Search results for "sa"

kʷɨsap n. grass grass (6 groups, 12 languages) A syn: kʷɨzɨn ʸ.
This root probably had a different meaning from *kʷɨzɨn ʸ. The original sense may have referred to grassland as an area, rather than to the grass itself, or possibly to hay. The *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in Matal (a sporadic process), and is lost in Mbuko and Proto-Higi, which is an irregular process. *p was realised as [f] in Proto-Central Chadic in word-final position, and this appears in all the data.

1Proto-Daba *ᵑkʷɨsaf grass herbe 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋkusɑf grass herbe 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkəsɑf grass herbe 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ŋɡusof grass herbe

2Proto-Mafa *kʷɨsaf grass herbe 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kusaf blade (of grass) brin (d'herbe)

3Proto-Hurza *saf bush brousse 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) saf bush brousse

4Proto-Mandara *kɨsaf grass herbe 4.1) Matal (Branger) ksaf, kəsaf grass herbe

5Proto-Mofu *kʷɨsaf grass herbe 5.1) Gemzek kəsaf bush country, rural area brousse, campagne 5.2) Merey kəsaf forest brousse, forêt 5.3) MofuNorth (Barreteau) kúsáf brousse 5.3.1) MofuNorth (Barreteau) kúsáf broussaille 5.3.2) MofuNorth (Barreteau) kúsáf brousse 5.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kusaf brousse, herbes

6Proto-Higi *sɨfɨ grass herbe 6.1) Bana (Lienhard) sə́fə̀ herbes seches, jaune 6.2) Kirya (Blench) ʃafa bush
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sa v. to drink boire (18 groups, 48 languages) A
This is one of the most widely-attested roots in Central Chadic. It is found in all eighteen groups, and in almost all of the languages where there is data available. In the West Tera subgroup *s→z and in Kotoko Island *s→h. Both are regular changes.

1Proto-Bata *sa drink boire 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) sa drink 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) san Boire ; 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) sa Boire

2Proto-Daba *sa drink boire 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) drink boire 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) drink boire 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) laj sa drink boire 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) boire

3Proto-Mafa *sɨ drink boire 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) drink boire 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) sa drink boire

4Proto-Tera *za drink boire 4.1) Tera (Newman) za drink 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) za drink

5Proto-Sukur *sɨ drink boire 5.1) Sukur (David) drink, to 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) drinking

6Proto-Hurza *sa drink boire 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) sa to drink boire 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) sáwā drink boire

7Proto-Margi *sa drink boire 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) sa to drink 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) sa/a drink 7.3) Bura (Blench) sa To drink

8Proto-Mandara *sa drink boire 8.1) Matal (Branger) masaj drink boire 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) sá 1 boire 8.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) sá 2 absorber 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ʃa drink

9Proto-Mofu *sa drink boire 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) drink boire une boisson 9.2) Mada (Nkoumou) meʃe boire 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) se drink boire 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) sa boire 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) mese drink boire 9.6) Merey (Gravina) sa boire 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) masaj drink boire 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) mésēj boire 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) s ́ boire, téter

10Proto-Maroua *si drink boire 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) si goɗ drink boire 10.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʃi boire 10.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) sìíʼ drink boire

11Proto-Lamang *sa drink boire 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) sa drink 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) saj drink, smoke boire, fumer

12Proto-Higi *sa drink boire 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) drink 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) sa drink 12.3) Kirya (Blench) drink 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) boire

13Proto-Kotoko Island *hi drink boire 13.1) Buduma (McKone) xiə drink boire 13.2) Buduma (McKone) xii boire.

14Proto-Kotoko North *se drink boire 14.1) Afade (Allison) se; saun; sel drink boire 14.2) Mpade (Allison) drink boire 14.3) Malgbe (Allison) jawun drink boire

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *sa drink boire 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) sawun drink boire 15.2) Mser (Allison) se drink boire

16Proto-Kotoko South *sja drink 16.1) Zina (Odden) sjà drink boire

17Proto-Musgum *si drink boire 17.1) Vulum (Tourneux) si boire 17.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) si boire 17.3) Mbara (Tourneux) sii drink

18Proto-Gidar *ɨsa drink boire 18.1) Gidar (Schuh) wusa boire 18.2) Gidar (Hungerford) əəsa boire
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tɨsaw v. to roast rôtir (5 groups, 10 languages) A cf: d, sɨwra.
The basic meaning of this word is to cook food in a fire. It contrasts with *sɨwra 'to fry'. *d is a generic term for cooking. The *w has resulting in the creation of the vowel /u/ in Muyang, Gemzek and Giziga Marva, creating exceptions to the general rule of vowel harmony.

1Proto-Bata *ɨtsa cook préparer 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ətsa burn up 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ətsa roast over open fire

2Proto-Margi *tasa cook cuire 2.1) Kilba (Schuh) tas/a roast

3Proto-Mofu *tɨsaw cook cuire 3.1) Muyang (Smith) tusɑj smoke over a fire, roast without flame cuire au feu; rôtir (sans flamme) 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) ⁿdusa bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres) 3.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) ⁿdusa roast rôtir 3.3) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətəsew bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres) 3.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təs faire sécher au feu (viande, boule de mil), faire cuire

4Proto-Maroua *tusa cook préparer 4.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tusa gʷat bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres)

5Proto-Higi *tswa cook préparer 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) tswå roast 5.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) tswa roast 5.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) tswa bake (in fire, e.g., bread) 5.3) Kirya (Blench) tswá to roast
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tsaɬ ʸ v. hatch éclore (6 groups, 11 languages) A cf: ɗɨɬ ʸ.
This root is easily reconstructed, with very little change in the segments. The palatalisation prosody is present in five of the groups, and as expected it has been vocalised in the Lamang group. Reduplication in the Gude, Zulgo and Merey forms may indicate that a consonant has been lost at the start of the root.

1Proto-Bata *tsatsaɬɨ ʸ hatch éclore 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) tʃatʃalhə hatch eggs

2Proto-Sukur *tsɨɬ ʸ hatch éclore 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) tʃiɬ hatch;- a young birth, chiken, insect, fish to come out from egg.

3Proto-Hurza tsaɬ ʸ hatch éclore 3.1) Vame (Kinnaird) tʃaɬja éclore (Afem)

4Proto-Mandara *tsɨɬa ʸ hatch éclore 4.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) tʃiɬa enlever en petits morceaux, éclore 4.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) tʃáɬé éclore, éclater 4.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) t͡ʃáɬᵊga hatch

5Proto-Mofu *tsaɬ ʸ hatch éclore 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) tsàɬ found bâtir; commencer; débuter; éclore 5.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) tsàɬ hatch eggs éclore 5.2) Zulgo (Haller) tsetsiɮ éclore, sortir de l'oeuf 5.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) metseɬe ɗəɬe hatch éclore 5.4) Merey (Gravina) tsətsaɬ hatch éclore

6Proto-Lamang *tsiɬ hatch éclore 6.1) Hdi (Bramlett) tsiɬaj to hatch éclore
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bana v. to wash laver (13 groups, 34 languages) A
This root is unusual in that it contains *b. There was a general change from Proto-Chadic *b to *v in Proto-Central Chadic, but this root appears as an exception to this change. The change of the medial *n to /r/ in the Mandara and Mofu groups is a regular change in the Mandara group, but in the Mofu group the data from other roots is less consistent and the change is unestablished.

1Proto-Bata *binɨ wash laver 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) binən Se laver ;

2Proto-Daba *ban wash laver 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) bɑn bathe, wash oneself se laver, laver 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) bɑn wash utensils laver la vaiselle 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) bɑn bathe, wash oneself se laver 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) baŋ wash (tr) laver 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) baŋ bathe (intr) se laver 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) pān se laver ; soulever

3Proto-Mafa *pana wash laver 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) pán se laver 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) pana wash clothes laver (habits) 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) pana bathe (intr) se laver 3.2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) pana wash (tr) laver

4Proto-Sukur *banvɨ wash laver 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) banvə bathe:- to wash a body with water.

