Dictionary Entries explained


Entries in this dictionary consist of a headword in Carapana  followed by the abbreviation for the part of speech in italics. Then, the definition in Spanish is given, followed by an example sentence in Carapana, then translated into Spanish.

For nouns, in addition to the singular form, the plural form may also be included.

In the following example, an means animate.

ãã an. gallineta salvaje. Yepa macããcʉ̃ niñami ãã. La gallineta salvaje es una criatura terrestre. (pl. ãã.)

If the headword has two meanings, the definitions are numbered. See the example below:

buerique comp: cabuei, cajʉ̃gobuei, masĩõrĩqũẽ, masãrĩqũẽ. . v.t. 1) estudiar. To macããna cawĩmarã buenucũñuparã. Dicen que aquellos niños siempre estudiaban. 2) enseñar. Caroaro jʉ̃go buenucũñami Ricardo. Ricardo siempre enseña bien.

Language or dialect
The Carapana language belongs to the Eastern Tucano linguistic family. Within the Carapan community there are three main clans, namely, dʉrʉa pacãrã ʉco majã, dʉrʉa mʉtẽrã ʉco majã y potañarã mʉtẽrã ʉco majã. The author has found some dialectal differences between the three subgroups of the Carapan with which he has worked. The most significant differences are included in this dictionary. When a lexical element of the dictionary belongs to a specific dialect, it is indicated by an abbreviation in parenthesis.

DP dʉrʉa pacãrã ʉco majã

DM dʉrʉa mʉtẽrã ʉco majã

PM potañarã mʉtẽrã ʉco majã


tʉ̃goʉsarique PM., tʉ̃gopajerique DP, DM v.t. cumplir.

eg. Caroaro jãã tʉ̃goʉsanucũña jãã bueri majõcʉ cʉ̃ caĩrĩjẽrẽ.
Siempre cumplimos muy bien con lo que dice nuestro profesor. We always comply very well with what our teacher says.
V. tʉ̃gorique, tʉ̃gopajerique DP, DM, yʉrique.

In the above example, the word tʉgoʉsarique ‘cumplir’ (comply) is followed by the abbreviation PM, which means the speakers that call themselves potañarã mʉtẽrã ʉcomajã. These people use the word tʉ̃goʉsarique when they express ‘cumplir’ (comply). The variant tʉgopajerique ‘cumplir’ is followed by the abbreviation DP, DM, which means that these people call themselves dʉrʉa pacarã ʉco majã dʉrʉa mʉtẽrã ʉco majã who use the word tʉ̃gopajerique when they want to express the same word, meaning ‘cumplir’ (comply).

For the lexical elements that appear in bold that have no dialectal indication, it is understood that these variants do not belong to any one clan, but are spoken by all three clans.

Regarding words that have multiple definitions, the first definition given is the most widely used meaning of the word. Not all definitions or uses of the words have been included in the dictionary. This is a limited dictionary. However, some regional expressions have been included; these are indicated by the abbreviation reg. in parentheses.

Practical Examples
For some of the words, examples sentences in Carapana have been included after the definition of the word in Spanish. These examples are a variety of types: short phrases taken from a text, phrases used in everyday life, phrases given by Carapana people, or examples provided by the author. Also, in order to motivate the use of this dictionary by young Carapana students, the author has created some examples with fictitious characters from the Carapan community such as "Carlos" and his family.

Translation of Examples
The translation of examples into Spanish is not literal. The use of parentheses indicates information that has to be made explicit in Spanish, but is implied or understood in Carapana.

The abbreviation sin. indicates that the following words are similar in meaning to he headword.

La abbreviation ant. appears before the words that mean the opposite of the headword.

Clarification words Palabras Afinas
It may happen that a certain word, which appears in a different place in the dictionary, can help to clarify the meaning of the word. This is indicated by the abbreviation V, which means "See".

The verb rocarique 'throw' (something), includes the note V. rerique ‘throw'(more than one thing)’.

When an entry contains the abbreviation V 'see' with a word followed by a colon, this indicates that the first word is considered a secondary entry and the word after the colon is the main entry.

Example: V. tʉ̃gojoricaro: tʉ̃gojorique. The secondary word tʉ̃gojoricaro is directing the reader to the main word, which is tʉ̃gojorique.