
ń ń báń, táń, máń
ó Ó, o óshtag, róch, kóh, chó, chorró
o O, o orosh, borz, sohr, o
P, p pet, pocch, bápári, kapag, shap, láp
R, r róch, warag, brát, dér, kár
rhé Rh, rh márhi, gorhá, merh, nájórh
S, s sáhat, dast, tosag, kas, ás
shé Sh, sh shap, gwashag, lashkar, gésh, gósh
T, t tawár, tahl, háterá, óshtag, rást, mát
thé Th, th thál, lóthag, léthag, poth, chawath
u U, u dur, nun, dáru, tambu
W, w wáb, báwar, gwát, awali, rawag, tawár, kolaw, haw
Y, y yát, sharyat, nyámá
Z, z zendag, darwázag, pánzdah, báz
zhé Zh, zh zhand, rozhn, bazhn
Many Balochi words end in /a/. In indeclinable words, such as na ‘ no’, pa ‘for’ and cha ‘from’, wa ‘for sure’, /a/ is represented only with a, but in all other words /a/ is represented by ah (e.g. wájah ‘sir, mister’, yalah ‘leaving’, kessah ‘story’, bandah ‘servant’). In the word dega ‘other, another’, an r is added in the declined forms (e.g. degaré ‘another one’).

Vowels

There are eight vowels in Balochi, five long and three short. Table 6. Balochi vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e, é a o, ó
Open á
  Examples: á (long) as in áp آپ ‘water’,ráh راه ‘road, way’, kár کار ‘work’, gwát گوات ‘wind’, tahá تها ‘in, inside’, sará سرا ‘on’ a (short) as in asp اسپ ‘horse’, garm گرم ‘warm’, mard مرد ‘man’, cha چه ‘from’, kára kant کارَ کنت ‘he/she works’ i (long) as in imán ایمان ‘faith’, diwál دیوال ‘wall’, shir شیر ‘milk’, théki ٹێکی ‘gift’, pári پاری ‘last year’ é (long) as in éraht اێرهت ‘autumn’‚ dém دێم ‘face’, shér شێر ‘lion’, hamé همے ‘this very’, wahdé وهدے ‘when’ e (short) as in embari امبری ‘this year’, pet پت ‘father’, zer زِر ‘sea’, bale بله ‘but’ u (long) as in dur دور ‘far’, nun نون now’, tambu تمبو ‘tent’, dáru دارو ‘medicine’ ó (long) as in óshtag اۆشتگ ‘to stand up’, róch رۆچ ‘day, sun’, kóh کۆه ‘mountain’, chó چۆ ‘like, like this, in this way’, chorró چرّۆ ‘pee’ o (short) as in borz بُرز ‘high’, sohr سُهر ‘red, gold’, o و ‘and’  

Consonants

There are 25 consonants in Balochi. Only 22 of these are frequently used. Three consonants are only found in loanwords (f, kh, gh). Table 7. Balochi consonants
labial dental/ alveolar post- alveolar /palatal retroflex velar glottal
Plosives p, b t, d th, dh k, g
Fricatives (f) s, z sh, zh (kh, gh) h
Affricates ch, j
Nasals m n (ń)
Tap r rh
Lateral l
Approximants w y
Examples: p as in petپت  ‘father’, pocch پُچ ‘clothes’, bápári باپاری ‘trader’, kapag کپگ ‘to fall’, shap شپ ‘evening, night’, lápلاپ  ‘stomach’, chippokچیپّک  ‘chick’, gapp گپّ ‘talk’ b as in brátبرات  ‘brother’, romb رُمب ‘group’, bérبێر  ‘revenge’, habarهبر  ‘word, talk’, gyábán گیابان ‘desert’, ketáb کتاب ‘book’, rabb ربّ ‘Lord’, dhobbah ڈُبّه ‘duty’ t as in tawárتئوار  ‘voice’, tahlتهل  ‘bitter’, háterá هاترا ‘for, for the sake of’, óshtag اۆشتگ ‘to stand up’, rást راست ‘right, true’, zutter  زوتّر‘quicker, faster’, sutt سوتّ ‘profit, gain’ d as in dóst دۆست ‘friend’, bádsháhبادشاه  ‘king’, padá پدا ‘later, afterwards’, héd هێد ‘sweat’, pád پاد ‘leg, foot’, paddar پدّر ‘clear, evident, visible’, hasadd هسدّ ‘envy’ th as in thálٹال  ‘branch (of tree)’, lóthag لۆٹگ ‘to want’, léthag لێٹگ ‘to roll over’, poth پُٹ ‘body-hair, fur’, chawath چئوٹ ‘sandal’, patthag پٹّگ ‘to search, to look for’, gatth گٹّ ‘busy’ dh as in dhawlڈئول  ‘way, manner’, sardhagár سرڈگار ‘region, land’, godhsará گُڈسرا ‘at last, finally’, gwandh گوَنڈ ‘small’, chondh چُنڈ ‘piece’, goddhag گُڈّگ ‘to chop off, to cut off’, haddh هَڈّ ‘bone’ k as in kárکار  ‘work’, kas کَس ‘person’, balkén بلکێن ‘maybe’, yak یک ‘one’, ták تاک ‘leaf, page’, kukkár کوکّار ‘shout, scream’, chokk چُکّ ‘child’ g as in gohárگهار  ‘sister’, agan اگن ‘if’, bégáh بێگاه ‘late afternoon/early evening’, morgمرگ  ‘chicken’, lógلۆگ  ‘house’, laggag لگّک ‘to begin, to start’, saggag سگّگ ‘to endure’ f as in fawn فئون ‘phone’, futbál فوتبال ‘football’ (these words can also be pronounced with a p instead of the f) off اُفّ ‘alas’ s as in sáhatساهت  ‘hour’, dast دست ‘arm, hand’, tosag تُسگ ‘to faint’, kas کَس ‘person’, ás آس ‘fire’, passaw پسّئو ‘answer’, bass بسّ ‘enough’, kass کَسّ ‘nobody’ sh as in shapشپ  ‘evening, night’, gwashag گوَشگ ‘to say’, lashkar لشکر ‘army’, gésh گێش ‘more’, gósh گۆش ‘ear’, kasshag کشّگ ‘to pull, to draw’, wassh وشّ ‘happy, well’ z as in zendag زندگ ‘alive’, darwázag دروازگ ‘door’, pánzdah پانزده ‘fifteen’, báz باز ‘very, much’, bazzag بزّگ ‘destitute, poor’, mozz مزّ ‘wages’, chizz چیزّ ‘thing’ zh as in zhand ژند ‘tired, worn out’, rozhn رُژن ‘light’, bazhn بَژن ‘woe’, hozzhár هژّار ‘cautious, vigilant’ kh as in khalij خلیج ‘bay’, khomár خمار ‘drunk, intoxicated’, daskhatt دسختّ ‘signature’ (these words can also be pronounced with a h or a k instead of the kh) gh as in ghayrat غئیرت ‘honour, dignity’, bálegh بالغ ‘adolescent, mature’ (these words can also be pronounced with a g instead of the gh) h as in hawr هئور ‘rain’, sáhat ساهت ‘hour, clock, watch’, tahár تهار ‘dark’, béh بێه ‘origin, basis’, móh مۆه ‘opportunity’ ch as in chón چۆن ‘how’, róchag رۆچگ ‘fasting’, bachak بچک ‘boy’, panch پنچ ‘five’, róchرۆچ  ‘day, sun’, lacchénag لچّێنگ ‘to attach’, macch مَچّ ‘date palm’ j as in jenek جنک ‘girl’, bójag بۆجگ ‘to untie’, panjáh پنجاه ‘fifty’, ráj راج ‘people, nation’, bongéj بنگێج ‘start’, pajjár پجّار ‘recognition, identity’, hojj هُجّ ‘force’ m as in mondrig مندریگ ‘ring’, omr اُمر ‘life’, hamsáheg همساهگ ‘neighbour’, ham هم ‘also’, nám نام ‘name’, kimmat کیمّت ‘price, value’, chamm چمّ ‘eye’ n as in nun نون ‘now’, bándá باندا ‘tomorrow’, kandag کندگ ‘to laugh; laughter’, rógen رۆگن ‘oil’, dán دان ‘grain, rice (uncooked)’, tonnig تنّیگ ‘thirsty’, dhann ڈنّ ‘out, outside’ ń (nun ghunna) as in báń باں ‘I will be/become’, táń تاں ‘until’, máń ماں ‘in’ (nun ghunna is used in poetry for metric and rhyme purposes) r as in róch رۆچ ‘day, sun’‚ warag ورگ ‘to eat, to drink’, brát برات ‘brother’, dér دێر ‘late’, kár کار ‘work’, korrag کرّگ ‘foal’, zarr زرّ ‘money, gold’ rh as in márhi ماڑی ‘palace’, gorháگڑا  ‘then’, merh مڑ ‘fight’, nájórh ناجۆڑ ‘ill’ l as in lonth لُنٹ ‘lip’, hálig هالیگ ‘empty’, halk هلک ‘village, encampment’, galگل  ‘happy’, del دل ‘heart’, ballok بلّک ‘grandmother’, lell لِلّ ‘dumb’ w as in wáb واب ‘sleep’, báwar باور ‘faith, belief’, gwát گوات ‘wind’ y as in yát یات ‘memory’, sharyat شریت ‘religious law’, nyámá نیاما ‘between, among’

Appendices

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Introduction

  The Example language is spoken by 5000 people living in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. This is the first attempt to compile a bilingual dictionary for the Example language. 10,000 words were collected by 30 speakers of the language in a 4 week Rapid Words Collection workshop. Then another month was spent in adding example sentences to many of the entries. There is still much work to do, but we, the compilers have decided to publish this work in progress, in order to document the work we have done so far.