5Proto-Hurza *bana wash laver 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) banaj wash laver 5.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) banaj wash clothes faire le linge 5.1.2) Mbuko (Gravina) banaj wash oneself se laver 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) bùnìjà 1 wash laver_(se) 5.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) bùnìjà 2 wash laver 5.2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) bùnìjà 3 bathe baigner

6Proto-Mandara *bara wash laver 6.1) Matal (Branger) màpàlàj wash laver 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) pará 1 laver 6.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) bárga bathe, wash oneself 6.3.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) báɾga wash (clothes, utensils)

7Proto-Mofu *bara wash laver 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bereŋ laver qqch 7.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bēréŋ wash sthg laver 7.1.2) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bereŋ anaŋ laver qqch 7.1.3) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) baraká laver; laver la saleté de... 7.1.4) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bārāká laver de; laver la saleté de... 7.1.5) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bāríjà wash(os) se laver 7.1.6) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bēríjà se laver 7.1.7) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) baraha laver; laver (vaisselle, habit) 7.1.8) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bāráhá laver ; s´éclairer 7.2) Muyang (Smith) bɑrɑbɑ wash_out laver quelque chose à l'intérieur 7.2.1) Muyang (Smith) bɑrɑfəŋ wash out a recpient laver les saletés d'un récipient 7.2.2) Muyang (Smith) bɑrɑj wash ; baptise laver; se laver; baptiser 7.3) Mada (Nkoumou) mabalafaŋa laver (habits, vaisselle) 7.3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) mábàlá se laver (baptiser) 7.4) Moloko (Friesen) balaj wash in general mot général pour laver 7.5) Zulgo (Haller) bara bara bo laver, nettoyer avec un liquide 7.5.1) Zulgo (Haller) bara laver, nettoyer avec un liquide 7.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) mebere laver 7.6.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mebere ba bathe (intr) se laver 7.6.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) mebere peteke wash clothes laver (habits) 7.6.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) bara bara bo wash (tr) laver 7.6.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) bara wash (tr) laver 7.7) Merey (Gravina) bara bo bathe (intr) se laver 7.7.1) Merey (Gravina) bara wash clothes laver (habits) 7.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) məberej ba bathe (intr) se laver 7.8.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) məberej (zana) wash clothes laver (habits) 7.8.2) Dugwor (Jubumna) məberej (tasahaj) wash utensils laver (vaisselle, ustensiles) 7.8.3) Dugwor (Jubumna) məberej wash (tr) laver 7.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) mépə́réj laver 7.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pər (se) laver, (se) baigner,

8Proto-Maroua *buna wash laver 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) bun laver, se laver, se baigner; laver le vêtement (bruit de lavage); laver 8.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) bun se purifier - grâce au rite de purification la femme a fait des rites pour avoir des enfants 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) bun wash (tr) laver 8.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) bun bathe (intr) se laver 8.2.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) buna wash clothes laver (habits) 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ban laver

9Proto-Higi *pi wash laver 9.1) Psikye (Angelo) pe wash 9.2) Bana (Lienhard) se laver, se baigner

10Proto-Kotoko Island *benu wash laver 10.1) Buduma (McKone) benuə; bəan bathe (intr) se laver 10.2) Buduma (McKone) benu laver. 10.3) Buduma (McKone) benuə wash (tr) laver

11Proto-Kotoko North *ᵐban wash laver 11.1) Mpade (Allison) ᵐban bathe (intr) se laver 11.2) Malgbe (Allison) ᵐbari bathe (intr) se laver

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *ban wash laver 12.1) Lagwan (Allison) bɨ̀nì bathe (intr) se laver 12.2) Mser (Allison) ban bathe (intr) se laver

13Proto-Kotoko South *bana wash laver 13.1) Zina (Odden) bànà bathe (intr) se laver
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d v. to cook préparer (13 groups, 37 languages) A cf: tɨsaw, sɨwra.
This is the generic root for 'to cook'. The devoicing of *d to *t in the Margi and Higi groups is a regular change. The Malgwa root /gʲa/ is due to a regular general process where palatalised alveolar consonants become palatalised velar consonants.

1Proto-Daba *da cook préparer 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) prepare (food to cook) préparer (la nourriture) 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) cook (faire) cuire, cuisiner 1.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) dɑ̄ wɛ́ⁿdʒɛ̀k bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres) 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) prepare (food to cook) préparer (la nourriture) 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəduda prepare (food to cook) préparer (la nourriture) 1.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəda bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres) 1.4) Daba (Lienhard) préparer la nourriture ; éclater 1.4.1) Daba (Lienhard) s'emploie, si on répète les paroles d'un autre, à la fin de la citation

2Proto-Sukur *dɨ cook préparer 2.1) Sukur (David) cook, to 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) cooking; is the general term for cooking.

3Proto-Hurza *da cook préparer 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) da cook préparer

4Proto-Margi *ta cook préparer 4.1) Bura (Blench) ta To cook (certain foods for first time) 4.1.1) Bura (Blench) ti To cook 4.2) Margi (Hoffman) ta to cook 4.3) Kilba (Schuh) ta/a cook (tuwo, miya etc.) 4.3.1) Kilba (Schuh) ta/a get done (food)

5Proto-Mandara *da cook préparer 5.1) Matal (Branger) mataj cook préparer 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) cuire 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) gja cook 5.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) tá káfa prepare (food to cook)

6Proto-Mofu *da cook préparer 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) prepare food préparer le manger 6.2) Muyang (Smith) di make, do, cook in a pot; sing préparer; chanter 6.3) Mada (Nkoumou) médè cuire (faire-, préparer de la nourriture), coucher (se-pour le soleil) 6.4) Moloko (Friesen) de cook préparer la nouriture 6.5) Zulgo (Haller) da cuire 6.5.1) Zulgo (Haller) de cuire 6.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) mede cook (v); prepare (food to cook) (faire) cuire, cuisiner; préparer (la nourriture) 6.7) Merey (Gravina) da prepare (food to cook); cook (v) préparer; préparer (la nourriture); (faire) cuire, cuisiner 6.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) madaj cook (v); prepare (food to cook) (faire) cuire, cuisiner; préparer (la nourriture) 6.9) Proto-Mofu Subgroup *t cook préparer 6.10) Mofu North (Barreteau) métēj (faire) cuire, préparer 6.11) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) t ́ (faire) cuire, préparer (un repas, un sacrifice) ; chauffer

7Proto-Maroua *di cook préparer 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) di préparer, cuire, cuisiner 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) di daf prepare (food to cook) préparer (la nourriture) 7.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) di préparer (nourriture)

8Proto-Lamang *da cook préparer 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) da cook

9Proto-Higi *ta cook préparer 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ta cook 9.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ta cook 9.3) Kirya (Blench) cook 9.4) Psikye (Angelo) také cook 9.5) Bana (Lienhard) cuire, préparer dans l'eau ou dans beaucoup d'huile

10Proto-Kotoko North *da cook préparer 10.1) Mpade (Allison) dá (lɨ) básù roast rôtir

11Proto-Kotoko South *udo cook préparer 11.1) Mazera (Allison) udo cook (v) (faire) cuire, cuisiner

12Proto-Musgum *di cook préparer 12.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) di cuire (une sauce) 12.2) Mbara (Tourneux) tii cook cuire

13Proto-Gidar *ɨda cook préparer 13.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɨda, əda préparer, cuisiner, (faire) cuire
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daɣɨlɨj nf. young woman jeune fille (9 groups, 21 languages) B cf: dɨm ʸ.
This word denotes a girl or young woman who is old enough to marry but is not yet married. The presence of *l in this root indicates that it may have originated within the North sub-branch of Central Chadic. Proto-Central Chadic had no *l, but this phoneme was introduced into the North sub-branch by a regular change *r to l. However, the Daba, Mafa, Sukur and Hurza groups do not belong to the North sub-branch. It is possible that the root has been borrowed into these languages, since the languages where the root is present are those with strong contact with languages of the North sub-branch. The *ɣ has become /g/ in some languages in the Higi and Sukur groups, an unestablished change. It has become /h/ in many groups. In Proto-Mandara this is a regular change, but in the Mofu group the change is irregular. Elsewhere the change is unestablished. In some cases this /h/ has been deleted. The final *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Mandara and Maroua groups, as consonant palatalisation in the Higi group, and as a vowel in the Sukur, Higi and Lamang groups. These are all common sporadic changes.

