Search results for "ᵐbɨr"

haᵐbɨr nm. skin peau (5 groups, 13 languages) A
*h is retained only in Moloko, but the presence of an initial vowel in the other Mofu group languages, along with Proto-Hurza and Vulum, supports its presence. No Proto-Central Chadic words begin with a vowel. The *ᵐb is found in all reflexes, except for Vulum where it has become /m/. *r has become *l as a result of a regular change in all the languages of the North major group, and also in Cuvok from a separate regular change. /r/ in Moloko is also the result of regular change.

1Proto-Mafa *ᵐbar skin peau 1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ᵐbal skin (of man) peau (d'homme) 1.1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ᵐbal skin (animal) (v) peau (d'animal) 1.1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ᵐbal hide (of animal) peau (d'animal)

2Proto-Hurza *aᵐbar skin peau 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) aᵐbar animal skin peau d'un animal 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) àᵐbàr skin ; hide peau

3Proto-Mofu *haᵐbɨl skin peau 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āᵐbə̀l skin, part of body peau, partie du corps 3.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑᵐbəl skin ; leather peau; cuir 3.3) Mada (Nkoumou) aᵐbal peau, cuir 3.3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) aᵐbal peau 3.4) Moloko (Friesen) haᵐbar skin peau 3.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) aᵐbəl hide (of animal); skin (animal) (v) peau (d'animal) 3.6) Merey (Gravina) ᵐbal hide (of animal) peau (d'animal) 3.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) aᵐbal hide (of animal); skin (of man) peau (d'animal); peau (d'homme) 3.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) áᵐbal peau (humaine ou animale)

4Proto-Higi *ᵐbɨl skin peau 4.1) Bana (Lienhard) ᵐbə́l sac en peau

5Proto-Musgum *amɨr skin peau 5.1) Vulum (Tourneux) amɨr peau
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ᵐbɨr v. to get well guérir (6 groups, 17 languages) A
This verb has the sense of getting better after an illness, and can be used transitively with a human object for curing a person of an illness. The *r→l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba is a regular change. The change *r→ɗ in the Bata group is an irregular change.

1Proto-Bata *ᵐbɨɗ cure guérir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) əᵐbi cure, get well, heal up 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) əᵐbi be enough 1.1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) ᵐbii heal (of sore only, not of sickness) 1.1.3) Gude (Hoskinson) ᵐbii be enough 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ᵐbəɗən 1 - Rester; qui est resté quand les autres sont ou ont fini.; 2 - Guérir;

2Proto-Daba *ᵐbɨl cure guérir 2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ᵐbəl get well, recover se remettre, se guérir 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ᵐbəl heal (trans.), cure (v) guérir 2.2.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəᵐbəl get well se remettre, se guérir

3Proto-Hurza *ᵐbar cure guérir 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ᵐbar heal être guéri, donner naissance, revenir de la mort 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ᵐbə̀rà 1 cure guérir 3.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) ᵐbə̀rà 2 care for ; take care of soigner

4Proto-Mofu *ᵐbɨl cure guérir 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ᵐbə̀l get well guérir 4.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ᵐbēléŋ heal guérir 4.2) Mada (Nkoumou) meᵐbleŋa guérir 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbar heal guérir 4.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbar care for soigner 4.4) Zulgo (Haller) ᵐbə́l guérir, recouvrer la santé 4.4.1) Zulgo (Haller) ᵐbə́l (də́r) guérir, délivrer d'un mal 4.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) meᵐbəle guérir 4.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) ᵐbəl heal (trans.), cure (v) guérir 4.6) Merey (Gravina) ᵐbəl heal (trans.), cure (v) guérir 4.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məᵐbəlej heal (trans.), cure (v) guérir 4.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) méᵐbə̀lèj guèrir, se remettre, reprendre (pour une plante repiquée) ressuciter 4.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́ᵐbəl guérir, se remettre, reprendre (pour une plante repiquée), ressusciter

5Proto-Maroua *ᵐbɨl ʷ cure guérir 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ᵐbul guérir (ne se dit pas d'une plaie lèpre, folie, infirmité)