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  For an overview of the dictionary please click on the links below:
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Balochi is an Iranian language spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Gulf States, Turkmenistan, India, and East Africa. It is hard to estimate the total number of Balochi speakers, since there are no official statistics on people’s first language in the countries where Balochi is spoken. However, informal estimates suggest that Balochi is spoken by at least some 10 million people, and that there are several million people who identify themselves as Baloch but speak another language as their first language. Balochi can be divided into three main dialect blocks, Western, Southern and Eastern Balochi. This is, however, only a broad division, and there are many sub-dialects within each main dialect.

Appendices

  Use this page to provide any other information of the language, either directly, or as a link or as a download. This me

Photo journal

  Please provide 5 - 6 photos from the language area here that can be used to feature and promote this dictionary. Thank you. IMG_20150529_105218977_HDR A group of Kemedzung speakers collecting words in the RWC workshop.

Orthography

The orthographic issues of Balochi have always been in debate among Baloch linguists, scholars, writers, language activists, etc. Several orthographies in Roman and Arabic scripts have been created in the last six decades. Even though Sayed Zahoor Shah Hashmi's Arabic based orthography does not represent all of the Balochi vowels and nasal consonants, it has become the most widely used but non-standard orthography in the Balochi language. The absence of a standard orthography leads several writers to use their own ways of spelling some words out. Some modifications to the Hashmi's orthography have been proposed by a group of Baloch linguists, scholars and writers, but have not been distributed to a broad group of users for a consensus and are yet to be accepted by all of the stakeholders. Until the newer version of the orthography is accepted, this dictionary uses the current orthography. This orthography does include some borrowed Arabic letters for consonantal sounds which are used in Arabic borrowed words such as names of people and places. The Balochi-to-English part of the dictionary is arranged alphabetically according to the following order.
آ، ا،  ب، پ، ت، ٹ، ث، ج، چ، ح، خ، د، ڈ، ر، ز، س، ش، ص،ض، ط، ظ، ع، غ، ف، ق، ک، گ، ل، م، ن، و، ءُ، ہ، ی، ے
   

Abbreviations

 
adj. adjective
adp. adposition
adv. adverb
card. num. cardinal numeral
cl. classifier
conj. conjunction
coord. conj. coordinating conjunction
cop. copula verb
dem. demonstrative
dem. pn. demonstrative pronoun
det. determiner
indef. indefinite
indef. pn. indefinite pronoun
interj. interjection
interr. pn. interrogative pronoun
n. noun
n. prop. proper noun
num. numeral
ord. num. ordinal numeral
part. particle
pers. pn. personal pronoun
phr. phrase
pn. pronoun
postp. postposition
prep. preposition
prev. preverb
quant. quantifier
refl. pn. reflexive pronoun
subord. conj. subordinating conjunction
syn. synonym
v. verb
v. impers. impersonal verb
v. itr. intransitive verb
v. tr. transitive verb
var. variant
   

Abbreviations

adj. conj. esp. interj. Lit: n. Pl: Sg: sp. Syn: Var: adjective conjunction especially interjection literally noun plural singular species synonym variant adv. dem. Euph. interrog. loc. num. pro. s.b. s.t. v. adverb demonstrative euphemism interrogative locative number pronoun somebody something verb Note: In the English definitions all references to he, him, his etc. should also be taken to refer to she, her, hers etc.

Dictionary Entries explained

 

Headwords

Each entry starts with a headword (a lexical unit of a morpheme, a word, or a group of words) in the Arabic based Balochi script followed by a pronunciation guide in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using a broad and phonemic transcription, marked by square brackets, e.g., [baloːʧ].

Part of speech

In each entry, the pronunciation guide is followed by its part of speech in abbreviated form that is marked by italics, e.g., adj., n., v., etc. For the headwords which function in more than one grammatical category, for example, as a noun and a verb, each category is marked with numerals and left sided brackets, e.g., (1, (2, etc.

Definitions

The definitions of Balochi lexical units are given in English and are usually substitutable. The definition of each lexical unit starts with the part of speech and is followed by the meaning. As mentioned above, many lexical units have more than one part of speech. In addition many lexical units will also have more than one sense (polysemy). Each sense will be marked with numerals in left-sided parentheses, e.g., (1, (2, (3, etc. The sub-senses within a sense are separated by semicolons. Words which are identical in pronunciation and spelling but differ with basic meanings (homonyms) are treated as separate entries with subscripts.

Spelling variations

Various words in Balochi literature are written with different spellings. The variant spellings for such words are presented in parentheses, for example, (var. of xxx).

Illustrative Sentences

In order to explain the meanings of complex words, illustrative examples are given in Balochi and translated into English. With a slight modification, most of the examples have been taken from the text corpus. As a native speaker, I also created some examples when helpful.

Usage Labels

One usage label is used (so far) in this dictionary. Some of the body parts are taboo in Balochi and is better to be marked with the usage label of Taboo. Usage labels follow the definitions in the entry and are marked with curved brackets, e.g., {tab}.  

Foreword

  This dictionary has long been in the making and many scholars, writers, technical experts and Balochi speakers from different parts of the world have contributed to it. The dictionary is one of the Balochi Language Project's several ambitions in order to contribute towards the preservation of Balochi and the standardisation of its written form. Compiling a dictionary is work in progress. We aim to keep adding new entries on a regular basis. We are publishing this dictionary online with the hope that scholars and readers will use it and send us their feedback, so that we can improve it gradually. You can contact us here or on the Contact Us page. Print versions of the dictionary will appear continuously as the work progresses.

Phonology

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Software

Webonary

The search function of this website was built using Webonary. Webonary gives language groups the ability to put their dictionaries on the web with a minimum of technical help. Each dictionary is built around a search bar, which looks for a word (or part of a word) throughout the dictionary, and returns the most relevant results to the top of the list. Webonary, in turn, is built on top of WordPress.

Fieldworks Language Explorer

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Balochi–English Dictionary

© 2019 The Balochi Language Project
Uppsala University
 
Published by:
SIL International®

Webonary.org
   

This web edition may be cited as:

The Balochi Language Project (ed). 2019. Balochi  - English Dictionary. Webonary.org. Uppsala University®. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.

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Ethnologue links The Ethnologue online version contains a list of all languages discovered in the world. Each language has a three-letter code. Maps of each language region are included on the Map page. This dictionary contains three dialects which are included in the Ethnologue. Western Balochi - Ethnologue data Southern Balochi - Ethnologue data Eastern Balochi - Ethnologue data
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یاتyát1n.memory; remembrancesyn.تْرانَگtránagتَهتالtáhtál2n.commemoration

Grammar

  Basic morphosyntax   Nouns Balochi has no gender distinctions in the noun system. The case forms in Balochi are direct case, oblique case, genitive case, object case, and vocative case. Direct case is used for subjects of intransitive verbs and for transitive verbs in the present-future tense as well as for all direct objects in the past tense and for indefinite direct objects in the present-future tense as well. Oblique case is used for definite direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, subjects of transitive verbs in the past tense, and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for indirect objects in the past tense. Gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions. Vocative case is used for direct address.  
Singular Plural
Direct case mát ‘mother’ مات mát مات
Oblique case mátá ماتا mátán ماتان
Object case mátárá ماتارا mátáná ماتانا
Genitive case mátay ماتئے mátáni ماتانی
Vocative case mát مات mátán ماتان
  The basic form of a noun denotes either a generic or a definite concept. To denote a singular indefinite, often specific entity the specificity clitic =é is added to the noun.  
mát > máté مات < ماتے mother > a mother
shap > shapé شپ < شپے night > a night
  Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives in Balochi have two forms, the basic form and the attributive form. Most adjectives add the suffix -én to the basic form when they stand in attributive position. Adverbs can occasionally take the attributive suffix -én.  
Basic form Attributive form English gloss
warná ورنا warnáén ورناێن ‘young’
pir پیر pirén پیرێن ‘old’
ráhat راهت ráhatén راهتێن ‘comfortable’
mazan مزن mazanén مزنێن ‘big’
kasán کسان kasánén کسانێن ‘small’
  The comparative form of adjectives and adverbs is formed by adding -ter to the basic form. The attributive comparative form adds -én to the comparative form. It is also used as the superlative form.  
Basic form Comparative form Attributive comparative form Superlative form
warná ورنا warnáter ورناتر warnáterén ورناترێن
pir پیر pirter پیرتر pirterén پیرترێن
mazan مزن master مستر masterén مسترێن
kasán کسان kaster کستر kasterén کسترێن
  Pronouns The pronominal system in Balochi consists of personal pronouns for the 1st and 2nd persons and demonstrative pronouns of proximal and distal deixis that function as personal pronouns for the 3rd person. In the 1st person plural Balochi has two pronouns, one which is commonly used as the default pronoun and one inclusive which is used when the emphasis is on the fact that both the speaker(s) and the addressee(s) are included. The 3rd person demonstrative pronouns can also be used as demonstrative determiners. The conjunction of the personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns is slightly different from each other. In the 1st and 2nd persons, direct/oblique case form is used for all subjects and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for direct and indirect objects and gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions.  In the 3rd person, the case forms are used in the same way as the case forms of nouns.  
Person Direct/oblique Object Genitive
1SG man من maná منا mani منی
2SG taw تئو tará ترا tai تئیی
1PL com. ما márá مارا may مئے
1PL incl. máshomá ماشما máshomárá ماشمارا mayshomay مئیشمئے
2PL shomá شما shomárá شمارا shomay شمئے
   