1Proto-Daba *dahalaj girl fille 1.1) Gavar (Viljoen) dɑhɑlɑj young woman jeune fille 1.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) dalaj young woman jeune fille

2Proto-Mafa *dahla girl fille 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) dahla young woman jeune fille

3Proto-Sukur *dɨgɨli young woman jeune fille 3.1) Sukur (David) dəgəli girl, unmarried 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) dəgəli unmarried mature girl; is the general term for unmarried mature girl.

4Proto-Hurza *dalaj girl fille 4.1) Mbuko dalaj girl fille 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) dìlè daughter fille

5Proto-Mandara *dahɨlɨ ʸ girl fille 5.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) də́həla,-ə jeune fille 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) gjáále jeune fille (f) 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) gjaale girl, daughter 5.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) gjala girls

6Proto-Mofu *dahɨlaj girl fille 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) dàŋgʷàlàj girl fille 6.2) Muyang (Smith) dɑhɑlɑj a marriageable girl fille à l'âge de se marier 6.3) Moloko (Friesen) dalaj girl fille 6.4) Merey (Gravina) dahəlaj young woman jeune fille,épouse 6.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) dahəlaj bride mariée 6.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) dahəlaj jeune fille 6.5.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) dahəla jeune fille 6.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) dahəlaj bride mariée

7Proto-Maroua *dɨlɨ ʸ girl fille 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dijli jeune fille 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) dili daughter fille

8Proto-Higi *diɣɨlʲi girl fille 8.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) digəlji unmarriedgirl 8.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) digiljí young-girl 8.2) Bana (Lienhard) dàɣàlà jeune fille

9Proto-Lamang *daɣali girl fille 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) daɣele girl, young woman 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) daɣali young woman la jeune fille
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daw n. millet mil (4 groups, 7 languages) A syn: hɨjɨ, vɨjaw.
The presence of a number of different roots for this most basic of subsistence crops indicates that the Central Chadic peoples were not originally subsistence farmers. The prenasalisation of *d in Mbuko is a common but sporadic process. The root may have originated in Mafa and spread to neighbouring languages. However, the root is also found in Mbazla, which is currently not in contact with the other languages represented, and the path of contact with this language needs to be established.

1Proto-Mafa *daw millet mil 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) daw mil (nom gén.) 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) daw millet (rainy season) mil (saison de pluies)

2Proto-Hurza *ⁿdaw millet mil 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ⁿdaw millet mil

3Proto-Mofu *daw millet mil 3.1) Zulgo (Haller) daw mil m. 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) daw millet mil 3.3) Merey (Gravina) daw millet (rainy season) mil (saison de pluies)

4Proto-Maroua *daw millet mil 4.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) daw mil
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dɨgɨɮam deaf sourd (5 groups, 13 languages) B
The presence of the alternate root *maⁿdɨk in several languages in the Mofu group may indicate that this root is a compound of a verb *ⁿdɨk and *ɮam 'ear' (from *ɬɨmɨɗ ʸ, but with *ɮ from the South sub-branch). The prefix *ma- is a nominaliser that was productive in earlier stages of the history of Central Chadic languages, but is no longer productive in most languages.

1Proto-Mafa *dagaɮam deaf sourd 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ńⁿdakaɮam sourd-muet 1.1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ⁿdakaɮam, ⁿdaɓaɮam sourd 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) madagaɮam deaf person (un) sourd

2Proto-Hurza dɨᵑgɨɮ deaf sourd 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dɨᵑgɨɮ be deaf être sourd 2.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mədəᵑgaɮak deaf sourd

3Proto-Mandara *dagaɮam deaf sourd 3.1) Matal (Branger) madagaɮam deaf sourd

4Proto-Mofu *ma-ⁿdɨk ɮam deaf sourd 4.1) Mada (Nkoumou) madagaɮam sourd-muet 4.2) Moloko (Friesen) madəᵑgəɮa deafness surdité 4.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) maⁿdakaɮam deaf mute sourd-muet 4.3.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) maⁿdak deaf person (un) sourd 4.4) Merey (Gravina) madəᵑgəɮak sourd-muet 4.4.1) Merey (Gravina) maⁿdək deaf person (un) sourd, sourd-muet 4.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) mədeᵑgəɮa deaf person (un) sourd 4.5.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) maⁿdak deaf mute sourd-muet 4.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) máⁿdāk sourd-muet 4.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) madakaɮam sourd-muet 4.7.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) dəgəɮam dəgəɮam sourd

5Proto-Maroua *digiɮa deaf sourd 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) digiɬ rendre sourd 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) midigiɮa sourd, muet 5.1.2) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) midigiɮa ignorant 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mədigɮa deaf person; deaf mute (un) sourd; sourd-muet
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dɨɣʷɨvan nm. leopard panthère (5 groups, 13 languages) D
The general sense of the root is 'leopard', though in Dugwor, Mbazla and possibly Merey the root is part of a compound, implying that it may have a different or more generic meaning. The root itself is difficult to reconstruct. The *n to r change in the Mofu group is regular. The loss of *ɣʷ is normal, though often the labialisation component remains in some form. In the Bata group the labialisation has transferred to *v.

1Proto-Bata *dɨgɨvʷa leopard léopard 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) dəgəvʷan La panthère 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) digvʷa panthère, léopard 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) dəgəva la panthère

2Proto-Sukur *dɨgʷavak leopard léopard 2.1) Sukur (David) dəgʷavak leopard léopard 2.2) Sukur (David) duguvu hyena hyène 2.3) Sukur (Thomas) dəgʷavak leopard

3Proto-Mofu *dɨvar leopard léopard 3.1) Zulgo (Haller) də̀var panthère f., léopard m. 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) dəvar panthère 3.3) Merey (Gravina) dəvar panthère 3.3.1) Merey (Gravina) dəvar dzidzege leopard léopard 3.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) dəvar j peɬ leopard léopard 3.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) dəvá Léopard ("panthère")

4Proto-Maroua *dɨvaŋ leopard léopard 4.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) dəvaŋ garak léopard 4.1.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) dəvaŋ lion

5Proto-Higi *dɨɣʷava leopard léopard 5.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) dəɣʷava leopard 5.2) Psikye (Angelo) ɗəgʷava hyena hyène 5.2.1) Psikye (Angelo) dəgʷava hyena hyène 5.3) Bana (Lienhard) d(ə̀)ɣʷàvà panthère
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dɨm ʸ nf. girl fille (4 groups, 10 languages) A cf: daɣɨlɨj.
This word denotes a female child. The root is very stable, though the palatalisation prosody has been lost in the Sukur group. The vowel /a/ in Proto-Mafa is a regular change.

1Proto-Daba *dɨmɨ ʸ girl fille 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) mèdīmí la jeune fille, pas mariée

2Proto-Mafa *dam ʸ girl fille 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) dám fille 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) dem girl, daughter (petite) fille, fillette

3Proto-Mofu *dɨm ʸ girl fille 3.1) Zulgo (Haller) də̀m fille f. 3.1.1) Zulgo (Haller) də̀m enfant (m.) du sexe féminin 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) dəm girl fille 3.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) dəm ŋa daughter fille 3.3) Merey (Gravina) dem fille 3.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) dem girl (petite) fille, fillette 3.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) dém fille 3.5.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) də́mmè eh! toi, fille! 3.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) dam daughter fille

4Proto-Sukur *dɨm girl fille 4.1) Sukur (David) dəm daughter 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) dəm unmarried girl; is the general term for unmarried girl.
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dzagʷa nf. hat chapeau (10 groups, 21 languages) A
This root is found in almost all groups of the North sub-branch of Central Chadic, but in none of the groups of the South sub-branch. This is not known to be a borrowed root, and so may be a Central Chadic root, originating in Proto-Central Chadic North. The original type of hat could have been straw, cloth or leather. There is some variation between /gʷ/ and /kʷ/, and in the vocalisation patterns, and these changes are unestablished.

