Search results for "ᵐbɨw"

hɨᵐbɨw n. armpit aisselle (7 groups, 19 languages) B
This root is attested across a good range of groups. The initial *h has been lost in Bachama and Mbuko. In Bachama this has triggered compensatory reduplication. The final *w has been reanalysed as labialisation in Bachama and Proto-Margi. In Bachama the *w has fused with the *ᵐb to form /mʷ/, and in Proto-Margi it fused with *h to form *hʷ. All of these are common sporadic processes. In the Mofu group and in Mbuko the attested roots have extra material added, i.e. /jɨk/ or /ɗ/, possibly reflecting an underlying compound. The Proto-Mafa form comes from metathesis of the first two consonants, a sporadic change.

1Proto-Bata *mʷamʷa armpit aisselle 1.1) Bachama (Skinner) mʷamʷatœ armpit

2Proto-Daba *haᵐbɨwa armpit aisselle 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) sɑᵐbuwɑ armpit aisselle 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) skɑ pɑpɑ armpit aisselle 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) pumpa armpit aisselle

3Proto-Mafa *ᵐbɨhaw armpit aisselle 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) hʷaɗ ᵐbəhaw aisselle 3.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ᵐbəhaw aisselle 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ᵐbuwa armpit aisselle

4Proto-Hurza *aᵐbajakʷ ʸ armpit aisselle 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) aᵐbijœk armpit aisselle

5Proto-Margi *hʷɨᵐbɨ armpit aisselle 5.1) Margi (Hoffman) huᵐbu armpit 5.2) Kilba (Schuh) uᵐbu armpit

6Proto-Mofu *hɨᵐbɨɗ ʸ, hʷɨᵐbajak ʸ, ᵐbɨwa armpit aisselle 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) hùᵐbùwáj armpit aisselle 6.2) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbejewk armpit aisselle 6.3) Zulgo (Haller) hìᵐbiɗ aisselle f. 6.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) həᵐbeɗ armpit aisselle 6.5) Merey (Gravina) huᵐbejək armpit aisselle 6.5.1) Merey (Gravina) huᵐbejək armpit aisselle 6.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) huᵐbajekʷ armpit aisselle 6.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) ᵐbúwā aisselle 6.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ᵐbəwá aisselle 6.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sí-ᵐbəwá aisselle

7Proto-Higi *haᵐbɨwɨ armpit aisselle 7.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) haᵐbuwə armpit 7.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) haⁿduwa armpit
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ᵐbɨw v. to give birth accoucher (3 groups, 9 languages) C syn: wahaj.
This is the less common of the two roots for 'to give birth'. The Proto-Musgum root is possibly cognate, but more likely to be a chance similarity.

1Proto-Bata *ᵐbʷɨ give birth naitre 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) poo give birth, give birth to 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) pàwá -ə birth 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) puaan Accoucher ; 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) mbʷə accoucher

2Proto-Daba *ᵐbɨw give birth naitre 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ᵐbɑw bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ᵐbəw (be) born naître 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ᵐbəw give birth 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəᵐbu (be) born naître 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəᵐbu i ᵐbu bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) ᵐbù accoucher, naître, enfanter ; produire des fruits

3Proto-Musgum *pɨk ʷ give birth naitre 3.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) puki accoucher 3.2) Mbara (Tourneux) puk give birth accoucher
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ᵐbɨwran nm. tamarind tree tamarinier (10 groups, 28 languages) B
This, along with the baobab, is one of two tree species reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic. There was a regular change *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Cuvok, and in Sukur as an irregular change. In the Mandara group, Podoko has the expected /l/, but the other languages have /r/, which is unestablished. The final consonant presents problems. It is *m in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Sukur, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Lamang, *ŋ in Proto-Higi, *r in Proto-Mofu and absent in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. There is a regular change *n→r word-final in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, which accounts for the final *r in Proto-Mofu if the final consonant was originally *n. The absence of *r in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara may possibly be due to a constraint forbidding adjacent *l and *r, though this constraint has not been established. The presence of *m as the final consonant in the other groups is irregular. *w is reconstructed to account for the widespread presence of /u/ in groups where the proto-language had no back vowels.

1Proto-Bata *mbɨwran tamarind tamarinier 1.1) Tsuvan (Johnston) ᵐburne le tamarin, le tamarinier 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) guraᵐbalan Le tamarinier

2Proto-Mafa *ᵐbɨwram tamarind tamarinier 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ᵐburom tamarin 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ᵐbəlam tamarind tree tamarinier

3Proto-Tera *ᵐbɨrɨn tamarind tamarinier 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ᵐbu̱ru̱n tamarind tree

4Proto-Sukur *ᵐbɨlɨm tamarind tamarinier 4.1) Sukur (David) ᵐbələm tree, tamarind 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ᵐbələm tamarid; a tropical tree that produce fruit, also called tamarids, that are preserved for cooking porage.

5Proto-Margi *ᵐbɨwla tamarind tamarinier 5.1) Bura (Blench) ᵐbula Tamarind tree 5.2) Bura (Blench) ᵐbula Tamarindus indica 5.3) Margi South (Harley) ᵐbəla tamarind 5.3.1) Margi South (Harley) ᵐbila tamarind 5.4) Kilba (Schuh) ᵐbəla/a tamarind

6Proto-Mandara *amɨrɨ tamarind tamarinier 6.1) Matal (Branger) āmᵊ̀r tamarind tamarinier 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ᵐbulá,-ə tamarinier, tamarin 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ure tamarin (m), tamarinier (m) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ure tree sp., tamarind, Tamarindus indica, and his seeds 6.4.1) Malgwa (Löhr) nafuure tree sp., Tamarindus indica 6.5) Glavda (Owens) áw tamarind 6.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àwùɾa tamarind tree

7Proto-Mofu *ᵐbɨwlar tamarind tamarinier 7.1) Zulgo (Haller) ᵐbə́lár tamarinier m. 7.1.1) Zulgo (Haller) ᵐbə́lár fruits (m. pl.) du tamarinier 7.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) ᵐbular tamarinier 7.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) dereɮ ᵐbulor tamarind tree tamarinier 7.3) Merey (Gravina) ᵐbulor tamarind tree tamarinier 7.3.1) Merey (Gravina) ᵐbəlar tamarinier 7.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) hʷaf j ᵐbəlor tamarind tree tamarinier 7.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) ᵐbə́lár tamarinier 7.5.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ᵐbə́lár tamarin

8Proto-Maroua *ᵐbɨwlam tamarind tamarinier 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ᵐbulam tamarin, tamarinier 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ᵐbulam tamarind tree tamarinier 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ᵐbəlaŋ tamarinier

9Proto-Lamang *ᵐbɨlam tamarind tamarinier 9.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ᵐbəlam tamarind tree le tamarinier

10Proto-Higi *ᵐbɨwlaŋ tamarind tamarinier 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ᵐbúlá Tamarine tree. 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ᵐbula tamarind tree 10.3) Kirya (Blench) ᵐbə́láᵑg tamarind 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) ᵐb(ə̀)láŋ tamarinier
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