Person Direct Oblique Object Genitive
3SG prox. é اے eshiá اِشیا eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3SG dist. á آ áiá آییا áiárá آییارا áiay آییئے
3PL prox. é اے eshán اِشان eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3PL dist. á آ áyán آیان áyáná آیانا áyáni آیانی
  Balochi has enclitic pronouns, which attach to one of the other constituents in the clause, normally to the first non-subject element in the clause. They can function as subject of transitive verbs in the past tense, direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, genitive attributes and objects of postpostions.  
Person Latin script Arabic script
1SG =on =ُن
SG =et =ِت
3SG =i
1PL =en =ِن
2PL
3PL =esh =ِش
  The reflexive pronoun is wat and it functions in all persons. There are two interrogative pronouns in Balochi, kay ‘who’ (declined) denoting a person and ché ‘what’ (not declined) denoting a thing. The indefinite pronouns in Balochi that refer to persons are harkas ‘everybody, all’, hechkas/kass ‘nobody’, and dega ‘someone else, another one’.   Adpositions In Balochi there are both prepositions and postpositions. Objects of prepositions take the oblique case and objects of postpositions take the genitive case. The most common ones are pa ‘for’, gón ‘with’, cha ‘from, than’, and mán ‘in’. There is a large number of postpositions in Balochi. They are originally nouns in the oblique case, which show location or direction, and they therefore end in the oblique case ending .  
Balochi Latin Balochi Arabic Gloss
tahá تها ‘in, into’
tóká تۆکا ‘in, into’
talá تلا ‘in, inside’
poshtá پُشتا ‘behind, after’
démá دێما ‘in front of, against’
chérá چێرا ‘under’
kerrá کرّا ‘beside, at the side of’
nyámá نیاما ‘between, among’
sará سرا ‘on’
  Numeral The cardinal numerals are as follows:
0 sepr سِپر 30 si سی
1 yak یک 31 si o yak سی و یک
2 do دو 32 si o do سی و دو
3 say سئے 40 chel چِل
4 chár چار 50 panjáh پنجاه
5 panch پنچ 60 shast شست
6 shash شش 70 haptád هپتاد
7 hapt هپت 80 hashtád هشتاد
8 hasht هشت 90 nawad نئود
9 noh نه 100 yaksad, sad یکسد، سد
10 dah ده 101 sad o yak سد و یک
11 yázdah یازده 110 sad o dah سد و ده
12 dwázdah دوازده 120 sad o bist سد و بیست
13 sézdah سێزده 200 dosad دوسد
14 chárdah چارده 300 sésad سێسد
15 pánzdah پانزده 400 chársad چارسد
16 shánzdah شانزده 500 panchsad پنچسد
17 habdah هبده 600 shashsad ششسد
18 hazhdah هژده 700 haptsad هپتسد
19 nózdah نۆزده 800 hashtsad هشتسد
20 bist بیست 900 nohsad نهسد
21 bist o yak بیست و یک 1 000 hazár هزار
22 bist o do بیست و دو 2 000 do hazár دو هزار
23 bist o say بیست و سئے 5 000 panch hazár پنچ هزار
24 bist o char بیست و چار 10 000 dah hazár ده هزار
25 bist o panch بیست و پنچ 100 000 yak lakk یک لکّ
26 bist o shash بیست و شش 1 000 000 yak milyun یک میلیون
27 bist o hapt بیست و هپت 10 000 000 yak korórh یک کرۆڑ
Ordinal numerals add the suffix -(o)mi to the cardinal numeral. Only the first ordinal numeral is irregular. Some consonants are geminated when the ending -omi is added.
1st awali ائولی 20th bistomi بیستمی
2nd domi دومی 21st bist o yakkomi بیست و یکّمی
3rd saymi سئیمی 22nd bist o domi بیست و دومی
4th cháromi چارمی 30th siomi سیمی
5th panchomi پنچمی 40th chellomi چلّمی
6th shashomi ششمی 50th panjáhomi پنجاهمی
7th haptomi هپتمی 60th shastomi شستمی
8th hashtomi هشتمی 70th haptádomi هپتادمی
9th nohomi نهمی 80th hashtádomi هشتادمی
10th dahomi دهمی 90th nawadomi نئودمی
11th yázdahomi یازدهمی 100th sadomi سدمی
12th dwázdahomi دوازدهمی 1 000th hazáromi هزارمی
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Introduction

  Balochi (also spelled as Balouchi) is a North-Western Iranian language, spoken by over ten million people in primarily Balochistan which is divided into Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Balochi is vastly spoken in Middle Eastern countries such as Bahrain, Oman, and U.A.E. It is spoken in Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. It is spoken in European countries such as Sweden, Norway, and the UK. It is also spoken in India and in African countries such as Kenya and Tanzania. All of the Baloch populations are scattered into various areas around the world while the largest concentration of the Baloch population is in a section of Karachi, Pakistan. Balochi has three main varieties, Western Balochi, Eastern Balochi and Southern Balochi. The Ethnologue codes for the three groups are bcc (Southern), bgn (Western), and bgp (Eastern). All of the three varieties are included in this dictionary as they are very similar in many ways.

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[:en]

Grammar

  Basic morphosyntax   Nouns Balochi has no gender distinctions in the noun system. The case forms in Balochi are direct case, oblique case, genitive case, object case, and vocative case. Direct case is used for subjects of intransitive verbs and for transitive verbs in the present-future tense as well as for all direct objects in the past tense and for indefinite direct objects in the present-future tense as well. Oblique case is used for definite direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, subjects of transitive verbs in the past tense, and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for indirect objects in the past tense. Gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions. Vocative case is used for direct address.  
Singular Plural
Direct case mát ‘mother’ مات mát مات
Oblique case mátá ماتا mátán ماتان
Object case mátárá ماتارا mátáná ماتانا
Genitive case mátay ماتئے mátáni ماتانی
Vocative case mát مات mátán ماتان
  The basic form of a noun denotes either a generic or a definite concept. To denote a singular indefinite, often specific entity the specificity clitic =é is added to the noun.  
mát > máté مات < ماتے mother > a mother
shap > shapé شپ < شپے night > a night
  Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives in Balochi have two forms, the basic form and the attributive form. Most adjectives add the suffix -én to the basic form when they stand in attributive position. Adverbs can occasionally take the attributive suffix -én.  
Basic form Attributive form English gloss
warná ورنا warnáén ورناێن ‘young’
pir پیر pirén پیرێن ‘old’
ráhat راهت ráhatén راهتێن ‘comfortable’
mazan مزن mazanén مزنێن ‘big’
kasán کسان kasánén کسانێن ‘small’
  The comparative form of adjectives and adverbs is formed by adding -ter to the basic form. The attributive comparative form adds -én to the comparative form. It is also used as the superlative form.  
Basic form Comparative form Attributive comparative form Superlative form
warná ورنا warnáter ورناتر warnáterén ورناترێن
pir پیر pirter پیرتر pirterén پیرترێن
mazan مزن master مستر masterén مسترێن
kasán کسان kaster کستر kasterén کسترێن
  Pronouns The pronominal system in Balochi consists of personal pronouns for the 1st and 2nd persons and demonstrative pronouns of proximal and distal deixis that function as personal pronouns for the 3rd person. In the 1st person plural Balochi has two pronouns, one which is commonly used as the default pronoun and one inclusive which is used when the emphasis is on the fact that both the speaker(s) and the addressee(s) are included. The 3rd person demonstrative pronouns can also be used as demonstrative determiners. The conjunction of the personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns is slightly different from each other. In the 1st and 2nd persons, direct/oblique case form is used for all subjects and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for direct and indirect objects and gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions.  In the 3rd person, the case forms are used in the same way as the case forms of nouns.  
Person Direct/oblique Object Genitive
1SG man من maná منا mani منی
2SG taw تئو tará ترا tai تئیی
1PL com. ما márá مارا may مئے
1PL incl. máshomá ماشما máshomárá ماشمارا mayshomay مئیشمئے
2PL shomá شما shomárá شمارا shomay شمئے
   
Person Direct Oblique Object Genitive
3SG prox. é اے eshiá اِشیا eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3SG dist. á آ áiá آییا áiárá آییارا áiay آییئے
3PL prox. é اے eshán اِشان eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3PL dist. á آ áyán آیان áyáná آیانا áyáni آیانی
  Balochi has enclitic pronouns, which attach to one of the other constituents in the clause, normally to the first non-subject element in the clause. They can function as subject of transitive verbs in the past tense, direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, genitive attributes and objects of postpostions.  
Person Latin script Arabic script
1SG =on =ُن
SG =et =ِت
3SG =i
1PL =en =ِن
2PL
3PL =esh =ِش
  The reflexive pronoun is wat and it functions in all persons. There are two interrogative pronouns in Balochi, kay ‘who’ (declined) denoting a person and ché ‘what’ (not declined) denoting a thing. The indefinite pronouns in Balochi that refer to persons are harkas ‘everybody, all’, hechkas/kass ‘nobody’, and dega ‘someone else, another one’.   Adpositions In Balochi there are both prepositions and postpositions. Objects of prepositions take the oblique case and objects of postpositions take the genitive case. The most common ones are pa ‘for’, gón ‘with’, cha ‘from, than’, and mán ‘in’. There is a large number of postpositions in Balochi. They are originally nouns in the oblique case, which show location or direction, and they therefore end in the oblique case ending .  
Balochi Latin Balochi Arabic Gloss
tahá تها ‘in, into’
tóká تۆکا ‘in, into’
talá تلا ‘in, inside’
poshtá پُشتا ‘behind, after’
démá دێما ‘in front of, against’
chérá چێرا ‘under’
kerrá کرّا ‘beside, at the side of’
nyámá نیاما ‘between, among’
sará سرا ‘on’
  Numeral The cardinal numerals are as follows:
0 sepr سِپر 30 si سی
1 yak یک 31 si o yak سی و یک
2 do دو 32 si o do سی و دو
3 say سئے 40 chel چِل
4 chár چار 50 panjáh پنجاه
5 panch پنچ 60 shast شست
6 shash شش 70 haptád هپتاد
7 hapt هپت 80 hashtád هشتاد
8 hasht هشت 90 nawad نئود
9 noh نه 100 yaksad, sad یکسد، سد
10 dah ده 101 sad o yak سد و یک
11 yázdah یازده 110 sad o dah سد و ده
12 dwázdah دوازده 120 sad o bist سد و بیست
13 sézdah سێزده 200 dosad دوسد
14 chárdah چارده 300 sésad سێسد
15 pánzdah پانزده 400 chársad چارسد
16 shánzdah شانزده 500 panchsad پنچسد
17 habdah هبده 600 shashsad ششسد
18 hazhdah هژده 700 haptsad هپتسد
19 nózdah نۆزده 800 hashtsad هشتسد
20 bist بیست 900 nohsad نهسد
21 bist o yak بیست و یک 1 000 hazár هزار
22 bist o do بیست و دو 2 000 do hazár دو هزار
23 bist o say بیست و سئے 5 000 panch hazár پنچ هزار
24 bist o char بیست و چار 10 000 dah hazár ده هزار
25 bist o panch بیست و پنچ 100 000 yak lakk یک لکّ
26 bist o shash بیست و شش 1 000 000 yak milyun یک میلیون
27 bist o hapt بیست و هپت 10 000 000 yak korórh یک کرۆڑ
Ordinal numerals add the suffix -(o)mi to the cardinal numeral. Only the first ordinal numeral is irregular. Some consonants are geminated when the ending -omi is added.
1st awali ائولی 20th bistomi بیستمی
2nd domi دومی 21st bist o yakkomi بیست و یکّمی
3rd saymi سئیمی 22nd bist o domi بیست و دومی
4th cháromi چارمی 30th siomi سیمی
5th panchomi پنچمی 40th chellomi چلّمی
6th shashomi ششمی 50th panjáhomi پنجاهمی
7th haptomi هپتمی 60th shastomi شستمی
8th hashtomi هشتمی 70th haptádomi هپتادمی
9th nohomi نهمی 80th hashtádomi هشتادمی
10th dahomi دهمی 90th nawadomi نئودمی
11th yázdahomi یازدهمی 100th sadomi سدمی
12th dwázdahomi دوازدهمی 1 000th hazáromi هزارمی
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Vernacular – English Dictionary