1Proto-Hurza *dzɨgʷa hat chapeau 1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dʒugo hat chapeau 1.2) Vame (Kinnaird) dzúgē helmet bonnet

2Proto-Margi *dzakʷa hat chapeau 2.1) Bura (Blench) dzakʷa Hat; cap or soft hat

3Proto-Mandara *dzakʷɨ hat chapeau 3.1) Matal (Branger) dzakʷa hat chapeau 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) dzakʷa,-u chapeau 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) dzakʷé bonnet (m) 3.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) d͡zákʷa hat

4Proto-Mofu *dzagʷɨ hat chapeau 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) dzàgù hat chapeau 4.2) Muyang (Smith) dʒɑku hat made of cloth chapeau 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) dʒogo hat chapeau; bonnet 4.4) Merey (Gravina) dzagʷa chapeau 4.4.1) Merey (Gravina) dzakʷa bonnet ou chapeau 4.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) dʒiggo hat chapeau 4.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) dʒikʷew bonnet

5Proto-Maroua *dzakʷɨ hat chapeau 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dʒijku chapeau 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) dʒoko hat chapeau

6Proto-Lamang *dzɨgʷa hat chapeau 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) dzoŋo hat 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) dzugʷa leather hat le chapeau de cuir

7Proto-Kotoko Island *ⁿdzakʷa hat chapeau 7.1) Buduma (McKone) ⁿdʒokʷa hat chapeau 7.2) Buduma (McKone) ⁿdʒokʷa bonnet (n : [njakwa]).

8Proto-Kotoko North *sagʷa hat chapeau 8.1) Mpade (Allison) ságʷá hat chapeau

9Proto-Kotoko South *dzakʷɨ hat chapeau 9.1) Zina (Odden) dʒàkú hat chapeau

10Proto-Musgum *zagaw hat chapeau 10.1) Vulum (Tourneux) zagaw bonnet
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dzaj v. to bite mordre (5 groups, 14 languages) syn: hʷɨpɨɗ.
This root is largely stable, with the only change being the unestablished change *dz to /ts/ in the Daba and Maroua groups. The final *j is realised as the palatalisation prosody in the Mafa, Mandara and Maroua groups, which is a common sporadic process. The Proto-Daba root is prenasalised, which is also a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Daba *ntsa bite mordre 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtʃɑ bite (v) mordre 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtʃɑ gnaw ronger 1.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtʃɑ sting piquer 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtsɑ bite (v) mordre 1.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtsɑ sting piquer 1.3) Daba (Lienhard) ᵑgàtʃ mordre, tourmenter, aboyer

2Proto-Mafa *dza ʸ bite mordre 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) n dʒe mordre 2.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) dʒ- mordre

3Proto-Mandara *dza ʸ bite mordre 3.1) Matal (Branger) matsaj bite mordre 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ⁿdʒewé 1 mordre 3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) dʒa bite, beat (with stick) 3.4) Dghwede (Frick) ⁿdzaxa bite

4Proto-Mofu *dzaj bite mordre 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mātsāj mordre, piquer plusieurs fois 4.2) Zulgo (Haller) dze(-r) mordre 4.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) dzaj bite (v) mordre 4.3.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) a dzaj mordre 4.3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) medze strike (snake) mordre, piquer (serpent) 4.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézèj mordre 4.4.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézèj piquer (serpent) 4.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́z mordre, piquer (serpent)

5Proto-Maroua *tsɨ ʸ bite mordre 5.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) tʃi mordre
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dzaraj nm. locust criquet migrateur (9 groups, 22 languages) A cf: haɗikʷ.
This word denotes the locust, known well in the region for appearing periodically in huge swarms and devastating crops. The change *dz to /z/ in Gidar is regular, as is the change *r to *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, though the Mofu, Maroua and Gidar groups do not show this change. The final *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Daba group, and possibly in the Tera group, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Daba *dzara ʸ locust locuste 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) dʒere locust locuste, criquet 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) dʒeri locust locuste, criquet 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) dʒere locust locuste, criquet

2Proto-Mafa *dzaraj locust locuste 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) dzaraj criquet 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) dʒaraj locust locuste, criquet

3Proto-Tera *ⁿdzere locust locuste 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ʒoola locust criquet 3.1.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ⁿdʒere cricket

4Proto-Sukur *dzalaj locust criquet migrateur 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) dzalai locust; an insect that lives in hot countries and flies in lage groups, destroying and the plants and crops of an area.

5Proto-Hurza *dzaraj locust locuste 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dzaraj locust criquet migrateur 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) dzùràj cricket criquets qui se déplacent en grands nombres qui dévastent la récolte.

6Proto-Mofu *dzaraj locust locuste 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) dzàràj locust, grasshopper sauterelle, locuste, criquet migrateur 6.2) Muyang (Smith) dʒɑrɑj Plague Locust locuste migratoire, criquet 6.3) Mada (Nkoumou) dʒara criquet migrateur (criquet pélérin) 6.4) Moloko (Friesen) dʒaraj locust criquet; sauterelle 6.5) Zulgo (Haller) dzará sauterelle f. sp. 6.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) dzara sauterelle 6.7) Merey (Gravina) dzaraj locust locuste, criquet migrateur 6.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) dzārāj criquet migrateur 6.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) dʒáraj criquet migrateur (dévastateur des plantes)

7Proto-Maroua *dzaraj locust locuste 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dʒaraj criquets pèlerins dévasteurs

8Proto-Higi *dzalaj locust locuste 8.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) dzala locust criquet 8.2) Bana (Lienhard) dʒìr criquet migrateur

9Proto-Gidar *zaraj locust criquet migrateur 9.1) Gidar (Hungerford) zaraj criquet, sauterelle
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dzavɨn nf. guinea fowl pintade (17 groups, 49 languages) B
Although this is one of the most widely attested roots in Central Chadic, the reconstruction presents some difficulties. The initial *dz is only retained in two groups. It is realised as *ts in five groups and as *z in ten groups. Only in the Gidar and Kotoko Centre groups is this change regular. *dz is preferred for the reconstruction as being the most likely to produce the other two realisations. The *v is realised as *f in Kotoko North (a regular change), as *b in the Sukur and Mandara groups (an unestablished change), and as *p in the Mafa group (also an unestablished change). The *n is realised as *r in the Margi, Mandara and Mofu groups, which is a regular change. The labialisation in the Bata and Maroua groups is a sporadic innovation, as is the palatalisation in the Tera, Mandara and Musgum groups.

1Proto-Bata *zavʷɨn guineafowl pintade 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) zòovə̀ná guinea fowl 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) zavʷənən Pintade 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) zavunə pintade 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) zavənkən la pintade

2Proto-Daba *zavɨn guineafowl pintade 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) zɑvɑn guinea fowl pintade 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) zɑvən guinea fowl pintade 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) zavaŋ guinea fowl pintade 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) zàvə́n la pintade

3Proto-Mafa *zapan guineafowl pintade 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) zápán pintade 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) zapaŋ guinea fowl pintade

4Proto-Tera *tsivan guineafowl pintade 4.1) Tera (Newman) tʃivan guinea-fowl pintade 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ʃivan guinea fowl pintade

5Proto-Sukur *zabɨn guinea fowl pintade 5.1) Sukur (David) zabən guineafowl pintade 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) zabən guineafowl; is the general term for guinea fowl; it has dark grey feathers with white spots. There are two types of guineafowls: demostic and bush guineafowls.

