aanʾchʾwaichown acanyon live oak, golden cup oak, mountain live oak, sweet oak, maul oakQuercus chrysolepis"make maul out of it" (Goddard, NB V, p.8)Aanʾchʾwaichow naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up maul oaks along, they say.GT02b 35.16Tcʾbee, diltciik, aanʾchʾwaichow naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up Douglas firs, yellow pines, and maul oaks along, they say.GT02b 41.3genchʾintʾaang 1acorn1.5.1.2Oak5. var.aanʾtʾoichowder. of√AANʾCHʾWAIin 'live oak' names-chowaugmentativeSource forms: ûn tcʼ wai tcōûn tcū wai tcō, ûn tca wē tcōUnch-wi´-choan doi tcō
aanʾchʾwaitcn ainterior live oak, live oak, Wislizeni oakQuercus wislizenigenchʾintʾaang 1acorn1.5.1.2Oak5. of√AANʾCHʾWAIin 'live oak' names-tcdiminutive suffixSource forms: án‑chwâ‑ĭchantcoitc
chin-daasitsn atanoak, tanbark oak, chestnut oakNotholithocarpus densiflorusan evergreen oak-like tree with hard-shelled acorns; acorns very rich in tannin, requiring extra leaching, but providing better storage life (Chestnut, p.???)genchʾintʾaang 1acornsynsaahching 1tanbark oaksaahtceelaadootanbark oak1.5.1.2Oak5. ofchingstick/wooddaa-2up onto a surfacesitsshelled acornSource forms: tcin da sûts
chʾaan-tighaadiin a1spec.acorn flour, acorn meal2gen.flour, mealany sort of flour5.2.3.3Cooking ingredients5. flour, bread flourder. ofchʾaang1foodtighaatacorn flour=iNRwidwa:t "acorn flour, modern flour"Source forms: tcan ti ga dīchʾaan-taaghadii-ghiisitn agristmill
chʾintʾaan-nooʾooln afermented acorns, moldy acorns"Acorns charred in fire, soaked 2-3 weeks (1 week if moldy), shelled." (Loeb, p.47)
"the frequent use of acorns molded or blackened by long immersion in water, [is] probably common to the northwestern and central groups." (Kroeber, 1925, p.156)
matchʾintʾaang 1acorncnstskʾeeʾ-dinkʾotcʾsour mushsim.chʾtighaangmoldy acorns5. food
comp. ofchʾintʾaangacornnooʾoollay pl in water to turn moldySource forms: tcʼûn tʼan nō ōl
chʾintʾaang-skʾeeʾn aacorn soup"Acorns (tcuntañ), chief food, made into bread (tcuntañ tast) soup (tcuntañ ske). Tree climbed, acorn knocked down with hooked pole. If difficult to climb, acorns dislodged with stones thrown from slings." (Loeb, p.46) ofchʾintʾaangacornskʾeeʾacorn soupSource forms: tcuntañ ske
chʾintʾaangn a1acorns (gen.)Quercus spp.All acorn species are collected and eaten as a staple food, some prefered over others, and some requiring more leaching or fermentation to reduce tannins. A description of both the traditional and the updated process described by Kimberly Stevenot (Me-Wuk) is online at http://www.nativetech.org/recipes/recipe.php?recipeid=115 - highlights: storing one year to dry thoroughly, with regular stirring to prevent mold, mixed with California bay laurel leaves to repel and kill insect pests; cracking and sprinkling on a little water to loosen the adhering inner skin; pounding in a stone mortar w/ mortar hopper (or grinding in an electric grinder) to "the consistency of wheat flour mixed with very fine corn meal"; leaching in a depression of clean sand by the river (or in a wooden leaching basin with a cotton sheet underneath as filter) with cedar (or other aromatic) bows on top to distribute water poured on and add a nice flavor; mixed 2:1 with water for thick soup, 3:1 for thinner soup; soaking the cooking basket in water overnight to swell up and seal, and then rubbing a little of the leached wet acorn paste on the surface of the basket before adding