The largest population of Bhojpuri reside in India, over 37,800,000 (2001 census). The region of India in which they are located is Assam state; Bihar state: Champaran, Saran, and Shahabad districts; Delhi; Jharkhand state: Palamau and Ranchi districts; Madhya Pradesh state; Uttar Pradesh state: Azamgarh, Ballia, Basti, Deoria, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Mirzapur, and Varanasi districts; West Bengal state.

Some Bhojpuri have moved to Nepal, Mauritius, and Suriname as well as other countries. The total number of speakers in all countries surpasses 39,605,300. The number of mother-tongue speakers of Bhojpuri total 39,445,300. In some of these countries, the Bhojpuri dialects are dying out.

The Ethnologue code for Bhojpuri is bho. The linguistic classification for Bhojpari is Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Dialects of Bhojpari include: Northern Standard Bhojpuri (Basti, Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria), Western Standard Bhojpuri (Benarsi, Purbi), Southern Standard Bhojpuri (Kharwari), Bhojpuri Tharu, Madhesi, Domra, Musahari. The extent of dialect variation in India and Nepal not yet determined. The Bhojpuri Tharu dialect is spoken by the Tharu caste in Nepal and India. This dialect is distinct from other Tharu languages.

The autonym is written भोजपुरी‎ (pronounced: Bhōjpurī). Outsiders call them by other names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri, Deswali, Khotla, and Piscimas.

The Bhojpuri language is used for a variety of media: literature, newspapers, periodicals, radio, TV, videos. Materials written in the language include a grammar, texts, and the New Testament. The Devanagari and Kaithi scripts are used.