6Proto-Hurza *zavɨn guineafowl pintade 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) nzavan guinea fowl pintade 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) sàvnàk partridge pintade

7Proto-Margi *tsɨvɨr guineafowl pintade 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) tsəvər guinea-fowl pintade 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) tsəvər guinea fowl pintade 7.3) Bura (Blench) tsə̀və́ra Guinea fowl

8Proto-Mandara *zabɨra ʸ guineafowl pintade 8.1) Matal (Branger) zavər guineafowl pintade 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) zaᵐbəra,-a pintade 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ʒábèrá pintade (f) 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ʒebre guinea fowl pintade 8.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʒàbɾa guinea fowl pintade 8.5.1) Glavda (Owens) žeeb guinea fowl pintade 8.5.2) Glavda (Owens) zabə guinea fowl pintade

9Proto-Mofu *dzavɨr guineafowl pintade 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) zàvàr guinea fowl pintade 9.2) Muyang (Smith) dʒɑvɑr guinea fowl pintade 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) zàvàr pintade 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) dʒavar guinea fowl pintade 9.5) Zulgo (Haller) ⁿdzávə́r pintade f. 9.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) ⁿdzavar guinea fowl pintade 9.7) Merey (Gravina) ⁿdzavar guinea fowl pintade 9.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) ⁿdʒavar guinea fowl pintade 9.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdzàvár pintade 9.9.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdzávár pintade 9.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) tsavár pintade (Mokong) 9.10.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) tsavár pintade (Mokong) 9.10.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ⁿdʒavár pintade commune (Gudur)

10Proto-Maroua *tsɨvɨn ʷ guineafowl pintade 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) tʃuvuŋ pintade 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tʃuvon guinea fowl pintade 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) tʃufuŋ pintade

11Proto-Lamang *zɨvɨn guineafowl pintade 11.1) Hdi (Bramlett) zəvnək guinea hen la pintade

12Proto-Higi *zivɨn guineafowl pintade 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) zəvənə guinea fowl pintade 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) zivəno guinea fowl pintade 12.3) Bana (Lienhard) zə̀və́nì pintade

13Proto-Kotoko North *tsafan guineafowl pintade 13.1) Afade (Allison) tsɨfan; gɨdɨgo guinea fowl pintade 13.2) Mpade (Allison) safan guinea fowl pintade 13.3) Malgbe (Allison) safan guinea fowl pintade 13.4) Maltam (Allison) safan guinea fowl pintade

14Proto-Kotoko Centre *zavan guineafowl pintade 14.1) Lagwan (Allison) zavan guinea fowl pintade 14.2) Mser (Allison) savan guinea fowl pintade

15Proto-Kotoko South *dzavaŋ guineafowl pintade 15.1) Mazera (Allison) dʒavaŋ guinea fowl pintade

16Proto-Musgum *tsaavan ʸ guineafowl pintade 16.1) Mbara (Tourneux) tʃeeveŋ helmet guinea-fowl pintade

17Proto-Gidar *zamvɨna guinea fowl pintade 17.1) Gidar (Hungerford) zamvəna pintade 17.2) Gidar (Schuh) samvəna/a pintade 17.3) Gidar (Hungerford) zafʼna pintade
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dzɨgʷɨr n. hump bosse (10 groups, 18 languages) C
This root denotes the hump on a zebu cow, and is used by extension for a human hunchback. It is found almost exclusively in the languages of the North sub-branch. It may have come into Central Chadic from an old form of the Kanuri
zugure, or the transmission may have been in the opposite direction. If the root did come from Kanuri, the back vowels were reanalysed as labialisation of the /g/. Given the widespread distribution of the root, and evidence that the early Central Chadic peoples were cattle-herders, it seems more probable that the root spread from Central Chadic to Kanuri, though the forms in Musgum and some of the Kotoko groups may be due to borrowing the more recent form of the Kanuri word. Two groups have *ɗ as the initial consonant, possibly reflecting the arrival of the same root but from a different source.

1Proto-Daba ɗɨgʷɨr ʸ hump bosse 1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɗiᵑgir hump (of cow) bosse (de vache) 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɗəᵑgur hump bosse 1.3) Buwal (Viljoen) ɗəgʷar hump bosse

2Proto-Tera ɗɨgʷɨl hump bosse 2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ɗugul hump bosse

3Proto-Sukur *dzɨgʷɨɗ ʸ hump bosse 3.1) Sukur (David) dʒiguɗ hump, of cow 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) dʒiguɗ hump, a large lump at the back of animals, specially camel, cow

4Proto-Hurza *dzɨgʷar hump bosse 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mədzəgar cow hump bosse (f) d'un boeuf 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) hʷádègʷàr hump of a cow bosse de boeuf

5Proto-Margi *dzikʷɨr ʸ, madagara hump bosse 5.1) Bura (Blench) madagara Stooped, hump-backed 5.1.1) Bura (Blench) madakara Stooped, hump-backed. See madagara 5.1.2) Bura (Blench) dʒukur Bump or hump of a cow 5.1.3) Bura (Blench) dʒikur Hump on cattle

6Proto-Mofu *madzɨgɨr, mɨtakʷar hump bosse 6.1) Moloko (Friesen) mətokor hump on an animal or person bosse d'un animal ou d'une personne 6.2) Zulgo (Haller) mádzə̀gə̀r bosse (f.) d'un animal 6.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) madzəgar hump (of hunchback) bosse 6.3.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) madzəgar bump (n) bosse 6.3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) madzəgar hump (of cow) bosse (de vache) 6.4) Merey (Gravina) madzəgar hump (of hunchback) bosse 6.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) mádzə̀gàr bosse (de zébu)

7Proto-Kotoko North *sɨgʷɨre hump bosse 7.1) Mpade (Allison) súgùré hump (of cow) bosse (de vache) 7.2) Malgbe (Allison) sɨgbɨre hump (of cow) bosse (de vache) 7.2.1) Malgbe (Allison) sɨgbɨre hump (of hunchback) bosse

8Proto-Kotoko Centre *zɨrkʼʷa hump bosse 8.1) Lagwan (Allison) zurkʼʷa hump (of cow) bosse (de vache)

9Proto-Kotoko South *dzaŋkʷara hump bosse 9.1) Mazera (Allison) dʒaŋkʷara hump (of cow) bosse (de vache)

10Proto-Musgum *zɨgʷɨrij hump bosse 10.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) zugurii bosse de la vache

11Kanuri zúgùrè //// tsúgurē hump (of cow) bosse (de vache)
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dzɨvaj n. tomb tombeau (6 groups, 13 languages) A
The word denotes the hole in which a body is buried, which may be a vertical hole leading to a small chamber and covered with a rock. The *dz has undergone the unestablished change to /ts/ in Daba and some Mofu group languages, and to /z/ in the Maroua group. The *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Daba and Maroua groups, which is a common sporadic change. The range of use of the root implies an origin in the Mandara Mountains, and may reflect an ancient Daba-Mafa practice.

1Proto-Daba *tsɨvɨʔ ʸ grave tombeau 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) tʃìvīʼ la tombe

2Proto-Mafa *dzɨvaj grave tombeau 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) dzavaj tombeau 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) dʒəvaj grave tombe, tombeau

3Proto-Hurza *dzɨvaj grave tombeau 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dʒəvaj tomb tombeau

4Proto-Mandara *dzɨvaj tomb tombeau 4.1) Matal (Branger) zəvaj grave tombe 4.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) dʒúve,-i tombeau

5Proto-Mofu *dzɨvaj tomb tombeau 5.1) Zulgo (Haller) dìve tombeau m. 5.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) dzəva la tombe 5.3) Merey (Gravina) tsəvaj tombe 5.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɗ[i tsə̀vàj tombe (cou) 5.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́tsəvaj tombe

6Proto-Maroua *zɨvɨ ʸ grave tombeau 6.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) zivi tombe 6.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) zive grave tombe, tombeau
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dzɨwɨɗ ʸ nf/m fly mouche (17 groups, 44 languages) A
This well-attested root is found in all groups except for the Tera group. There is support for the palatalisation prosody across the reconstructions of the forms of the group proto-languages. In many cases there is the common change *ɗ to /j/ under palatalization. In Proto-Bata *ɗ has been reduced to *ʔ, and in Proto-Kotoko North it has fused with *dz to form the ejective *tsʼ. Both of these are common sporadic changes. The *dz is variously realised as /d/, /z/, /ts/. The changes in Proto-Margi, Proto-Musgum and Proto-Kotoko Centre are regular, but the rest are unestablished. The *w has been lost in Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Gidar, which is a common sporadic change.