 
Compilers

Person 1

Person 2

© 2015 Sponsoring Organization®
   
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This web edition may be cited as:
Compiler's last name, first name. 2015. "Vernacular - English Dictionary." Webonary.org. SIL International. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.
[:UR]

سہرا اور تسلیمات

  Coordinator – (preferably a speaker of the language, but not obligatorily so) – organizes and oversees the workshop Logistics Manager – responsible to arrange food, lodging, transportation, supplies, workshop location, and financial disbursements Record-keeper – responsible for the administrative details during the workshop; must know how to use a spreadsheet on a computer Glosser (2-3) – must be bilingual in the vernacular and the language in which the words will be glossed Typist (2-4) – must be experienced in touch-typing; must be (or become) familiar with the keystroke sequences necessary for typing special characters (if applicable) Team Leader (6) – must be bilingual in the vernacular and the language of the RWC Questionnaire being used Language Expert (12-18) – must be fluent mother-tongue speakers of the vernacular Scribe (6) – must be able to write legibly and fairly quickly in the vernacular; a good grasp of the vernacular orthography is a near necessity to avoid lots of corrections later in the process;[:en]

Acknowledgements

  We want to thank Lutz Rzehak for kindly allowing us to use the digital version of Abdul Rahman Pahwal's Balochi Galband which was a starting point for this dictionary. We would like to thank all those who have worked on this dictionary, including Behrooz Barjasteh Delforooz, Siddik Azat, Aziz Dadiar, Taj Baloch, Mehlab Naseer, Mousa Mahmoudzehi, Sajid Hussain, Carina Jahani and Ron Lockwood.  [:BA]

Credits & acknowledgements

  Coordinator – (preferably a speaker of the language, but not obligatorily so) – organizes and oversees the workshop Logistics Manager – responsible to arrange food, lodging, transportation, supplies, workshop location, and financial disbursements Record-keeper – responsible for the administrative details during the workshop; must know how to use a spreadsheet on a computer Glosser (2-3) – must be bilingual in the vernacular and the language in which the words will be glossed Typist (2-4) – must be experienced in touch-typing; must be (or become) familiar with the keystroke sequences necessary for typing special characters (if applicable) Team Leader (6) – must be bilingual in the vernacular and the language of the RWC Questionnaire being used Language Expert (12-18) – must be fluent mother-tongue speakers of the vernacular Scribe (6) – must be able to write legibly and fairly quickly in the vernacular; a good grasp of the vernacular orthography is a near necessity to avoid lots of corrections later in the process;[:]
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Sometimes it is useful to find words that are similar in meaning. This is hard to do in a normal printed dictionary. But it is really easy with Webonary. This is because all the words in the Dictionary are categorized into areas of meaning. Linguists call these areas of meaning Semantic Domains. To find words that belong to the same semantic domain do the following:
  • First enter a word as a starting point.
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[:en]

Alphabets and phonology

  There are two alphabets for Balochi, one is based on the Arabic script and the other one on the Latin script.

1. The Arabic script for Balochi

The Arabic script runs from right to left and the letters have five possible shapes; one in initial position, one after a letter that does not connect to the left, one in word-medial position after a letter that connects to the left, one in word final position after a letter that connects to the left, and one in word final position after a letter that does not connect to the left. For several letters, the same shape of the letter appears twice or more. The letters marked with an asterisk (*) do not connect to the left.   Table 1. Balochi Arabic alphabet
Examples (for meaning, see below) Arabic script Name of letter
آپ، راه، کار، تها، سرا آ، ا، ـا، ـا، ا آ *
برات، گیابان، هبر، رُمب، کتاب بـ، بـ، ـبـ، ـب، ب بے
پت، باپاری، کپگ، شپ، لاپ پـ، پـ، ـپـ، ـپ، پ پے
تهل، هاترا، اۆشتگ، راست، مات تـ، تـ، ـتـ، ـت، ت تے
ٹال، لۆٹگ، لێٹگ، پُٹ، چَوَٹ ٹـ، ٹـ، ـٹـ، ـٹ، ٹ ٹے
جنک، بۆجگ، پنجاه، راج، بُنگێج جـ، جـ، ـجـ، ـج، ج جے
چۆن، رۆچگ، بچک، پنچ، رۆچ چـ، چـ، ـچـ، ـچ، چ چے
خلیج، خمار، دسختّ خـ، خـ، ـخـ، ـخ، خ خے
دۆست، بادشاه، پدا، هێد، پاد د، د، ـد، ـد، د دے *
ڈئول، سرڈگار، گُڈسرا، گوَنڈ، چُنڈ ڈ، ڈ، ـڈ، ـڈ، د ڈے *
رۆچ، ورگ، برات، دێر، کار ر، ر، ـر، ـر، ر رے *
ماڑی، گُڑا، مِڑ، ناجۆڑ ڑ، ڑ، ـڑ، ـڑ، ڑ ڑے *
                   زندگ، دروازگ، پانزده، باز، چیزّ ز، ز، ـز، ـز، ز زے *
ژند، رُژن، بَژن ژ، ژ، ـژ، ـژ، ژ ژے *
ساهت، دست، تُسگ، کس، آس سـ، سـ، ـسـ، ـس، س سے
شپ، گوَشگ، لشکر، گێش، گۆش شـ، شـ، ـشـ، ـش، ش شے
غئیرت/گئیرت، بالغ/بالگ غـ، غـ، ـغـ، ـغ، غ غے
فئون/پئون، فوتبال/پوتبال فـ، فـ، ـفـ، ـف، ف فے
کار، هرکَس، بلکێن، یک، تاک کـ، کـ، ـکـ، ـک، ک کے
گهار، اگن، بێگاه، مُرگ، لۆگ گـ، گـ، ـگـ، ـگ، گ گے
لُنٹ، هالیگ، هَلک، گَل، دِل لـ، لـ، ـلـ، ـل، ل لے
مُندریگ، اُمر، همساهگ، هم، نام مـ، مـ،/ ـمـ، ـم، م مے
نون، باندا، کندگ، رۆگن، دان نـ، نـ، ـنـ، ـن، ن نے
باں، تاں، ماں ں ں
واب، باور، گوات و، و، ـو، ـو، و وے *
دور، نون، تمبو، دارو او، و، ـو، ـو، و او *
اۆشتگ، رۆچ، کۆه، چۆ، چُرّۆ اۆ، ۆ، ـۆ، ـۆ، و اۆ *
ائولی، رئوگ، تئوار، کلئو، هئو ائو، ئو، ـئو، ـئو، ئو ائو *
هئور، ساهت، تهار، بێه، مۆه هـ، هـ، ـهـ، ـه، ه هے
یات، شریت، نیاما یـ، یـ، ـیـ، ـی، ی یے
ایمان، دیوال، شیر، ٹێکی، پاری ایـ، یـ، ـیـ، ـی، ی ای
اێرهت، دێم، شێر، همے، وهدے اێـ، ێـ، ـێـ، ـے، ے اے
ائیب، دئیگ، سئیل، کئے، بئے ائیـ، ئیـ، ـئیـ، ـئے، ئے ائے
The short vowels are not fully represented in the Balochi Arabic script. Only at the beginning and end of the word are they represented with a letter. In the middle of a word, there are optional diacritics that can be used to represent the short vowels. The names of these diacritics are zabar, zér, and pésh. When the /a/ marks the verb as present-future or continuous past, it is written with a zabar.   Table 2. Representation of short vowels
Phoneme Word-initial Word-medial Word-final Examples (for meaning, see below)
a ا، اَ َ (زَبَرzabar/) ـه، ه،  َ اَسپ، گَرم، مَرد، چه، کارَ کنت
e ا، اِ ِ (زێرzér/) ـه، ه اِمبری، پِت،زِر، بَله
o ا، اُ ُ (پێشpésh/) ـو، و اُرش، بُرز، سُهر، و
  There are two other diacritics used in the Balochi Arabic script, shadd and sokun. Shadd is used to indicate a double consonant and sokun indicates the absence of a vowel after the consonant it is placed on.   Table 3. Other diacritics
Examples (for meaning, see below) Name of diacritic
چیپّک، ربّ، سوتّ، پدّر، گَٹّ، هَڈّ، چُکّ، لگّگ، پسّئو، وشّ، مُزّ، هُژّار، مَچّ، هُجّ، چَمّ، تُنّیگ، زَرّ، بَلُّک ّ (شدّshadd/)
گْوات، بْرات، بُرْز، مُندْریگ، رُژْن، بَژْن ْ (سُکون(sokun/