the water & acorn, to further seal it; using only soapstone or basalt as cooking stones (as they don't crack/explode); heating stones in a really hot (oak or manzanita wood) fire and dipping them in water to clean off ash before putting in soup; stirring soup continually so rocks don't settle in a spot and burn the basket; setting rocks removed from the soup aside to let the adhering acorn meal cook into delicious chips; cooking an extra thick version of the soup and dropping it by small dipping basketfuls into cold running water to make gelatinous dumplings. "The staple foods were acorns, seeds of tarweed and various other plants, dried salmon, and venison." (Curtis, p.183)
"Acorns (tcuntañ), chief food, made into bread (tcuntañ tast) soup (tcuntañ ske). Tree climbed, acorn knocked down with hooked pole. If difficult to climb, acorns dislodged with stones thrown from slings." (Loeb, p.46)
"Acorns charred in fire, soaked 2-3 weeks (1 week if moldy), shelled.... Acorn meal leached with hot water in sand bed" (Loeb, p.47)
Chesnut goes into details of the production, equipment, relative merits, etc. (Chesnut, 1902, pp.333-44)
chʾintʾaang kwontʾaan-manjaaʾAcorns will grow.GNb5 7.6Chʾintʾaang neestʾaan-kwan yaaʾnii.Acorns had grown thick, they say.GT02b 45.3"Chʾintʾaang nohdjiiʾyaan-ee, naakwongʾ nohdjiiʾyaan-ee,"GT03 1.24"Chʾohsit chʾintʾaang.""You all pound acorns.GT07 19.1Naakaaʾ naahneesh chʾintʾaang yaaʾchʾbee-ding ghilsaan yaaʾnii.He was found where two people were gathering acorns, they say.GT08 38.1"Chʾintʾaang oonohlaang, siitc."GT09 1.147Lhaaʾhaaʾ chʾintʾaang tcʾghaaʾchʾoleeʾ-jaaʾ.GT09 1.150Skʾeeʾ taachʾohbilh lheeneeʾhaaʾ ohsit chʾintʾaang; naahneesh naadilchaan-mang.GT09 1.32Chʾeeghinsit chʾintʾaang yaaʾnii.She pounded acorns, they say.GT10 13.6"(too) teehnoonʾaash-bang chʾintʾaang.""You must put some acorns in the water.GT10 15.4Chʾintʾaang chʾilhdikʾ-bang, tlʾeeʾit chʾilhdikʾ-bang chʾintʾaang.You must crack acorns and you must crack acorns at night.GT10 15.7"Chʾintʾaang tinghish-bang naaheesintyaa-deeʾ," tcʾin yaaʾnii."You will carry a load of acorns when you go back," she said, they say.GT10 29.1Chʾaakaa-kat kaanailash chʾintʾaang.She was digging out acorns from a hole.GT10 72.1Chʾintʾaang ohsit.GT26 1.130specaanʾchʾwaichowcanyon live oakaanʾchʾwaitcinterior live oakchin-daasitstanbark oaklhtaaghCalifornia black oaksakʾeeneesvalley oaksaahching 1tanbark oaksaahtceelaadootanbark oaksaakʾeeneesvalley oaksaakʾneesvalley oaktciichaangOregon white oakcnstchʾintʾaan-nooʾoolmoldy acornsdaabiiʾteelbilacorn buzzernindaash-ilhtciiacorn top (toy)skʾeeʾ 2acorn mushskʾeeʾ-dinkʾotcʾsour mushtighaat 1acorn flourtʾaast 2acorn doughtʾaasteiacorn doughharvchʾ-(s)..lhdikʾcrack acornsdaah-P-iiʾ-noo-(ghin)..kaash/kaan 2put basketfull on drying platformnaa-n-(s)..lhghaalh/ghaalʾ 2beat O/(acorns) down with a stick5. of a plant
2atyp.white oak, Oregon white oakQuercus garryanaused specifically as white oak in the Creation: Part 2 storyChʾintʾaang naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up white oaks along, they say.GT02b
der. ofchʾ-3Indefn-(s)..tʾaanthicken/grow (acorns)k'inehst'a:n "tan oak"kyʾintʾaŋ, chʾintʾaŋSource forms: ch!ŭ́n‑t!áṇtcʼûn tʼañ, tcʼûn tʼantcʼûn tʼañtcûn ṯañ, tcûn tañ, tcûn tuñ, kin tañtcŭntañtcûn dan, tcûn datcuntañ
chʾtighaangn afermented acorns, moldy acorns"Acorns charred in fire, soaked 2-3 weeks (1 week if moldy), shelled." (Loeb, p.47)