1Proto-Bata *dzɨʔɨ ʸ fly mouche 1.1) Bata (Boyd) dʒitto fly 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) dʒì ʼ í́lá cow fly. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) dʒiʼin Mouche 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) dʒiʼi mouche

2Proto-Daba *dzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) dʒedʒəweɗ fly (n) mouche 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) dʒiwiɗ fly (n) mouche 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) dʒidʒiwəɗ fly (n) mouche 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) tʃèdī la mouche

3Proto-Mafa *dzɨwaj fly mouche 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) dzúwáj mouche

4Proto-Sukur *dzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 4.1) Sukur (David) dʒuwi fly mouche 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) dʒui fly;- general term for flies.

5Proto-Hurza *dzɨwaj fly mouche 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dzuwaj fly mouche 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) dzùwàj fly mouche

6Proto-Margi tsɨɗɨ ʸ fly mouche 6.1) Margi (Hoffman) tʃiɗi fly mouche 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) tʃəɗi fly (n) mouche 6.3) Bura (Blench) tʃiri General name for the fly and bee group of insects mouche

7Proto-Mandara *ⁿdzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 7.1) Matal (Branger) zwaj, zəwaj, zuwaj fly mouche 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ⁿdʒəwe,-ə mouche 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ⁿdʒáŋʷá mouche (f), espèce (sens figuré) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ⁿdʒəŋʷa fly mouche 7.5) Glavda (Owens) nğu fly mouche 7.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) nd͡ʒùja fly (n) mouche

8Proto-Mofu *dzɨwaj fly mouche 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) zùwàj fly mouche 8.2) Muyang (Smith) ezʉwi house fly; fly mouche 8.2.1) Muyang (Smith) ezʉwi dummy opponent in a game adversaire imaginaire dans un jeu de société 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) dʒəwaj fly mouche 8.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) dʒəwaj 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) dzìwe mouche f. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) dzuwe fly (n) mouche 8.6) Merey (Gravina) dzuwaj fly (n) mouche 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) dʒuwaj fly (n) mouche 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) dzùwáj mouche 8.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́dʒadʒəwaj mouche (nom gén.)

9Proto-Maroua *dzɨdzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dʒidʒiwiɗ(i) mouche 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dʒidʒiwiɗ(i) abeille 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) dʒidʒiweɗ fly (n) mouche

10Proto-Lamang *ziwɗi fly mouche 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) ziɗi fly 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ziɗikʷ fly la mouche

11Proto-Higi *zʲɨwiɗ fly mouche 11.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ʒiwi fly (insect); housefly mouche 11.2) Kirya (Blench) ʒéw housefly mouche 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) ʒíɓ(i) mouche

12Proto-Kotoko Island *hadzu fly mouche 12.1) Buduma (McKone) hâdʒu mouche.

13Proto-Kotoko North *tsʼɨwi fly mouche 13.1) Afade (Allison) tsɨwi fly (n) mouche 13.2) Maltam (Allison) sʼiwi fly (n) mouche

14Proto-Kotoko Centre *zɨwiɗ fly mouche 14.1) Lagwan (Allison) zu fly (n) mouche 14.2) Mser (Allison) msʼɨwi fly (n) mouche

15Proto-Kotoko South *dzadzwi fly mouche 15.1) Zina (Odden) dʒàdʒwì fly (n) mouche

16Proto-Musgum *dɨwaj fly mouche 16.1) Vulum (Tourneux) aduwaj mouche 16.2) Mbara (Tourneux) tuwaj fly (insect) mouche

17Proto-Gidar *zɨkɗa ʸ fly mouche 17.1) Gidar (Hungerford) zikɗe mouche 17.2) Gidar (Schuh) zikɗe/e mouche
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ɗakʷa ʸ adj. white blanc (7 groups, 17 languages) B
This root has two primary reflexes, *ɗakʷ and *kʷaɗ. The first is found in the Mandara and Musgum groups, and the second in the groups around the Mandara Mountains. It is not possible to be certain which of these constituted the Proto-Central Chadic root, or if it took the form *kʷaɗak. Palatalization is attested in many of the groups.

1Proto-Daba *kʷɨkʷɨɗak ʸ white blanc 1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kjkjɗːek (be) white (être) blanc

2Proto-Mafa *kʷaɗ ʸ white blanc 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kʷíɗ-kʷíɗɗeʼe blanc 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) kʷeɗ kʷeɗ tout blanc

3Proto-Hurza *maɗakʷa ʸ, kʷaɗak ʸ white blanc 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kʷeɗekkʷeɗek white tout blanc 3.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kʷekʷeɗek white blanc 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) mēɗēkʷé white blanc

4Proto-Mandara *maɗakʷɨ white blanc 4.1) Matal (Branger) mǣɗɪ́kʷᵘ̀ɡā white blanc 4.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) meɗékʷe,-u blancheur 4.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) meɗékʷe blanchir 4.2.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) meɗékulá meɗekʷe le blanchir 4.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) màɗᵊkʷa (be) white 4.4) Dghwede (Frick) matʼakʷa white

5Proto-Mofu *kʷaɗak ʸ white blanc 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mèɗèkʷè white blanc 5.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) kʷeɗek kʷeɗek blanc 5.3) Merey (Gravina) kuɗekuɗek blanc 5.3.1) Merey (Gravina) mezebe kʷeɗek herre (be) white (être) blanc 5.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) kʷēɗék kʷēɗék blanc 5.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kʷéɗék kʷéɗék blanc (des cendres, de poussière, de froid)

6Proto-Maroua *kʷaɗak ʸ white blanc 6.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kʷeɗek blanc

7Proto-Musgum *mɨɗɨkʷɨj white blanc 7.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) muɗukʷii blanc 7.2) Vulum (Tourneux) muɗukʷii blanc
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ɗakʷɨr n. grey hair cheveux gris (7 groups, 17 languages) B
This root is possibly related to the root *ɗakʷa ʸ 'white'. As expected, the *r has become *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, i.e. Mandara, Mofu and Maroua, and in Cuvok (Mafa group). The labialisation component of *kʷ has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua and Proto-Daba, which is a common sporadic change. In these same languages, the resulting *k has become *h, an unestablished change. The initial *ɗ has been lost in many languages, which is a common sporadic change. This has resulted in compensatory reduplication in Daba, also a common sporadic change.

1Proto-Daba *hɨhɨl ʷ grey hair cheveux gris 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) hùhúl les cheveux gris

2Proto-Mafa *kʷaraj grey hair cheveux gris 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kʷalaj white hair cheveux blancs

3Proto-Sukur *kʷir grey hair cheveux gris 3.1) Sukur (Thomas) kʷir grey; having grey hair.

4Proto-Hurza *ɗakʷar grey hair cheveux gris 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɗəɗukʷar grey hairs cheveux gris 4.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dədukʷar cheveux gris 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ākʷár hair, white se dit des cheveux blancs qui se trouvent sur la tête d'un vieux.

5Proto-Mandara *kʷɨlɨ grey hair cheveux gris 5.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) kulala,-ə cheveu blanc 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) kulije cheveu blanc

6Proto-Mofu *ɗakʷɨl grey hair cheveux gris 6.1) Muyang (Smith) ɑkʷɑl white hair cheveux blancs 6.2) Mada (Nkoumou) akkʷal cheveux blancs 6.3) Moloko (Friesen) ɗakʷəl white hair cheveux blanc 6.4) Zulgo (Haller) akúl cheveux (m.pl.) blancs 6.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) akʷal white hair cheveux blancs 6.6) Merey (Gravina) maɗakʷal white hair cheveux blancs 6.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) maɗakol white hair cheveux blancs 6.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) egʷel white hair cheveux blancs

7Proto-Maroua *hal ʷ grey hair cheveux gris 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) hol cheveux blancs 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) anhol white hair cheveux blancs
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ɗap nf. millet ball boule de mil (10 groups, 26 languages) A
This root is the common word for the lump of cooked millet that forms the staple in the region. The root is extremely stable. It is found across the Northern Mandara Mountains and the Nigerian Plains. In Proto-Central Chadic, *p was realised as [f] word-finally, and this became phonemicized in the descendants of Proto-Central Chadic.