2. The Latin script for Balochi

The Latin script runs from left to right and the letters have two shapes, one capital letter used at the beginning of a sentence and at the beginning of proper names (names of persons, countries, months etc.) and one small letter used elsewhere.   Table 4. Balochi Latin alphabet
Name of letter Latin script Examples (for meaning, see below)
á Á, á áp, ráh, kár, gwát, tahá, sará
a A, a asp, garm, mard, cha
B, b brát, bér, gyábán, habar, romb, ketáb
ché Ch, ch chón, róchag, bachak, panch, róch
D, d dóst, bádsháh, padá, héd, pád
dhé Dh, dh dhawl, sardhagár,godhsará, gwandh, hódh
é É, é éraht, dém, shér, hamé, wahdé
e E, e embari, pet, zer, bale
F, f
G, g gohár, agan, bégáh, morg, lóg
ghé Gh, gh
H, h hawr, sáhat, tahár, béh, móh
i I, i imán, diwál, shir, théki, pári
J, j jenek, bójag, panjáh, ráj, bongéj
K, k kár, harkas, balkén, yak, ták
khé Kh, kh
L, l lonth, hálig, halk, gal, del
M, m mondrig, omr, hamsáheg, ham, nám
N, n nun, bándá, kandag, rógen, dán
ó Ó, o óshtag, róch, kóh, chó, chorró
o O, o orosh, borz, sohr, o
P, p pet, pocch, bápári, kapag, shap, láp
R, r róch, warag, brát, dér, kár
rhé Rh, rh márhi, gorhá, merh, nájórh
S, s sáhat, dast, tosag, kas, ás
shé Sh, sh shap, gwashag, lashkar, gésh, gósh
T, t tawár, tahl, háterá, óshtag, rást, mát
thé Th, th thál, lóthag, léthag, poth, chawath
u U, u dur, nun, dáru, tambu
W, w wáb, báwar, gwát, awali, rawag, tawár, kolaw, raw
Y, y yát, sharyat, nyámá, ayb, dayag, sayl, kay, waray
Z, z zendag, darwázag, pánzdah, chiz, báz
zhé Zh, zh zhand, rozhn, bazhn
Double consonants are represented by two letters. If the consonant is already represented by two letters, the first h is removed when it is doubled. Table 5. Examples of double consonants
Name of letter Latin script Examples (for meaning, see below)
á Á, á áp, ráh, kár, gwát, tahá, sará
a A, a asp, garm, mard, cha
aw Aw, aw awali, rawag, tawár, kolaw, haw
ay Ay, ay ayb, dayag, sayl, kay, bay
B, b brát, bér, gyábán, habar, romb, ketáb
ché Ch, ch chón, róchag, bachak, panch, róch
D, d dóst, bádsháh, padá, héd, pád
dhé Dh, dh dhawl, sardhagár,godhsará, gwandh, chondh
é É, é éraht, dém, shér, hamé, wahdé
e E, e embari, pet, zer, bale
F, f fawn/pawn, futbál/putbál
G, g gohár, agan, bégáh, morg, lóg
ghé Gh, gh ghayrat/gayrat, bálegh/báleg
H, h hawr, sáhat, tahár, béh, móh
i I, i imán, diwál, shir, théki, pári
J, j jenek, bójag, panjáh, ráj, bongéj
K, k kár, harkas, balkén, yak, ták
khé Kh, kh khalij, khomár, daskhatt
L, l lonth, hálig, halk, gal, del
M, m mondrig, omr, hamsáheg, ham, nám
N, n nun, bándá, kandag, rógen, dán
ń ń báń, táń, máń
ó Ó, o óshtag, róch, kóh, chó, chorró
o O, o orosh, borz, sohr, o
P, p pet, pocch, bápári, kapag, shap, láp
R, r róch, warag, brát, dér, kár
rhé Rh, rh márhi, gorhá, merh, nájórh
S, s sáhat, dast, tosag, kas, ás
shé Sh, sh shap, gwashag, lashkar, gésh, gósh
T, t tawár, tahl, háterá, óshtag, rást, mát
thé Th, th thál, lóthag, léthag, poth, chawath
u U, u dur, nun, dáru, tambu
W, w wáb, báwar, gwát, awali, rawag, tawár, kolaw, haw
Y, y yát, sharyat, nyámá
Z, z zendag, darwázag, pánzdah, báz
zhé Zh, zh zhand, rozhn, bazhn
Many Balochi words end in /a/. In indeclinable words, such as na ‘ no’, pa ‘for’ and cha ‘from’, wa ‘for sure’, /a/ is represented only with a, but in all other words /a/ is represented by ah (e.g. wájah ‘sir, mister’, yalah ‘leaving’, kessah ‘story’, bandah ‘servant’). In the word dega ‘other, another’, an r is added in the declined forms (e.g. degaré ‘another one’).

Vowels

There are eight vowels in Balochi, five long and three short. Table 6. Balochi vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e, é a o, ó
Open á
  Examples: á (long) as in áp آپ ‘water’,ráh راه ‘road, way’, kár کار ‘work’, gwát گوات ‘wind’, tahá تها ‘in, inside’, sará سرا ‘on’ a (short) as in asp اسپ ‘horse’, garm گرم ‘warm’, mard مرد ‘man’, cha چه ‘from’, kára kant کارَ کنت ‘he/she works’ i (long) as in imán ایمان ‘faith’, diwál دیوال ‘wall’, shir شیر ‘milk’, théki ٹێکی ‘gift’, pári پاری ‘last year’ é (long) as in éraht اێرهت ‘autumn’‚ dém دێم ‘face’, shér شێر ‘lion’, hamé همے ‘this very’, wahdé وهدے ‘when’ e (short) as in embari امبری ‘this year’, pet پت ‘father’, zer زِر ‘sea’, bale بله ‘but’ u (long) as in dur دور ‘far’, nun نون now’, tambu تمبو ‘tent’, dáru دارو ‘medicine’ ó (long) as in óshtag اۆشتگ ‘to stand up’, róch رۆچ ‘day, sun’, kóh کۆه ‘mountain’, chó چۆ ‘like, like this, in this way’, chorró چرّۆ ‘pee’ o (short) as in borz بُرز ‘high’, sohr سُهر ‘red, gold’, o و ‘and’  