"the frequent use of acorns molded or blackened by long immersion in water, [is] probably common to the northwestern and central groups." (Kroeber, 1925, p.156)
"Chʾwohbilh wang, chʾtighaang,"GT26 1.141cnstskʾeeʾ-dinkʾotcʾsour mushsim.chʾintʾaan-nooʾoolmoldy acorns5. food
der. ofchʾ..tghaan/ghaanʾbe moldy=iNRSource forms: tcʼt tûg gañ
laashiiʾn a1California buckeyeAesculus californicus"The Kato started counting in September when the buckeyes (laci) began to fall." (Loeb, p.20)
The fresh/raw nuts are poisonous, but after a multi-stage process of cooking and leaching them they are made into a delicious meal like acorn mush; the bark is used medicinally; and the soft wood is used to make fire drill sticks, see Chesnut (1902, pp.366-7)
Laasheeʾ nghinshoon-eekwaanaang.Buckeye nuts had become good.GT02b 45.10Kʾaiʾtbilh-biiʾ laashiiʾ teehnooniighiing, toghish-bang.He must haul the buckeyes that I soaked in the burdenbasket.GT10 52.3Laashiiʾ kwongʾding naaʾtghilghaalʾ yaaʾnii.They poured buckeyes down on the fireplace, they say.GT15 1.3Tʾeekii biiʾnoochʾteelheekʾ yaaʾnii, laasheeʾ biiʾnooghitlheekʾ yaaʾnii.The teen girls made mush, they say; the buckeyes were soaked, they say.GT25 1.3Laaʾlhbaaʾang tcʾyaankii laashiiʾ biiʾnooghilheegh yaaʾnii.Ten women were soaking buckeye flour, they say.GT33 1.1cnstbilhghilghisfire sticksskʾeeʾ 1acorn soupripeee..tgaibecome white1.5.1Tree5. plants5.5Fire
2buckeye dough"buckeye dough" (Loeb, p.43) ingredients5.
var.laasheeʾlaashi'la:whe' "buckeye (Aesculus californica)"láasheʾ, laasheʾSource forms: lá‑s͡hĕla cīᵋ , la ceᵋla ceᵋla cī, la celaacĭtlah´-shipla sĕlaci, laciʼ
lhtaaghn aCalifornia black oakQuercus kelloggiithe acorns are "especially rich in oil", so valued for soup and bread (Chesnut, 1902, p.342)Lhtaagh lhaaʾhaaʾtaah naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up black oaks along one at a time, they say.GT02b 34.25genchʾintʾaang 1acorn1.5.1.2Oak5. var.ilhtaawunspec. var.lhtaaghaadial. var.lhtaawder. oflh-2reciprocal*tagitbetween Pniłtuq, 'iłtuq "[literally, between each other (i.e., they grow in clumps)]"???ł-tag 'Black Oaks' 'RECP-between'Source forms: h͡ltag͡hʟ taɢʟ taɢʟ tag, ʟ tag a´, ʟ taɢ...łtʿag, łtʿaᵋɡłʼtał, łau...ʼTahl´iʟ taû
sakʾeeneesn avalley oak, California white oakQuercus lobatasee sak'neesgenchʾintʾaang 1acornsynsaakʾeeneesvalley oaksaakʾneesvalley oak1.5.1.2Oak5. plantscomp. ofsaakʾspoonnees1longSource forms: sŭ́k‑kĕ‑nĕssak ke nes
saahtceelaadoon aoldfashtanbark oak, chestnut oakNotholithocarpus densiflorus(old fashion name)genchʾintʾaang 1acornsynchin-daasitstanbark oaksaahching 1tanbark oak1.5.1.2Oak5. forms: sa tcĕ la dō
saahchingn a1tanbark oak, chestnut oakNotholithocarpus densiflorus"The acorns contain a large quantity of deleterious matter, but after being leached they are said to have a very agreeable acid taste. On this account and on account of the extra large amount of oil which the acorns are said to contain, they are preferred to all other kinds." (Chesnut, 1902, p.342)Saahching kaalʾaaʾ tcʾghilhtciilh yaaʾnii.He went along planting tanbark oaks to grow up, they say.GT02b 32.2Tcʾiibeetcing, saahchin neeʾ naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up fir trees, tanbark oaks, and the land, they say.GT02b 33.5Saahchin naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood tanoaks up along, they say.GT02b 34.7genchʾintʾaang 1acornsynchin-daasitstanbark oaksaahtceelaadootanbark oakcnstbaanaatʾaicenter postching-teebaashshinny puckyiichow 1dance-house1.5.1.2Oak2acorn, tanbark acornNotholithocarpus densiflorus5. ofchingstick/woodsaah woodP: sa:-ṉ-|kyən 'oak'sáˑtc̭iŋ "acorn"saahchin: Sah'-chin 'An acorn' [SS-M]Source forms: sá‑chŭṇsa tcûñsa tcûñsa tcûñ, sût tcûñSat´-chung