1Proto-Bata *ɗafa food boule 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) ɗafan Nourriture

2Proto-Mafa *ɗaf millet boule 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ɗaf food boule de mil, repas 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɗaf boule

3Proto-Sukur *ɗaf millet lump boule de mil 3.1) Sukur (Thomas) ɗaf food: things that people or animals eats.

4Proto-Hurza *ɗaf millet boule 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɗaf millet ball, food boule de mil, nourriture 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɗə̄fkā boule de mil

5Proto-Margi *ɗɨfɨ millet boule 5.1) Margi (Hoffman) ɗəfə mush, boule 5.2) Margi South (Harley) dufau food 5.3) Kilba (Schuh) ɗəfa tuwo, millet boule

6Proto-Mandara *ɗafɨ millet boule 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɗafá,-ə boule, nourriture qui se mange avec la sauce 6.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) ɗáfá couscous (m), nourriture (f) 6.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ɗafa food gen.(cooked)

7Proto-Mofu *ɗaf millet boule 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɗàf fufu boule 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɗɑf ball of millet couscous, staple food boule de mil, nourriture de base 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) ɗaf food; meal; boule repas; boule 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) ɗaf boule (f.) de mil 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɗaf food nourriture 7.6) Merey (Gravina) ɗaf nourriture 7.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɗaf sorghum ball "boule de mil" (fr. d'Afrique) ; nourriture

8Proto-Maroua *ɗaf millet boule 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɗaf(Mj), ɗaf (Mt, Mv) nourriture, repas, manger (boule de mil plus sauce) 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɗaf boule

9Proto-Lamang *ɗafa millet boule 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɗafa millet boule 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɗafa sorghum mush, food la boule

10Proto-Higi *ɗafa millet boule 10.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɗafa food 10.2) Kirya (Blench) ɗàfà food 10.3) Bana (Lienhard) ɗàfà nourriture
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ɗawɨk n. goat chèvre (15 groups, 42 languages) C
This is a well-attested Proto-Central Chadic root. The evidence for the initial *ɗ is limited. It is only present in Mofu-Gudur and Cuvok. In Sukur and the Maroua group it has the reflex *ʔ, and in the Musgum group it has the reflex *j, both of which are unestablished changes. In Mafa it has fused with *w to become /ɓ/, a common sporadic process. In Podoko, Mandara and Malgwa, the loss of *ɗ has been compensated for by the addition of a prefixed /n/, which is a common sporadic process in these languages. In many groups the *w has fused with the *k to create *kʷ. The *k or the *kʷ has also changed to *hʷ in the Bata and Daba groups, *gʷ in the Lamang group and *ɣʷ in the Kotoko Centre group. None of these changes are established as regular changes.

1Proto-Bata *ɨhʷɨ goat chèvre 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ə̀hʷá - ə goat 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) hʷə Chèvre 1.2.1) Sharwa (Gravina) hʷə chèvre 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) ahʷe le chèvre

2Proto-Daba *ŋhʷa goat chèvre 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋhʷɑ goat chèvre 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋhʷɑ goat chèvre

3Proto-Mafa *ɗawɨk goat chèvre 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ɓakʷ, ɓakʷaj, ɓakʷij haj chevre 3.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɓókʷ chèvre 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɗakʷ goat chèvre

4Proto-Sukur *ʔɨjɨkʷ goat chèvre 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) ʼijuk goat; an animals with horns and a coat of hairs, that lives as demostic. 4.2) Sukur (David) ijukʼ goat

5Proto-Hurza *awak goat chèvre 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) awak goat chèvre 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) āwāk goat chèvre

6Proto-Margi *kʷi goat chèvre 6.1) Bura (Blench) kʷi Goat 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) ku goat 6.3) Kilba (Schuh) kʷa/ku goat

7Proto-Mandara *ɗawak goat chèvre 7.1) Matal (Branger) awak goat chèvre 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) nawá,-ə chèvre 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) náwime chèvre (f) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) nawe goat 7.5) Glavda (Owens) aag goat 7.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) áːgʷa goat 7.5.2) Glavda (Owens) dwág goat

8Proto-Mofu *ɗawak goat chèvre 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āwák goat chèvre 8.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑwɑk goat chèvre 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) awak goat chèvre 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) awak chèvre f. 8.4.1) Zulgo (Haller) awák chèvre f. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) awak goat chèvre 8.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) awak goat chèvre 8.6) Merey (Gravina) wak goat chèvre 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) awak goat chèvre 8.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɗakʷ goat chèvre (nom gén.), caprin

9Proto-Maroua *ʔawɨ goat chèvre 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ʼaw chèvre 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) aw chèvre 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) aw goat chèvre 9.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼawu chèvre 9.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) áwūʼ goat chèvre

10Proto-Lamang *agʷɨ goat chèvre 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) ógò goat 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) gu goat la chèvre

11Proto-Higi *kʷɨ goat chèvre 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kʷə 1.goat.2.hearsay. 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kʷo goat 11.3) Kirya (Blench) goat 11.4) Psikye (Angelo) kʷə goat 11.5) Bana (Lienhard) kʷə̀ chèvre

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *nɣʷa goat chèvre 12.1) Mser (Allison) nɣo goat chèvre

13Proto-Kotoko South *awa goat chèvre 13.1) Zina (Odden) àwà goat chèvre

14Proto-Musgum *jawak goat chèvre 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) jek chèvre 14.2) Mbara (Tourneux) we he-goat bouc 14.3) Muskum (Tourneux) jaw chèvre

15Proto-Gidar *hawa goat chèvre 15.1) Gidar (Hungerford) hawa chèvre 15.2) Gidar (Schuh) hawa chèvre
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ɗawɨm nf. bee, honey abeille, miel (14 groups, 36 languages) C
This root is used both for the bee and for honey in most of the languages presented. In the proto-language reconstructions, 'honey' is given as the gloss, but only as a label. The reconstruction of the root poses several challenges. In the Daba and Mafa groups, the *ɗ and *w have fused, resulting in *ɓ in the Daba group and *ᵐgb in the Mafa groups. In many groups, the *ɗ or the *w has been lost. In many languages across almost all groups, this has triggered compensatory reduplication of the *m. In Mandara and Malgwa the loss has been compensated for by a prefixed /n/. In several languages the *w has been reanalysed as a vowel, or as the labialisation prosody. All of these are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Daba *ɗawam honey miel 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɓɑmɑm bee abeille 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɑmɑm bee abeille 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɓəɓam bee abeille 1.4) Daba (Lienhard) ɓòɓóm le miel, l'abeille

2Proto-Mafa *ᵐgbam honey miel 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) mgbam bee abeille 2.1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) mgbam honey miel

3Proto-Sukur *mam honey miel 3.1) Sukur (David) mam honey 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) mam honey; a sweet sticky yellow substance made by bees.

4Proto-Hurza *wɨmam honey miel 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) umam bee abeille 4.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) umam honey miel 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) āmə̄māk 1 bee abeille 4.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) āmə̄māk 2 honey miel

5Proto-Margi *wɨmɨ honey miel 5.1) Bura (Blench) muma Honey 5.2) Margi (Hoffman) məmə honey

6Proto-Mandara *ɗama honey miel 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) mama,-ə 1 abeille 6.1.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) mama,-ə 2 miel 6.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) nama miel (m), abeille (f) 6.3) Malgwa (Löhr) nama bee, honey 6.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) màmː bee

7Proto-Mofu *awɨm honey miel 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āmā bee abeille 7.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āmā honey miel 7.2) Muyang (Smith) àmú honey, bee miel, abeille 7.3) Mada (Nkoumou) áma abeille 7.4) Moloko (Friesen) omom honey miel 7.5) Zulgo (Haller) amúm abeille f. 7.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) awom bee abeille 7.7) Merey (Gravina) wum bee abeille 7.7.1) Merey (Gravina) wum honey miel 7.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) amam honey miel 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) amam bee, honey abeille 7.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) amam miel

8Proto-Maroua *amam honey miel 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) amam honey miel 8.1.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) amam bee abeille 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼamam miel