Consonants

There are 25 consonants in Balochi. Only 22 of these are frequently used. Three consonants are only found in loanwords (f, kh, gh). Table 7. Balochi consonants
labial dental/ alveolar post- alveolar /palatal retroflex velar glottal
Plosives p, b t, d th, dh k, g
Fricatives (f) s, z sh, zh (kh, gh) h
Affricates ch, j
Nasals m n (ń)
Tap r rh
Lateral l
Approximants w y
Examples: p as in petپت  ‘father’, pocch پُچ ‘clothes’, bápári باپاری ‘trader’, kapag کپگ ‘to fall’, shap شپ ‘evening, night’, lápلاپ  ‘stomach’, chippokچیپّک  ‘chick’, gapp گپّ ‘talk’ b as in brátبرات  ‘brother’, romb رُمب ‘group’, bérبێر  ‘revenge’, habarهبر  ‘word, talk’, gyábán گیابان ‘desert’, ketáb کتاب ‘book’, rabb ربّ ‘Lord’, dhobbah ڈُبّه ‘duty’ t as in tawárتئوار  ‘voice’, tahlتهل  ‘bitter’, háterá هاترا ‘for, for the sake of’, óshtag اۆشتگ ‘to stand up’, rást راست ‘right, true’, zutter  زوتّر‘quicker, faster’, sutt سوتّ ‘profit, gain’ d as in dóst دۆست ‘friend’, bádsháhبادشاه  ‘king’, padá پدا ‘later, afterwards’, héd هێد ‘sweat’, pád پاد ‘leg, foot’, paddar پدّر ‘clear, evident, visible’, hasadd هسدّ ‘envy’ th as in thálٹال  ‘branch (of tree)’, lóthag لۆٹگ ‘to want’, léthag لێٹگ ‘to roll over’, poth پُٹ ‘body-hair, fur’, chawath چئوٹ ‘sandal’, patthag پٹّگ ‘to search, to look for’, gatth گٹّ ‘busy’ dh as in dhawlڈئول  ‘way, manner’, sardhagár سرڈگار ‘region, land’, godhsará گُڈسرا ‘at last, finally’, gwandh گوَنڈ ‘small’, chondh چُنڈ ‘piece’, goddhag گُڈّگ ‘to chop off, to cut off’, haddh هَڈّ ‘bone’ k as in kárکار  ‘work’, kas کَس ‘person’, balkén بلکێن ‘maybe’, yak یک ‘one’, ták تاک ‘leaf, page’, kukkár کوکّار ‘shout, scream’, chokk چُکّ ‘child’ g as in gohárگهار  ‘sister’, agan اگن ‘if’, bégáh بێگاه ‘late afternoon/early evening’, morgمرگ  ‘chicken’, lógلۆگ  ‘house’, laggag لگّک ‘to begin, to start’, saggag سگّگ ‘to endure’ f as in fawn فئون ‘phone’, futbál فوتبال ‘football’ (these words can also be pronounced with a p instead of the f) off اُفّ ‘alas’ s as in sáhatساهت  ‘hour’, dast دست ‘arm, hand’, tosag تُسگ ‘to faint’, kas کَس ‘person’, ás آس ‘fire’, passaw پسّئو ‘answer’, bass بسّ ‘enough’, kass کَسّ ‘nobody’ sh as in shapشپ  ‘evening, night’, gwashag گوَشگ ‘to say’, lashkar لشکر ‘army’, gésh گێش ‘more’, gósh گۆش ‘ear’, kasshag کشّگ ‘to pull, to draw’, wassh وشّ ‘happy, well’ z as in zendag زندگ ‘alive’, darwázag دروازگ ‘door’, pánzdah پانزده ‘fifteen’, báz باز ‘very, much’, bazzag بزّگ ‘destitute, poor’, mozz مزّ ‘wages’, chizz چیزّ ‘thing’ zh as in zhand ژند ‘tired, worn out’, rozhn رُژن ‘light’, bazhn بَژن ‘woe’, hozzhár هژّار ‘cautious, vigilant’ kh as in khalij خلیج ‘bay’, khomár خمار ‘drunk, intoxicated’, daskhatt دسختّ ‘signature’ (these words can also be pronounced with a h or a k instead of the kh) gh as in ghayrat غئیرت ‘honour, dignity’, bálegh بالغ ‘adolescent, mature’ (these words can also be pronounced with a g instead of the gh) h as in hawr هئور ‘rain’, sáhat ساهت ‘hour, clock, watch’, tahár تهار ‘dark’, béh بێه ‘origin, basis’, móh مۆه ‘opportunity’ ch as in chón چۆن ‘how’, róchag رۆچگ ‘fasting’, bachak بچک ‘boy’, panch پنچ ‘five’, róchرۆچ  ‘day, sun’, lacchénag لچّێنگ ‘to attach’, macch مَچّ ‘date palm’ j as in jenek جنک ‘girl’, bójag بۆجگ ‘to untie’, panjáh پنجاه ‘fifty’, ráj راج ‘people, nation’, bongéj بنگێج ‘start’, pajjár پجّار ‘recognition, identity’, hojj هُجّ ‘force’ m as in mondrig مندریگ ‘ring’, omr اُمر ‘life’, hamsáheg همساهگ ‘neighbour’, ham هم ‘also’, nám نام ‘name’, kimmat کیمّت ‘price, value’, chamm چمّ ‘eye’ n as in nun نون ‘now’, bándá باندا ‘tomorrow’, kandag کندگ ‘to laugh; laughter’, rógen رۆگن ‘oil’, dán دان ‘grain, rice (uncooked)’, tonnig تنّیگ ‘thirsty’, dhann ڈنّ ‘out, outside’ ń (nun ghunna) as in báń باں ‘I will be/become’, táń تاں ‘until’, máń ماں ‘in’ (nun ghunna is used in poetry for metric and rhyme purposes) r as in róch رۆچ ‘day, sun’‚ warag ورگ ‘to eat, to drink’, brát برات ‘brother’, dér دێر ‘late’, kár کار ‘work’, korrag کرّگ ‘foal’, zarr زرّ ‘money, gold’ rh as in márhi ماڑی ‘palace’, gorháگڑا  ‘then’, merh مڑ ‘fight’, nájórh ناجۆڑ ‘ill’ l as in lonth لُنٹ ‘lip’, hálig هالیگ ‘empty’, halk هلک ‘village, encampment’, galگل  ‘happy’, del دل ‘heart’, ballok بلّک ‘grandmother’, lell لِلّ ‘dumb’ w as in wáb واب ‘sleep’, báwar باور ‘faith, belief’, gwát گوات ‘wind’ y as in yát یات ‘memory’, sharyat شریت ‘religious law’, nyámá نیاما ‘between, among’[:UR]صوتیات [:de]

Phonology

  Use this page to provide information about the Phonology of the language, either directly, or as a link or as a download.[:]

Appendices

  Use this page to provide any other information of the language, either directly, or as a link or as a download. This menu item may be removed if it is not needed.
Search for a word in the Example language dictionary.
books1 To search for a word, type it into the box on the right. You can search for a word or part of a word in the vernacular or English. To enter characters unavailable on the keyboard, click on one of the buttons above the search box.
[Tip: you can ignore the Languages and Parts of Speech drop-down boxes - they are for advanced searches]

Introduction

  The Example language is spoken by 5000 people living in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. This is the first attempt to compile a bilingual dictionary for the Example language. 10,000 words were collected by 30 speakers of the language in a 4 week Rapid Words Collection workshop. Then another month was spent in adding example sentences to many of the entries. There is still much work to do, but we, the compilers have decided to publish this work in progress, in order to document the work we have done so far.

Dictionary Overview

  For an overview of the dictionary please click on the links below:
https://www.webonary.org/balochidictionary/files/FLExLIFT.lift
[:UR]

تقشہ

  Use this page to provide map of the language area.[:en]Balochi is an Iranian language spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Gulf States, Turkmenistan, India, and East Africa. It is hard to estimate the total number of Balochi speakers, since there are no official statistics on people’s first language in the countries where Balochi is spoken. However, informal estimates suggest that Balochi is spoken by at least some 10 million people, and that there are several million people who identify themselves as Baloch but speak another language as their first language. Balochi can be divided into three main dialect blocks, Western, Southern and Eastern Balochi. This is, however, only a broad division, and there are many sub-dialects within each main dialect. [:BA]

Map

  Use this page to provide map of the language area.[:]

Appendices

  Use this page to provide any other information of the language, either directly, or as a link or as a download. This me
[:UR]

تصاویری جرنل

  Please provide 5 - 6 photos from the language area here that can be used to feature and promote this dictionary. Thank you. IMG_20150529_105218977_HDR A group of Kemedzung speakers collecting words in the RWC workshop.[:en]

Photo journal

  Please provide 5 - 6 photos from the language area here that can be used to feature and promote this dictionary. Thank you. IMG_20150529_105218977_HDR A group of Kemedzung speakers collecting words in the RWC workshop.[:]
[:UR]حروف تہجی [:en]

Orthography

The orthographic issues of Balochi have always been in debate among Baloch linguists, scholars, writers, language activists, etc. Several orthographies in Roman and Arabic scripts have been created in the last six decades. Even though Sayed Zahoor Shah Hashmi's Arabic based orthography does not represent all of the Balochi vowels and nasal consonants, it has become the most widely used but non-standard orthography in the Balochi language. The absence of a standard orthography leads several writers to use their own ways of spelling some words out. Some modifications to the Hashmi's orthography have been proposed by a group of Baloch linguists, scholars and writers, but have not been distributed to a broad group of users for a consensus and are yet to be accepted by all of the stakeholders. Until the newer version of the orthography is accepted, this dictionary uses the current orthography. This orthography does include some borrowed Arabic letters for consonantal sounds which are used in Arabic borrowed words such as names of people and places. The Balochi-to-English part of the dictionary is arranged alphabetically according to the following order.
آ، ا،  ب، پ، ت، ٹ، ث، ج، چ، ح، خ، د، ڈ، ر، ز، س، ش، ص،ض، ط، ظ، ع، غ، ف، ق، ک، گ، ل، م، ن، و، ءُ، ہ، ی، ے
   [:de]

The Example Alphabet

  There are 26 letters:  
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
  The Example-to-English part of the dictionary is arranged alphabetically according to the above order.[:]
[:en]

Abbreviations

 
adj. adjective
adp. adposition
adv. adverb
card. num. cardinal numeral
cl. classifier
conj. conjunction
coord. conj. coordinating conjunction
cop. copula verb
dem. demonstrative
dem. pn. demonstrative pronoun
det. determiner
indef. indefinite
indef. pn. indefinite pronoun
interj. interjection
interr. pn. interrogative pronoun
n. noun
n. prop. proper noun
num. numeral
ord. num. ordinal numeral
part. particle
pers. pn. personal pronoun
phr. phrase
pn. pronoun
postp. postposition
prep. preposition
prev. preverb
quant. quantifier
refl. pn. reflexive pronoun
subord. conj. subordinating conjunction
syn. synonym
v. verb
v. impers. impersonal verb
v. itr. intransitive verb
v. tr. transitive verb
var. variant
   [:UR]مخففات [:de]

Abbreviations

  adj. conj. esp. interj. Lit: n. Pl: Sg: sp. Syn: Var: adjective conjunction especially interjection literally noun plural singular species synonym variant adv. dem. Euph. interrog. loc. num. pro. s.b. s.t. v. adverb demonstrative euphemism interrogative locative number pronoun somebody something verb Note: In the English definitions all references to he, him, his etc. should also be taken to refer to she, her, hers etc.[:]

Abbreviations

adj. conj. esp. interj. Lit: n. Pl: Sg: sp. Syn: Var: adjective conjunction especially interjection literally noun plural singular species synonym variant adv. dem. Euph. interrog. loc. num. pro. s.b. s.t. v. adverb demonstrative euphemism interrogative locative number pronoun somebody something verb Note: In the English definitions all references to he, him, his etc. should also be taken to refer to she, her, hers etc.
[:UR]اندراج کی وضاحت [:en]

Dictionary Entries explained

 

Headwords

Each entry starts with a headword (a lexical unit of a morpheme, a word, or a group of words) in the Arabic based Balochi script followed by a pronunciation guide in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using a broad and phonemic transcription, marked by square brackets, e.g., [baloːʧ].

Part of speech

In each entry, the pronunciation guide is followed by its part of speech in abbreviated form that is marked by italics, e.g., adj., n., v., etc. For the headwords which function in more than one grammatical category, for example, as a noun and a verb, each category is marked with numerals and left sided brackets, e.g., (1, (2, etc.

