Search results for "tip"

tip v. to spit cracher (14 groups, 31 languages) A
This common root is almost certainly onomatopoeic in origin. A similar word is found in both Hausa and Kanuri. It is significant though that *i is present in almost all the groups where this vowel is part of the phonemic inventory. This implies that the word may have been adopted as a word rather than as a sound at an early period in the history of Central Chadic. *p was realised as [f] word-finally in Proto-Central Chadic, so the presence of the final *f in all groups does not contradict the early origin of the word.

1Proto-Bata *tif spit cracher 1.1) Bata (Boyd) tə̀f I spit saliva 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) tifi spit. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) tefʷən 1 - Cracher ;; 2 - Depiècer un animal; 3 - Cinquième

2Proto-Daba *tɨf ʸ spit cracher 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtef spit cracher 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtif spit cracher 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) tīf cracher ; bénir

3Proto-Mafa *ⁿdzɨf ʸ spit cracher 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ⁿdʒif cracher

4Proto-Sukur *tifa spit cracher 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) tifa to spit on somebody or something

5Proto-Hurza *tifa spit cracher 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) təfe spit cracher 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) tífā spit cracher

6Proto-Margi *tifa spit cracher 6.1) Bura (Blench) tifu, tifa To spit 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) təfa/a spit

7Proto-Mandara *tifa spit cracher 7.1) Matal (Branger) mæ̀tʲflá spit cracher 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) təfa cracher

8Proto-Mofu *tɨf spit cracher 8.1) Moloko (Friesen) taf spit cracher 8.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) metefe teɮe spit cracher 8.3) Merey (Gravina) təf cracher 8.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətəfej ɬeɬeɓ spit cracher 8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) métə̀fèj cracher 8.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́təf cracher

9Proto-Maroua *tɨf ʷ spit cracher 9.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) tuf cracher

10Proto-Lamang *tɨf spit cracher 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) təf spit 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) təfaj to spit cracher

11Proto-Higi *tifi spit cracher 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ntìví spit 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ntjivi spit 11.3) Kirya (Blench) ntə́fə́ to spit 11.4) Bana (Lienhard) tfə́ cracher, bénir

12Proto-Kotoko North *tafɨ spit cracher 12.1) Mpade (Allison) táfɨ̀ sʼè spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *tɨf spit cracher 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) tɨfɨwun (tɨfu) spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche 13.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) tɨfel nahe spit cracher 13.2) Mser (Allison) tafɨ ɣrej spit cracher

14Proto-Musgum *tɨf ʷ spit cracher 14.1) Mbara (Tourneux) tuf spit cracher

15Hausa tóofèe spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

16Kanuri tәfáᵑgin, tәfádʒin // tә́fáᵑgin, tә́fádʒin spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche
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hɨra n. arm, hand bras, main (8 groups, 25 languages) C syn: paɮa, dzɨvɨ ʸ.
This is the most widely attested of the three roots for 'arm'. We expect to find *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch, but the data from Podoko and much of the Mofu group contradicts this. Proto-Maroua *n word-final corresponds with *r word-final in these two groups, so it may be that the North sub-branch languages are reflexes of a different root *(a)han.

1Proto-Daba *ra arm bras 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) arm bras 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) hand main 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) hand main 1.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) arm bras

2Proto-Mafa *raj arm bras 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ráj main, bras 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ha hand, hand main, bras

3Proto-Tera *xar arm bras 3.1) Tera (Newman) xar hand (arm) 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) khar hand 3.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) ᵐbǝrahera arm

4Proto-Sukur *ri arm, hand bras, main 4.1) Sukur (David) ri arm, hand 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) rəi hand:- is the part of the body at the end of the arm.

5Proto-Hurza *alaj arm bras 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) alaj hand bras, main 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) āláj arm |uc{main, bras} - de l'épaule jusqu'au bout des doigts

6Proto-Mandara *harɨ arm bras 6.1) Matal (Branger) ahal arm bras 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) hará,-ə main; bras

7Proto-Mofu *ahɨr, hɨlaj arm bras 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āhár arm - from the shoulder to the tips of the fingers |uc{main, bras} - de l'épaule jusqu'au bout des doigts 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑhɑr hand ; arm ; handle ; branch main; bras; manche; branche 7.3) Mada (Nkoumou) ahar bras supérieur 7.4) Moloko (Friesen) ahar arm; hand bras; main 7.5) Zulgo (Haller) ahə́r main f. 7.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) ahər arm bras 7.7) Merey (Gravina) həlaj arm bras, main 7.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) laj arm bras 7.8.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) laj hand main 7.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) hār bras, main 7.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) har hand, arm la main, bras 7.10.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) har (sens figuré) temps, occasion

8Proto-Maroua *han arm bras 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) haŋ main, bras 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) han, haŋ hand; arm main; bras 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) haŋ bras 8.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) hāŋ arm / hand bras / main
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wahaj v. to give birth naître (16 groups, 43 languages) C syn: ᵐbɨw.
This is the most widely attested root for 'to give birth'. All three consonants in the root are prone to sporadic deletion or reanalysis, and only in a few cases are all three consonants preserved in the reflexes of individual languages.