saakʾeeneesn avalley oak, California white oakQuercus lobatasee sak'neesgenchʾintʾaang 1acornsynsakʾeeneesvalley oaksaakʾneesvalley oak1.5.1.2Oak5. plantscomp. ofsaakʾspoonnees1longSource forms: sa ka nes
saakʾneesn avalley oak, California white oakQuercus lobata"They are the largest of all the acorns, and since the enormous trees generally yield an abundant harvest which is conveniently located with respect to the Indian villages they are the chief source of the acorn supply." (Chesnut, 1902, p.343)
Oak apple galls, used medicinally and as a dye, are common on these (see Chesnut, 1902, p.344)
ptchʾghootʾoo 1.1oak gallsgenchʾintʾaang 1acornsynsakʾeeneesvalley oaksaakʾeeneesvalley oak1.5.1.2Oak5. plants
comp. ofsaakʾspoonnees1longSource forms: sak̟ nēssŭknĕsSuk´-nes
sitsn ashelled acornQuercus spp.5.2.1Food preparation5. forms: sûtschin-daasitsn atanbark oak
skʾeeʾn a1acorn soup"Acorns (tcuntañ), chief food, made into bread (tcuntañ tast) soup (tcuntañ ske). Tree climbed, acorn knocked down with hooked pole. If difficult to climb, acorns dislodged with stones thrown from slings." (Loeb, p.46)
The process of stone-boiling acorn soup and mush is described in Chesnut (1902, p.337)
"Taahjii bilh skʾeeʾ?""Where is the acorn soup with it?"GT07 19.7"Taahjii skʾeeʾ?""Where is the acorn soup?GT10 70.1Chʾsiitcing tcʾninyaa-deeʾ kwaachih-bang iintcʾeeʾ skʾeeʾ kwʾinnaadeebilh-jaaʾ."If Coyote comes you must feed him venison and we should sprinkle acorn soup on him.GT10 75.2"Waahchit iintcʾeeʾ, skʾeeʾ waahkaash."Feed him some venison and give him a bowl of acorn soup."GT10 79.2matlaashiiʾ 1buckeyemakechʾ-(s)..lhbitc/beetcboil st taa-chʾ-(ghin)..bilh/biilʾcook mush/soup5.
2acorn mush, cooked mush"Skʾeeʾ oolang, shghiinaaʾ-ei," tcʾin yaaʾnii.Go after some acorn mush, as I'm hungry," he said, they say.GT10 3.4"Skʾeeʾ biiʾohlitc,""You all, pee in the acorn mush."GT10 42.1Skʾeeʾ kaaghilhtsʾeegh bilh, "Teeghinkʾootc-ee."When he tasted the acorn mush, "It's gone sour."GT10 43.5Chʾsiitcing iintcʾeeʾ tcʾtaan-eet, skʾeeʾ chʾilhtsʾeegh-eet, kwsiiʾ kwʾitnaaghaabiilʾ yaaʾnii.While Coyote was eating venison and eating mush they poured it down onto his head, they say.GT10 79.5matchʾintʾaang 1acorn5.2.3.4Prepared food
kyʼi-sqʼeʔyiskʾeʾ "cooked acorns"ske 'mush'Source forms: skĕskʼeᵋskʼeᵋskē ́, s k!e, s ́ ke, sʾ ke ́, sʾ ske, s ke, is ke+skꜝéᵋSkĕh´ske/tcuntañ skechʾintʾaang-skʾeeʾn aacorn soupsinʾtoo-skʾeeʾn ahoney
tighaatn a1spec.tradacorn flour, acorn meal"Acorn meal before leaching" (Merriam)matchʾintʾaang 1acorncnsttʾaasteiacorn doughsim.tlʾohkaa 2flour of seeds5. flour5.2.3.3Cooking ingredients3gen.flour, mealany sort of flourdial. var.twaatGMder. ofd-1d-qualifier√GHAAT1shake=iNRwhat is shaken/siftedO-ɣ̇aˑd 'to shake O'widwaːt "acorn flour, modern flour [literally, what is sifted]"-gaˑx/gaˑd 'to shake'tighaah: Teg-gah' 'Acorn meal before leaching' [SS-M]cftighaahflat sifting basketSource forms: Tʼwaht´tû gatchʾaan-tighaadiin aacorn flour