Definitions

The definitions of Balochi lexical units are given in English and are usually substitutable. The definition of each lexical unit starts with the part of speech and is followed by the meaning. As mentioned above, many lexical units have more than one part of speech. In addition many lexical units will also have more than one sense (polysemy). Each sense will be marked with numerals in left-sided parentheses, e.g., (1, (2, (3, etc. The sub-senses within a sense are separated by semicolons. Words which are identical in pronunciation and spelling but differ with basic meanings (homonyms) are treated as separate entries with subscripts.

Spelling variations

Various words in Balochi literature are written with different spellings. The variant spellings for such words are presented in parentheses, for example, (var. of xxx).

Illustrative Sentences

In order to explain the meanings of complex words, illustrative examples are given in Balochi and translated into English. With a slight modification, most of the examples have been taken from the text corpus. As a native speaker, I also created some examples when helpful.

Usage Labels

One usage label is used (so far) in this dictionary. Some of the body parts are taboo in Balochi and is better to be marked with the usage label of Taboo. Usage labels follow the definitions in the entry and are marked with curved brackets, e.g., {tab}.  [:de]

Dictionary Entries explained

  See https://lugungu.webonary.org/dictionary-entries-explained/ for an example[:]
[:UR]

پیش لفظ

  Not all dictionaries have a Preface. This menu item may be removed if there is no Preface.[:en]

Foreword

  This dictionary has long been in the making and many scholars, writers, technical experts and Balochi speakers from different parts of the world have contributed to it. The dictionary is one of the Balochi Language Project's several ambitions in order to contribute towards the preservation of Balochi and the standardisation of its written form. Compiling a dictionary is work in progress. We aim to keep adding new entries on a regular basis. We are publishing this dictionary online with the hope that scholars and readers will use it and send us their feedback, so that we can improve it gradually. You can contact us here or on the Contact Us page. Print versions of the dictionary will appear continuously as the work progresses.[:BA]

Foreword

  Not all dictionaries have a Preface. This menu item may be removed if there is no Preface.[:]

Phonology

  Use this page to provide information about the Phonology of the language, either directly, or as a link or as a download.
[:UR]

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Webonary

The search function of this website was built using Webonary. Webonary gives language groups the ability to put their dictionaries on the web with a minimum of technical help. Each dictionary is built around a search bar, which looks for a word (or part of a word) throughout the dictionary, and returns the most relevant results to the top of the list. Webonary, in turn, is built on top of WordPress.

Fieldworks Language Explorer

The dictionary database was developed in SIL's Fieldworks Language Explorer.[:en]

Software

Webonary

The search function of this website was built using Webonary. Webonary gives language groups the ability to put their dictionaries on the web with a minimum of technical help. Each dictionary is built around a search bar, which looks for a word (or part of a word) throughout the dictionary, and returns the most relevant results to the top of the list. Webonary, in turn, is built on top of WordPress.

Fieldworks Language Explorer

The dictionary database was developed in SIL's Fieldworks Language Explorer.[:]
There are three ways you can browse the dictionary ...   Browse from Vernacular Browse from English Browse by Categories
[:en]

Balochi–English Dictionary

© 2019 The Balochi Language Project
Uppsala University
 
Published by:
SIL International®

Webonary.org
   

This web edition may be cited as:

The Balochi Language Project (ed). 2019. Balochi  - English Dictionary. Webonary.org. Uppsala University®. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.

[:UR]

Balochi – English Dictionary

 
مرتب کنندہ

Saeed Zubair

© 2018 Saeed Zubair
   
شائع کرنے والا
SIL International®

Webonary.org
   

ویب پر مبنی اِس لغت کا حوالہ ایسے دیا جاسکتا ہے

Zubair, Saeed (ed). 2018. Balochi - English Dictionary. Webonary.org. SIL International®. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.

[:BA]

Balochi – English Dictionary

 
Compiler:

Saeed Zubair

© 2017 Saeed Zubair®
   
Published by:
SIL International®

Webonary.org
   

This web edition may be cited as:

Zubair, Saeed (ed). 2017. Balochi - English Dictionary. Webonary.org. SIL International®. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.

[:de]

Vernacular – English Dictionary

 
Compilers

Person 1

Person 2

© 2016 Copyright holder's name
   
Published by:
SIL International®

Webonary.org
   
This web edition may be cited as:
Compiler's last name, first name. 2016. "Vernacular - English Dictionary." Webonary.org. SIL International. Retrieved <Date of access>, from <full URL>.
[:]

Browse Reversal 2

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[:UR]

علاقائی زبان کو براؤز کیجئے

[vernacularalphabet][:en]

Balochi - English

[vernacularalphabet][:de]

Vernacular - English

[vernacularalphabet][:]

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[:UR]

خاکہ

For an overview of the dictionary please click on the links below: [menu menu="main" show_submenu="overview"][:en]

Dictionary Overview

For an overview of the dictionary please click on the links below: [menu menu="main" show_submenu="overview"][:]
You can download the dictionary for use when you have no internet connection ...   PDF version.

This is a PDF version of the Print Edition

→ Download size: 22 Mb
 

Browse Reversal 2

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#searchresults { text-align: right; } .entry { white-space: unset !important; } #spbutton { direction: rtl; } .lpTitleLetter { direction: rtl; }
[:en]Ethnologue links The Ethnologue online version contains a list of all languages discovered in the world. Each language has a three-letter code. Maps of each language region are included on the Map page. This dictionary contains three dialects which are included in the Ethnologue. Western Balochi - Ethnologue data Southern Balochi - Ethnologue data Eastern Balochi - Ethnologue data[:]
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[:UR]
یاتyát1n.memory; remembrancesyn.تْرانَگtránagتَهتالtáhtál2n.commemoration
[:en]
یاتyát1n.memory; remembrancesyn.تْرانَگtránagتَهتالtáhtál2n.commemoration
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[:en]

Grammar

  Basic morphosyntax   Nouns Balochi has no gender distinctions in the noun system. The case forms in Balochi are direct case, oblique case, genitive case, object case, and vocative case. Direct case is used for subjects of intransitive verbs and for transitive verbs in the present-future tense as well as for all direct objects in the past tense and for indefinite direct objects in the present-future tense as well. Oblique case is used for definite direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, subjects of transitive verbs in the past tense, and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for indirect objects in the past tense. Gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions. Vocative case is used for direct address.  
Singular Plural
Direct case mát ‘mother’ مات mát مات
Oblique case mátá ماتا mátán ماتان
Object case mátárá ماتارا mátáná ماتانا
Genitive case mátay ماتئے mátáni ماتانی
Vocative case mát مات mátán ماتان
  The basic form of a noun denotes either a generic or a definite concept. To denote a singular indefinite, often specific entity the specificity clitic =é is added to the noun.  
mát > máté مات < ماتے mother > a mother
shap > shapé شپ < شپے night > a night
  Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives in Balochi have two forms, the basic form and the attributive form. Most adjectives add the suffix -én to the basic form when they stand in attributive position. Adverbs can occasionally take the attributive suffix -én.  
Basic form Attributive form English gloss
warná ورنا warnáén ورناێن ‘young’
pir پیر pirén پیرێن ‘old’
ráhat راهت ráhatén راهتێن ‘comfortable’
mazan مزن mazanén مزنێن ‘big’
kasán کسان kasánén کسانێن ‘small’
  The comparative form of adjectives and adverbs is formed by adding -ter to the basic form. The attributive comparative form adds -én to the comparative form. It is also used as the superlative form.  
Basic form Comparative form Attributive comparative form Superlative form
warná ورنا warnáter ورناتر warnáterén ورناترێن
pir پیر pirter پیرتر pirterén پیرترێن
mazan مزن master مستر masterén مسترێن
kasán کسان kaster کستر kasterén کسترێن
  Pronouns The pronominal system in Balochi consists of personal pronouns for the 1st and 2nd persons and demonstrative pronouns of proximal and distal deixis that function as personal pronouns for the 3rd person. In the 1st person plural Balochi has two pronouns, one which is commonly used as the default pronoun and one inclusive which is used when the emphasis is on the fact that both the speaker(s) and the addressee(s) are included. The 3rd person demonstrative pronouns can also be used as demonstrative determiners. The conjunction of the personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns is slightly different from each other. In the 1st and 2nd persons, direct/oblique case form is used for all subjects and objects of prepositions. Object case is used for direct and indirect objects and gentive case is used for genitive attributes and objects of postpositions.  In the 3rd person, the case forms are used in the same way as the case forms of nouns.  
Person Direct/oblique Object Genitive
1SG man من maná منا mani منی
2SG taw تئو tará ترا tai تئیی
1PL com. ما márá مارا may مئے
1PL incl. máshomá ماشما máshomárá ماشمارا mayshomay مئیشمئے
2PL shomá شما shomárá شمارا shomay شمئے
   