6Proto-Gidar *ɨᵐbɨla heal guérir 6.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɨᵐbəla guérir
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hɨrɨdz ʸ nf. scorpion scorpion (12 groups, 35 languages) B
This root is found across almost all the Central Chadic groups, but is not found in any of the Kotoko groups. The initial *h is lost in several languages, a common sporadic change. In Mafa this has been compensated for by the addition of a prefixed /v/, a common process. The *r is expected to have the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, but this is not the case. The implication is that the root did not come into the languages from Proto-Central Chadic. The breadth of the attestations, and the changes found in the reflexes imply that the root is old. It may have existed in the South sub-branch, and spread from there into the North sub-branch. The *dz has the reflexes *ts, *d and *z. The *d in Proto-Musgum and *z in Proto-Gidar are regular, but there are no consistent patterns to the reflexes of *dz in other groups. The palatalisation prosody is retained in almost all groups where it is expected.

1Proto-Bata *hɨradzɨ ʸ scorpion scorpion 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) àrə̀də̀də́nə scorpion. 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) redzən 1 - Varan; 2 - Scorpion 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) ardə scorpion 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) hərdekən le scorpion

2Proto-Daba *rɨdzɨ ʸ scorpion scorpion 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) redʒe scorpion scorpion 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) rədʒi scorpion scorpion 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) īrdì le scorpion

3Proto-Mafa *haradz scorpion scorpion 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) varadza scorpion 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) rats scorpion scorpion

4Proto-Sukur *ᵐbɨrdaj scorpion scorpion 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) ᵐbərdai scorpion; a small creature like an insects with sex legs, two front claws and a long tail that curves over it's back and can a poisonous sting.

5Proto-Hurza *rɨdza ʸ scorpion scorpion 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) rədʒe scorpion scorpion

6Proto-Margi *hɨda ʸ scorpion scorpion 6.1) Bura (Blench) hidi Scorpion 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) ida/a scorpion

7Proto-Mandara *radzɨ ʸ scorpion scorpion 7.1) Matal (Branger) ālìʒ scorpion scorpion 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) raⁿdzá,-ə scorpion 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) érdze scorpion (m) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ərdza scorpion 7.5) Glavda (Owens) ard scorpion 7.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) árd͡za scorpion

8Proto-Mofu *hɨrɨda ʸ scorpion scorpion 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) árdà scorpion scorpion 8.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑⁿdrɑ (small yellow) scorpion sorte de petit scorpion jaune 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) harats scorpion scorpion 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) hìrde scorpion m. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) hərdede scorpion scorpion 8.6) Merey (Gravina) hərdəde scorpion scorpion 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) arəde scorpion scorpion 8.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) aráts scorpion scorpion

9Proto-Maroua *arats ʸ scorpion scorpion 9.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) aratʃe scorpion scorpion 9.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼaretʃ scorpion 9.2.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼariʃ scorpion

10Proto-Lamang *rɨda scorpion scorpion 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) ə́rdà scorpion 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) rəda scorpion le scorpion

11Proto-Musgum *hɨrɨdɨw scorpion scorpion 11.1) Vulum (Tourneux) hɨrduu scorpion 11.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) hirduu scorpion 11.3) Mbara (Tourneux) hurtuwaj scorpion 11.4) Muskum (Tourneux) hurut scorpion

12Proto-Gidar *hɨrzɨja scorpion scorpion 12.1) Gidar (Hungerford) hərzija scorpion
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ᵐbɨwran nm. tamarind tree tamarinier (10 groups, 28 languages) B
This, along with the baobab, is one of two tree species reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic. There was a regular change *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Cuvok, and in Sukur as an irregular change. In the Mandara group, Podoko has the expected /l/, but the other languages have /r/, which is unestablished. The final consonant presents problems. It is *m in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Sukur, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Lamang, *ŋ in Proto-Higi, *r in Proto-Mofu and absent in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. There is a regular change *n→r word-final in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, which accounts for the final *r in Proto-Mofu if the final consonant was originally *n. The absence of *r in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara may possibly be due to a constraint forbidding adjacent *l and *r, though this constraint has not been established. The presence of *m as the final consonant in the other groups is irregular. *w is reconstructed to account for the widespread presence of /u/ in groups where the proto-language had no back vowels.