tkooʾiishtcn a1prim.golden chinquapin, giant chinquapin, "chestnut"Chrysolepis chrysophylla"'Chestnuts' charred in fire, shelled." (Loeb, p.47)Tkooʾiishtc naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up chinquapins (chestnuts) along, they say.GT02b 34.9Tkooʾiishtc neesyaan-eekwaanaang.Chinquapins (chestnuts) had ripened.GT02b 45.6Nonkʾtcing lhaan-ee, tcʾaalaa lhaan-ee shghanding, tkooʾiishtc lhaan-ee shghanding.There are a lot of tarweed seeds, there are a lot of sunflower seeds at my home, and there are a lot of chinquapins/chestnuts at my home.GT10 pine, ghost pine, California foothill pine, "digger pine"Pinus sabiniana"(Not here, but in Round Valley)" (Merriam) var.koostceeder. of-tcdiminutive suffixlittle tkoo'iishSource forms: tkó‑ischt kō īcts, t kō ictst kō icts, t kōctst kṓ icts, t kō īcts, te kō icts, t kōctsT̆´ko´-istch
tʾaastn a1acorn bread"Acorn bread: Meal baked on hot stones" (Merriam)
"Acorns (tcuntañ), chief food, made into bread (tcuntañ tast) soup (tcuntañ ske). Tree climbed, acorn knocked down with hooked pole. If difficult to climb, acorns dislodged with stones thrown from slings." (Loeb, p.46)
"The dough selected for acorn bread is mixed with red clay before it is baked, the proportion being about 1 pound of clay to 20 of dough. This clay, several Indians explained, makes the bread sweet. Others stated that it 'acted like yeast.' The mixture is placed on a bed of soaproot, oak, maple, or even poison-oak leaves, which in turn rests on a bed of rocks previously heated by a small fire. The dough is then covered with leaves and a layer of hot rocks and dirt and cooked gently in this primitive oven for about twelve hours, usually over night. When removed the next morning the bread, if previously mixed with clay, is as black as jet, and, while still fresh, has the consistency of rather soft cheese. In the course of a few days it becomes hard, when, on account of the leaf impressions stamped upon it, it might easily be mistaken for a fossil-bearing piece of coal. It is not at all porous, being as heavy as so much cheese. It is remarkable for being sweet, for the original meal and even the soup are rather insipid. The sweet taste is very evident, and is due in great measure to the prolonged and gentle cooking, which, favored, by the moisture of the dough, gradually converts some constituent of the meal into sugar, as in the case of camas bulbs." (Chesnut, 1902, p.338)
tʾaastacorn breadGNb1 6.6tʾaastacorn breadMe1556-31 154.1sim.tassIndian bread5. food
2acorn dough; raw, wet acorn flourmatchʾintʾaang 1acorn5.2Food3gen.doughwith main ingredient specified (e.g. tʾaast ... laasheeʾ, "dough ... of buckeye") ingredients4gen.breadwith main ingredient specified (e.g. chʾintʾaang-tʾaast, "acorn bread")
k'itust "leached acorn flour (before cooking)"ky'itaas: Ke-tahs' 'Acorn bread (cookt in ashes)' [SS-M]Source forms: tʼûsttastTahsttcuntañ tastchʾintʾaang-tʾaastn aacorn bread
tʾaastein aacorn dough"Acorn meal after leaching" (Merriam)matchʾintʾaang 1acorntighaat 1acorn flour5.2.3.3Cooking ingredients5. oftʾaastacorn bread=iNRSource forms: tʼûs tēTahs-tātas tē
tciichaantcingn amountain white oak, Oregon white oak, Pacific post oakQuercus garryanaeaten as other acorns (Chestnut, p.343) oftciichaangOregon white oak-tcingsort/kindSource forms: tcī tcan tcûñ
tciichaangn amountain white oak, Oregon white oak, Pacific post oakQuercus garryanaTciichaan naaʾtghilhʾaalh yaaʾnii.He stood up white oaks along, they say.GT02b 35.15genchʾintʾaang 1acorn1.5.1.2Oak5.'ing'kya:w 'white oak, post oak (Quercus garryana)Source forms: chí‑chŭṇtcī tcāñ, tcī tcañtcī tcą̄ñṯc̱ī tcañ, tcī kañ, djī tcañtcĭtcanChe´-changtcī tan...gicañ