Person Direct Oblique Object Genitive
3SG prox. é اے eshiá اِشیا eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3SG dist. á آ áiá آییا áiárá آییارا áiay آییئے
3PL prox. é اے eshán اِشان eshiárá اِشیارا eshiay اِشیئے
3PL dist. á آ áyán آیان áyáná آیانا áyáni آیانی
  Balochi has enclitic pronouns, which attach to one of the other constituents in the clause, normally to the first non-subject element in the clause. They can function as subject of transitive verbs in the past tense, direct and indirect objects in the present-future tense, genitive attributes and objects of postpostions.  
Person Latin script Arabic script
1SG =on =ُن
SG =et =ِت
3SG =i
1PL =en =ِن
2PL
3PL =esh =ِش
  The reflexive pronoun is wat and it functions in all persons. There are two interrogative pronouns in Balochi, kay ‘who’ (declined) denoting a person and ché ‘what’ (not declined) denoting a thing. The indefinite pronouns in Balochi that refer to persons are harkas ‘everybody, all’, hechkas/kass ‘nobody’, and dega ‘someone else, another one’.   Adpositions In Balochi there are both prepositions and postpositions. Objects of prepositions take the oblique case and objects of postpositions take the genitive case. The most common ones are pa ‘for’, gón ‘with’, cha ‘from, than’, and mán ‘in’. There is a large number of postpositions in Balochi. They are originally nouns in the oblique case, which show location or direction, and they therefore end in the oblique case ending .  
Balochi Latin Balochi Arabic Gloss
tahá تها ‘in, into’
tóká تۆکا ‘in, into’
talá تلا ‘in, inside’
poshtá پُشتا ‘behind, after’
démá دێما ‘in front of, against’
chérá چێرا ‘under’
kerrá کرّا ‘beside, at the side of’
nyámá نیاما ‘between, among’
sará سرا ‘on’
  Numeral The cardinal numerals are as follows:
0 sepr سِپر 30 si سی
1 yak یک 31 si o yak سی و یک
2 do دو 32 si o do سی و دو
3 say سئے 40 chel چِل
4 chár چار 50 panjáh پنجاه
5 panch پنچ 60 shast شست
6 shash شش 70 haptád هپتاد
7 hapt هپت 80 hashtád هشتاد
8 hasht هشت 90 nawad نئود
9 noh نه 100 yaksad, sad یکسد، سد
10 dah ده 101 sad o yak سد و یک
11 yázdah یازده 110 sad o dah سد و ده
12 dwázdah دوازده 120 sad o bist سد و بیست
13 sézdah سێزده 200 dosad دوسد
14 chárdah چارده 300 sésad سێسد
15 pánzdah پانزده 400 chársad چارسد
16 shánzdah شانزده 500 panchsad پنچسد
17 habdah هبده 600 shashsad ششسد
18 hazhdah هژده 700 haptsad هپتسد
19 nózdah نۆزده 800 hashtsad هشتسد
20 bist بیست 900 nohsad نهسد
21 bist o yak بیست و یک 1 000 hazár هزار
22 bist o do بیست و دو 2 000 do hazár دو هزار
23 bist o say بیست و سئے 5 000 panch hazár پنچ هزار
24 bist o char بیست و چار 10 000 dah hazár ده هزار
25 bist o panch بیست و پنچ 100 000 yak lakk یک لکّ
26 bist o shash بیست و شش 1 000 000 yak milyun یک میلیون
27 bist o hapt بیست و هپت 10 000 000 yak korórh یک کرۆڑ
Ordinal numerals add the suffix -(o)mi to the cardinal numeral. Only the first ordinal numeral is irregular. Some consonants are geminated when the ending -omi is added.
1st awali ائولی 20th bistomi بیستمی
2nd domi دومی 21st bist o yakkomi بیست و یکّمی
3rd saymi سئیمی 22nd bist o domi بیست و دومی
4th cháromi چارمی 30th siomi سیمی
5th panchomi پنچمی 40th chellomi چلّمی
6th shashomi ششمی 50th panjáhomi پنجاهمی
7th haptomi هپتمی 60th shastomi شستمی
8th hashtomi هشتمی 70th haptádomi هپتادمی
9th nohomi نهمی 80th hashtádomi هشتادمی
10th dahomi دهمی 90th nawadomi نئودمی
11th yázdahomi یازدهمی 100th sadomi سدمی
12th dwázdahomi دوازدهمی 1 000th hazáromi هزارمی
[:UR]

قواعد

  Use this page to provide information about the Grammar of the language, either directly, or as a link or as a download.[:]
[:en]
Search for a word
[:UR]
Search for a word in the Example language dictionary.
books1 To search for a word, type it into the box on the right. You can search for a word or part of a word in Example or English. To enter characters unavailable on the keyboard, click on one of the buttons above the search box.
[Tip: you can ignore the Languages and Parts of Speech drop-down boxes - they are for advanced searches]
[:BA]
Search for a word in the Example language dictionary.
books1 To search for a word, type it into the box on the right. You can search for a word or part of a word in the vernacular or English. To enter characters unavailable on the keyboard, click on one of the buttons above the search box.
[Tip: you can ignore the Languages and Parts of Speech drop-down boxes - they are for advanced searches]
[:]

How to search the dictionary

  When you click on Search in the menu, you will be able to access the main search function for the dictionary. Here you can enter search terms into the Search box. Clicking the Search button will then search the dictionary for the words that you enter.  
Explanation of search result ordering
  Webonary The search results are weighted so that entries which a person is more likely to be interested in will rise to the top of the search results. For example, if “salt” is found in a headword, that entry will rise to the top. But if “salt” is found in the definition of an entry, it will sink lower in search results. The weighting is as follows:
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If you get too many search results, you can limit your search by using the drop-down boxes for Language, or Part of Speech.  
Searching for partial words
You can search on parts of words. If your search consists of three characters or less the search will not proceed (due to the possibility of getting too many results) and you will receive the message:  

Because of the brevity of your search term, partial search was omitted. Click here to include searching through partial words.

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When search results are displayed your search term will be highlighted in light blue. This enables you to see at a glance the results that contain your search term.  
Search results are links
When search results are displayed, you will notice that most items are links. If you hover your mouse over a link it will be highlighted with an underline and your mouse pointer will change to a pointed-finger. You can then click on the link. If the link is a:
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  • Semantic Domain, then clicking will display all dictionary entries that have the same Semantic Domain category. (See below for Thesaurus searches)
 
Doing Thesaurus searches (Not all dictionaries have this feature)
Sometimes it is useful to find words that are similar in meaning. This is hard to do in a normal printed dictionary. But it is really easy with Webonary. This is because all the words in the Dictionary are categorized into areas of meaning. Linguists call these areas of meaning Semantic Domains. To find words that belong to the same semantic domain do the following:
  • First enter a word as a starting point.
  • Examine the search results for the word you typed. Notice that the the word is listed with one or more semantic domains. These semantic domains are shown like this: (sem. domains: Child)
  • Click on the semantic domain name that you are interested in and Webonary will return all the words in the dictionary that are related to that semantic domain.
   
[:en]

Introduction

  Balochi (also spelled as Balouchi) is a North-Western Iranian language, spoken by over ten million people in primarily Balochistan which is divided into Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Balochi is vastly spoken in Middle Eastern countries such as Bahrain, Oman, and U.A.E. It is spoken in Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. It is spoken in European countries such as Sweden, Norway, and the UK. It is also spoken in India and in African countries such as Kenya and Tanzania. All of the Baloch populations are scattered into various areas around the world while the largest concentration of the Baloch population is in a section of Karachi, Pakistan. Balochi has three main varieties, Western Balochi, Eastern Balochi and Southern Balochi. The Ethnologue codes for the three groups are bcc (Southern), bgn (Western), and bgp (Eastern). All of the three varieties are included in this dictionary as they are very similar in many ways.

Saeed Zubair

[:de]

Introduction

  The Example language is spoken by 5000 people living in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. This is the first attempt to compile a bilingual dictionary for the Example language. 10,000 words were collected by 30 speakers of the language in a 4 week Rapid Words Collection workshop. Then another month was spent in adding example sentences to many of the entries. There is still much work to do, but we, the compilers have decided to publish this work-in-progress, in order to document the work we have done so far. Our ambition is to publish early and often.

The Publishers

[:]
[:en][vernacularalphabet]  [:UR]

براؤز کیجئے

  [menu menu="main" show_submenu="browse"][:]

How to browse the dictionary

  When you click on Browse in the menu, you will see the dictionary in an alphabetical format.

browse-view

Browse from Vernacular to Glossing language
This shows the dictionary ordered by the vernacular alphabet letters and allows you to see a whole letter section of the dictionary at a time.
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This shows lists of glossing language words that have definitions in the dictionary. These lists are ordered by the glossing language alphabet letters. You can click on words in the glossing language lists to see the corresponding vernacular words in the dictionary.
Browse by Semantic Domains (Not all dictionaries have this feature)

Lexique Pro

This shows the dictionary ordered by Semantic Domains (Categories of meaning) and allows you to see all the vernacular words that fall within a particular category. The domains are sorted in a hierarchy or by name on the left of the screen. You can easily expand the hierarchy by clicking on the + signs to find words in an area of meaning.
Links
Some parts of the dictionary displayed are links. If you hover your mouse over a word and it turns into a pointed finger, then you can click on that word and the dictionary will jump to the word you have clicked on.  
[:UR]You can download the dictionary for use when you have no internet connection ...   PDF version.

This is a PDF version of the Print Edition

[:en]You can download the dictionary for use when you have no internet connection ...   PDF version.

This is a PDF version of the Print Edition

[:BA]You can download the dictionary for use when you have no internet connection ...   PDF version.

This is a PDF version of the Print Edition

[:]

How to download a PDF version of the dictionary

  Screenshot When you click on Download in the menu, you will be able to download a PDF format version of the dictionary. This format allows you to read the dictionary on your computer as if you were reading a copy of the print edition. It is an exact duplicate of the print edition, but in electronic form. Once you have downloaded it you can read the dictionary without being connected to the internet. You can also print out parts of the dictionary if you have a printer.  
Follow these links to find other online dictionaries If any of the above links are broken or you know of other relevant online language dictionaries, please contact us.
[:UR]

ڈکشنری فونٹ

If you have trouble viewing the special characters that are used in this dictionary then please try installing the Andika font.[:en]

Dictionary font

If you have trouble viewing the special characters that are used in this dictionary then please try installing the Andika font.[:]
[:en]

Contact Us

  If you find an error in this dictionary, please use the form below to submit any corrections or suggestions for improvement. [contact-form-7 id="166102" title="Contact us"][:UR]

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  If you find an error in this dictionary please use the form below to submit any corrections or suggestions for improvement. [contact-form-7 id="166102" title="Contact us"][:]