1Proto-Bata *mbɨwran tamarind tamarinier 1.1) Tsuvan (Johnston) ᵐburne le tamarin, le tamarinier 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) guraᵐbalan Le tamarinier

2Proto-Mafa *ᵐbɨwram tamarind tamarinier 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ᵐburom tamarin 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ᵐbəlam tamarind tree tamarinier

3Proto-Tera *ᵐbɨrɨn tamarind tamarinier 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ᵐbu̱ru̱n tamarind tree

4Proto-Sukur *ᵐbɨlɨm tamarind tamarinier 4.1) Sukur (David) ᵐbələm tree, tamarind 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ᵐbələm tamarid; a tropical tree that produce fruit, also called tamarids, that are preserved for cooking porage.

5Proto-Margi *ᵐbɨwla tamarind tamarinier 5.1) Bura (Blench) ᵐbula Tamarind tree 5.2) Bura (Blench) ᵐbula Tamarindus indica 5.3) Margi South (Harley) ᵐbəla tamarind 5.3.1) Margi South (Harley) ᵐbila tamarind 5.4) Kilba (Schuh) ᵐbəla/a tamarind

6Proto-Mandara *amɨrɨ tamarind tamarinier 6.1) Matal (Branger) āmᵊ̀r tamarind tamarinier 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ᵐbulá,-ə tamarinier, tamarin 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ure tamarin (m), tamarinier (m) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ure tree sp., tamarind, Tamarindus indica, and his seeds 6.4.1) Malgwa (Löhr) nafuure tree sp., Tamarindus indica 6.5) Glavda (Owens) áw tamarind 6.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àwùɾa tamarind tree

7Proto-Mofu *ᵐbɨwlar tamarind tamarinier 7.1) Zulgo (Haller) ᵐbə́lár tamarinier m. 7.1.1) Zulgo (Haller) ᵐbə́lár fruits (m. pl.) du tamarinier 7.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) ᵐbular tamarinier 7.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) dereɮ ᵐbulor tamarind tree tamarinier 7.3) Merey (Gravina) ᵐbulor tamarind tree tamarinier 7.3.1) Merey (Gravina) ᵐbəlar tamarinier 7.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) hʷaf j ᵐbəlor tamarind tree tamarinier 7.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) ᵐbə́lár tamarinier 7.5.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ᵐbə́lár tamarin

8Proto-Maroua *ᵐbɨwlam tamarind tamarinier 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ᵐbulam tamarin, tamarinier 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ᵐbulam tamarind tree tamarinier 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ᵐbəlaŋ tamarinier

9Proto-Lamang *ᵐbɨlam tamarind tamarinier 9.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ᵐbəlam tamarind tree le tamarinier

10Proto-Higi *ᵐbɨwlaŋ tamarind tamarinier 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ᵐbúlá Tamarine tree. 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ᵐbula tamarind tree 10.3) Kirya (Blench) ᵐbə́láᵑg tamarind 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) ᵐb(ə̀)láŋ tamarinier
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ᵐburi nm. donkey âne (5 groups, 6 languages) C syn: koro, ziᵑgʷa.
This is one of three roots for 'donkey' within Central Chadic. The forms cited come from three distinct areas, and may or may not be cognate. The root found in the Kotoko groups is almost certainly a fairly recent borrowing.

1Proto-Bata *ᵐbɨrse donkey âne 1.1) Bata (Boyd) ᵐbɨrse donkey

2Proto-Daba *bardzaŋ ʸ donkey âne 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) berdʒeŋ donkey âne

3Proto-Kotoko North *ɓoro donkey âne 3.1) Afade (Allison) ɓoro donkey âne

4Proto-Kotoko Centre *ᵐbori donkey âne 4.1) Lagwan (Allison) ᵐburi donkey âne 4.2) Mser (Allison) ᵐbori donkey âne

5Proto-Kotoko South *ᵐburi donkey âne 5.1) Mazera (Allison) ᵐburi donkey âne
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