1Proto-Mafa *haja give birth naître 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ja accoucher 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) haja bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 1.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) haja (be) born naître

2Proto-Tera *xa give birth naitre 2.1) Tera (Newman) xa give birth 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) xa (be) born 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) kha bear (child), give birth

3Proto-Sukur *ji give birth naitre 3.1) Sukur (David) jiiha give birth, to 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) ji to give birth;

4Proto-Hurza *wah give birth naître 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) wahaj give birth donner naissance 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) wáhā 1 give birth ; deliver accoucher 4.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) wáhā 2 give birth naître 4.2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) wáh kīné produce naître

5Proto-Margi *ja give birth naître 5.1) Bura (Blench) ìjà To give birth 5.2) Bura (Blench) jia To give birth 5.3) Margi (Hoffman) ja to give birth 5.4) Margi South (Harley) ja to give birth 5.5) Kilba (Schuh) ja/a (give) birth

6Proto-Mandara *hajɨ give birth naitre 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ha 1 produire des fruits 6.1.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ha 2 naître, accoucher 6.2) Malgwa (Löhr) ja deliver, give birth 6.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) jìga bear (child), give birth 6.3.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) jàjāna (be) born 6.4) Dghwede (Frick) jige to give birth

7Proto-Mofu *waj give birth naître 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bear many children donner naissance; enfanter 7.2) Moloko (Friesen) we give birth, be born accoucher; naître 7.2.1) Moloko (Friesen) we engendrer 7.3) Zulgo (Haller) wa accoucher, enfanter, engendrer, produire 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) mewe (be) born naître 7.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mawa kəla bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 7.5) Merey (Gravina) wa (be) born naître 7.5.1) Merey (Gravina) wa wawa bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) mawaj (be) born naître 7.6.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) mawaj bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 7.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) méjèj accoucher 7.7.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) májàwá accouchement 7.7.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) májàwá naissance 7.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́j be born accoucher, naître, mettre bas, pondre, donner des fruits ; se multiplier 7.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) majawa accouchement, naissance

8Proto-Maroua *ji give birth naître 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ji zuŋ bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) je (be) born naître 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ji mettre au monde, donner naissance 8.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) jɛ́jiʼ give birth engendrer

9Proto-Lamang *ja give birth naître 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) ja beget, give birth 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) jaj to give birth donner naissance

10Proto-Higi *jɨ give birth naître 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) give birth/deliver 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) jekə bear (child); give birth 10.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) jekəgʷo be born 10.3) Kirya (Blench) to give birth (born), bear 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) accoucher, naître, naissance

11Proto-Kotoko Island *wɨj give birth naitre 11.1) Buduma (McKone) wuj engendrer, accoucher. 11.2) Buduma (McKone) wuəj bear (child) accoucher (enfant)

12Proto-Kotoko North *wa give birth naître 12.1) Afade (Allison) we si (be) born naître 12.1.1) Afade (Allison) wan; we bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 12.2) Mpade (Allison) bear (child) accoucher (enfant) 12.2.1) Mpade (Allison) wè sì (be) born naître 12.3) Malgbe (Allison) wawun (wa, we) (be) born naître 12.3.1) Malgbe (Allison) wawun bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *wa give birth naître 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) wel zi (be) born naître 13.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) wawun (wa) bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 13.2) Mser (Allison) we zi (be) born naître 13.2.1) Mser (Allison) we bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance

14Proto-Kotoko South *wɨja give birth naître 14.1) Zina (Odden) wìjà bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance

15Proto-Musgum *wi give birth naître 15.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) wi mettre, naître, mettre au monde 15.2) Mbara (Tourneux) wii give birth, bring forth donner naissance, mettre au monde

16Proto-Gidar *ɨwa give birth naitre 16.1) Gidar (Hungerford) uuwa accoucher 16.2) Gidar (Hungerford) uuwa naître, (donner) naissance, accoucher 16.3) Gidar (Schuh) uwa naitre 16.4) Gidar (Hungerford) wiina donner naissance
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