Search results for "hadik"

hadik nm. thorn épine (10 groups, 31 languages) A
The initial *h in this root is retained in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Musgum, and the initial vowels in Proto-Hurza and Proto-Mandara support the reconstruction of an initial consonant, since Proto-Central Chadic did not permit initial vowels. In the Mafa group, the loss of *h has been compensated for by the addition of a prefix /v/ in Mafa and /m/ in Cuvok. This is a common process in these languages. *d has become *t in Proto-Mafa and Proto-Lamang, and in Proto-Higi, where this is a regular change. The reflex /dz/ in Sukur is unestablished. The *k is realised as *h in Proto-Bata, an unestablished change, and as /t/ in Muskum, a regular change. *i is reconstructed, rather than the palatalisation prosody, primarily on the evidence from the Bata and Higi groups, with support from the Tera, Sukur, Lamang and Musgum groups. In the Bata group, *i has the reflex /ə/ in both Gude and Sharwa. In Sharwa, *ɨ has the contrasting reflex /ɨ/. The Bata group data therefore supports the reconstruction of *i.

1Proto-Bata *dihɨ thorn épine 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) dəhá -ə thorn, thorn tree. 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) dəhə épine

2Proto-Mafa *hɨtak thorn épine 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) vatak épine 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) mətak thorn épine

3Proto-Tera *ⁿdeki thorn épine 3.1) Tera (Newman) ⁿdeki thorn 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ⁿdʒakhti thorn 3.3) Hwana (Harley) ⁿdáxá thorn

4Proto-Sukur *dzɨk ʸ thorn épine 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) dʒik thorn; it is the genearl term for thorns.

5Proto-Hurza *adak thorn épine 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) adak thorn épine 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) àdə̀gà thorn ; prickle épine

6Proto-Mandara *adakɨ thorn épine 6.1) Matal (Branger) ātàk thorn épine 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) taka,-ə épine 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) dáké épine (f) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) dake thorn 6.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) tàka thorn

7Proto-Mofu *hadak thorn épine 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ādàk thorn épines ; une épine 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑdɑk thorn épine (mot général) 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) hadak thorn épine 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) adák épine f. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) adak thorn épine 7.6) Merey (Gravina) dak épine (f) 7.6.1) Merey (Gravina) adak thorn épine 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) adak thorn épine 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdàk épine 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) hátak épine, épineux

8Proto-Lamang *tiki thorn épine 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) tiki thorn 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) teki thorn l'épine

9Proto-Higi *tikɨ thorn épine 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) tikə thorn 9.2) Bana (Lienhard) t(ə́)kí épine

10Proto-Musgum *hadak ʸ thorn épine 10.1) Vulum (Tourneux) hedek épine 10.2) Mbara (Tourneux) taha thorn épine 10.3) Muskum (Tourneux) hedet épine
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