9Proto-Lamang *omo honey miel 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) ómó honey

10Proto-Kotoko North *mam honey miel 10.1) Afade (Allison) mam bee abeille 10.2) Malgbe (Allison) mam honey miel 10.2.1) Malgbe (Allison) mam bee abeille 10.3) Mpade (Allison) màm honey miel 10.3.1) Mpade (Allison) màm bee abeille

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *imam honey miel 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) iman honey miel 11.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) iman bee abeille 11.2) Mser (Allison) mam honey miel 11.2.1) Mser (Allison) mam bee abeille

12Proto-Kotoko South *amama honey miel 12.1) Zina (Odden) ámámá honey miel

13Proto-Musgum *wamaj honey miel 13.1) Vulum (Tourneux) aamii abeille 13.2) Mbara (Tourneux) momoj bee abeille 13.2.1) Mbara (Tourneux) momoj honey miel 13.3) Muskum (Tourneux) amtu abeille

14Proto-Gidar *amɨma honey miel 14.1) Gidar (Schuh) aməma/a miel 14.2) Gidar (Hungerford) amama abeille
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ɗiɬ nm. bone os (14 groups, 43 languages) B syn: kɨrakaɬ ʸ.
This widely-attested root is close to the root *ɗɨɬɨj 'egg', but the presence of *i in the root rather than a final *j makes a big difference to the reflexes in individual languages. The initial *ɗ is realised as *t in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Sukur, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Maroua, an unestablished change. It has been lost in many groups, triggering compensatory reduplication in the Mandara and Kotoko South groups, and in some Mofu group languages. It has fused with the *i in the Tera and Higi groups to create a palatalised glottal or a velar implosive. In the Kotoko North and South groups it has fused with the *ɬ to create an ejective. These fusion processes are common sporadic changes. The *ɬ is expected to have the reflex *ɮ in the groups of the South sub-branch, but for this root it is only the case in the Bata group. Within the Bata group there is a subsequent change *ɮ to *l. In the Margi group and in Mandara and Malgwa in the Mandara group, *ɬ has become palatalised by processes originating with *i, and *ɬʲ has then been velarised to /hʲ/ as part of a regular process. Regular processes give *ɬ the reflexes *s in the Proto-Kotoko South and Mser, /ʃ/ in Mpade and /h/ in Buduma. In Mser the /ʃ/ is due to the effect of the front vowel on *s.

1Proto-Bata *iɮɨ bone os 1.1) Bachama (Skinner) uule bone 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) ìlá -ə bone. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) ilən Os 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) allə os 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) iɮe l'os

2Proto-Mafa *taɬ, ɬaɬar bone os 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) táɬ os 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɬaɬar bone os

3Proto-Tera *ɠɨɬi bone os 3.1) Tera (Newman) ɠəɬ bone 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) qu̱ɬi bone 3.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) ela bone

4Proto-Sukur *taɬ bone os 4.1) Sukur (David) taɬ bone 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) taɬ bone; any of the hard parts that form the skeleton of the body of a human and an animal.

5Proto-Margi *ɗaɬɨ ʸ bone os 5.1) Bura (Blench) ɗjàhù Bone 5.2) Kilba (Schuh) ɗihji bone

6Proto-Mandara *ɬaɬi bone os 6.1) Matal (Branger) aɬaɬ bone os 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬaɬa,-ə os 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) hjáhjé os (m) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) hjehje bone 6.5) Glavda (Owens) ła bone 6.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɬàɬa bone 6.6) Dghwede (Frick) ɬaɬa bone

7Proto-Mofu *ɨtaɬ bone os 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) àɬàɬ bone os 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑɬɑt bone os 7.3) Mada (Nkoumou) aɬaɬ os 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) atáɬ os m. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) ataɬ bone os 7.6) Merey (Gravina) mətaɬ bone os 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətaɬ bone os 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdàɬ os

8Proto-Maroua *ataɬ ʸ bone os 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) teɬ(e), ateɬ(Mv), eteɬ (j) os, arrête 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ateɬ bone os 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼaʼaɬ os

9Proto-Higi *ʔʲiɬɨ bone os 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ʼjithlə bone 9.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) iɬa bone 9.3) Kirya (Blench) íɬə́ bone 9.4) Bana (Lienhard) éɬêr os (pl.) 9.4.1) Bana (Lienhard) ʼjíɬə́ os

10Proto-Kotoko Island *ahaj bone os 10.1) Buduma (McKone) ahaj bone os

11Proto-Kotoko North *enslʼi bone os 11.1) Afade (Allison) enɬʼi bone os 11.2) Mpade (Allison) ènʃí bone os 11.3) Malgbe (Allison) enɬɨ bone os

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *eɬi bone os 12.1) Lagwan (Allison) aɬɨ bone os 12.2) Mser (Allison) enʃi bone os

13Proto-Kotoko South *asisʼɨ bone os 13.1) Zina (Odden) àsàsə̀ bone os 13.2) Mazera (Allison) asisʼe bone os

14Proto-Gidar *ɬaŋɬaŋ ʸ bone os 14.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬeŋɬeŋ os 14.2) Gidar (Schuh) ɬeᵑgɬeᵑg os
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ɗɨjɨkʷ n. bird oiseau (9 groups, 31 languages) A
This is the generic term for a small bird. The initial *ɗ is attested in most groups. In Sukur, Margi South, Kilba, Mandara, Margi and Bana the *ɗ and *j have fused to create /ʔʲ/, which is a common sporadic process. In the Tera group the *j has probably been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, and in Bura and Dghwede it has been reanalysed as a vowel. The labialisation on the *kʷ is reconstructed on the basis of its presence in the Margi group, with support from the Higi, Maroua and Mofu groups. The reason for the development of *ŋʷ in the Mofu group is unclear.

1Proto-Mafa *ɗɨjak bird oiseau 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɗijak oiseau. nom gén. des petits oiseaux 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɗijak bird oiseau

2Proto-Tera *ɗiki bird oiseau 2.1) Tera (Newman) ɗiki bird 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) djika bird

3Proto-Sukur *ʔʲak bird oiseau 3.1) Sukur (David) ʼjak bird 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) ʼjak bird;- is a general term for flying birds.

4Proto-Margi *ɗɨjakʷ bird oiseau 4.1) Bura (Blench) ɗíká Bird 4.2) Margi (Hoffman) ʼikji bird 4.3) Margi South (Hoffman) ʼjagu bird 4.4) Kilba (Hoffman) ʼjagu bird 4.4.1) Kilba (Schuh) ʼjaku/ə bird

5Proto-Mandara *ɗɨjak bird oiseau 5.1) Matal (Branger) ɗəjaŋ, ɗijaŋ bird oiseau 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɗija,-a oiseau 5.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ƴie oiseau (m) 5.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ɠjije bird gen. 5.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɗìːka bird 5.5.1) Glavda (Owens) ďií bird 5.6) Dghwede (Frick) tʼiᵑge bird

6Proto-Mofu *ɗɨjɨŋʷ bird oiseau 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āɗēŋʷ oiseau 6.2) Muyang (Smith) eɗiŋ bird (general word) oiseau (mot général) 6.3) Moloko (Friesen) eɗəjen bird oiseau 6.4) Zulgo (Haller) ɗijeŋ oiseau m. 6.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) dijiŋ bird oiseau 6.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɗijiŋ bird oiseau 6.6) Merey (Gravina) ɗijeŋ bird oiseau 6.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɗijeŋ bird oiseau 6.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɗijaŋ oiseau (nom gén.)

7Proto-Maroua *ɗɨjɨw bird oiseau 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɗiju(w) oiseau (en général) 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɗijew bird oiseau 7.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɗijaw oiseau

8Proto-Lamang *ɗɨjak bird oiseau 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɗíjáká bird 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɗijak bird l'oiseau

9Proto-Higi *ɗɨjɨkʷɨ bird oiseau 9.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ijo bird 9.2) Kirya (Blench) íkə́ bird 9.3) Bana (Lienhard) ʼjìgʷù oiseau
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