Search results for "ᵐbaɮa"

ᵐbaɮa nm. beer bière (7 groups, 14 languages) A syn: ɣʷɨzɨm, vɨhʷ.
This is one of three widespread roots for 'millet beer'. It may be cognate with the Kanuri ᵐbal. If so, it is more likley that the Kanuri borrowed from Central Chadic than vice versa. If the word was borrowed from Kanuri, the change *l
→ɮ would have been natural at the time of Proto-Central Chadic when *l was not a phoneme in the language. *l developed in Proto-Central Chadic North as a result of the regular change *rl, so if the word was borrowed into Central Chadic after that time the change would have been unnatural. For this reason it is more likely that this is a native Central Chadic root.

1Proto-Daba *ᵐbaɮa beer bière 1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ⁿdaɮa corn beer bière de maïs 1.2) Daba (Lienhard) ᵐbàɮāʼ le vin non-filtré, la bière épaisse

2Proto-Sukur *mɨpaɮɨ beer bière 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) məpaɮə beer; is the general term for beer.

3Proto-Mandara *ᵐbaɮa beer bière 3.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) ᵐbaɮa vin (m), toute boisson alcoolisée 3.2) Malgwa (Löhr) ᵐbadhla, hʷa, wuʃike alcoholic beverage (beer, wine)

4Proto-Mofu *ᵐbaɮa beer bière 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ᵐbàɮà bière épaisse ; (mouyangué) 4.2) Muyang (Smith) ᵐbɑɮɑ white wine vin blanc 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbaɮa white wine made in the village fabriqué au village 4.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbaɮa 4.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) ᵐbàɮà bière de mil chaude 4.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ᵐbaɮa bière de mil chaude

5Proto-Maroua *ᵐbaɮa beer bière 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ᵐbaɮa la bière du mil, vin 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ᵐbaɮa bière de mil blanche épaisse

6Proto-Higi *ᵐbaɮɨ beer bière 6.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) baɮə wine 6.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) bàɮə̀ local wine. 6.2) Bana (Lienhard) ᵐbèɮ(ì) bière de mil blanc, vin blanc

7Proto-Gidar *ᵐbaɮa beer bière 7.1) Gidar (Schuh) ᵐbaɮa bière non-tamisée
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hɨpaɬ ʸ nf. shoulder épaule (8 groups, 19 languages) B rel. to: paɮa.
This root is probably related to the root *paɮa 'upper arm', though the lack of regularity in the reflexes of the lateral fricatives in the two roots indicates that these should not be considered as a single root, but as two related forms deriving from one root. The initial *h is lost in many languages, and this loss has triggered compensatory reduplication in many cases. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups. There was metathesis of *p and *ɬ in the Mandara group, a sporadic process.

1Proto-Mafa *paɬpaɬ ʸ shoulder épaule 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) peɬpeɬ epaule

2Proto-Sukur *tapaɬ shoulder épaule 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) tapaɬ shoulder; either of the two parts of the body between the top of each arm and the neck.

3Proto-Hurza *paɬpaɬ ʸ shoulder épaule 3.1) Vame (Kinnaird) péɬpēɬ shoulder épaule

4Proto-Margi *apaɬa shoulder épaule 4.1) Bura (Blench) páɬáhà Shoulder Also pátláhù 4.2) Margi South (Harley) papaɮa shoulder 4.3) Kilba (Schuh) paɬəka shoulder

5Proto-Mandara *aɬapɨ ʸ shoulder épaule 5.1) Matal (Branger) dzàbàɬa᷆ shoulder épaule 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) náhjápéhjápé épaule (f) 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) nahjepe shoulder 5.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) lahjepe shoulder 5.4) Glavda (Owens) açá shoulder 5.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) āçápa shoulder

6Proto-Mofu *hɨpaɬ ʸ shoulder épaule 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mə̄pépéɬ shoulder épaule 6.2) Muyang (Smith) həpɑɬ both the shoulders, the part of the body that can be moved les épaules (qu'on peut hausser) 6.3) Mada (Nkoumou) ahpaɬ epaule 6.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pepéɬ omoplate, épaule

7Proto-Maroua *papaɮ ʸ shoulder épaule 7.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) pepeɮ shoulder épaule

8Proto-Higi *baɮa shoulder épaule 8.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) báɮa shoulder 8.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ᵐbaɮa shoulder 8.3) Kirya (Blench) bàbàɮà shoulder 8.4) Bana (Lienhard) báɮí épaule
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ᵐbɨlala ʸ n. elephant éléphant (3 groups, 6 languages) A syn: dzɨwɨn ʸ, gɨwɨn, nɨvi.
This root is found in five contiguous languages, and in Tsuvan which is very distant from these languages. The Tsuvan root follows the right patterning to be the result of contact with the other languages, but the physical and genetic distance between it and the other languages makes it more likely that this is a chance similarity.

1Proto-Bata *ᵐbaɮa elephant éléphant 1.1) Tsuvan (Johnston) ᵐbaɮa l'éléphant

2Proto-Hurza *ᵐbɨla ʸ elephant éléphant 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ᵐbəle elephant éléphant 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ᵐbèlèlèk elephant éléphant

3Proto-Mofu *ᵐbala ʸ elephant éléphant 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ᵐbèlè elephant éléphant 3.2) Muyang (Smith) ᵐbeli elephant éléphant 3.3) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbəlele elephant éléphant 3.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) ᵐbəlele
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