Search results for "tsɨ ʸ"

tsɨ ʸ nm. eye oeil (8 groups, 20 languages) B syn: hadaj.
This root is less common than *hadaj, which has also been reconstructed for Proto-Chadic. However, it is still extremely widely attested. The *ts has become voiced in Proto-Bata and Proto-Daba, which is an irregular process, and has the regular reflex *s in Sukur and Proto-Kotoko Centre, along with several of the Kotoko North languages. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is consistent.

1Proto-Bata *dzɨ ʸ eye oeil 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) dʒən Oeil

2Proto-Daba *ⁿdza ʸ eye oeil 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ⁿdʒe eye œil 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ⁿdʒɑ eye œil 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ᵐbu ⁿdʒe eye œil 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ⁿdʒe face visage

3Proto-Sukur *is eye oeil 3.1) Sukur (David) is eye 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) ʼis eye; the two organs on the face that you see with.

4Proto-Margi *ntsa ʸ eye oeil 4.1) Bura (Blench) ntʃa Eye

5Proto-Mandara *jɨtsa ʸ eye oeil 5.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) itʃa oeil (m) 5.2) Malgwa (Löhr) iitʃe eye 5.3) Glavda (Owens) eye 5.3.1) Glavda (Owens) eye

6Proto-Higi *ntsʲɨ eye oeil 6.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ntsə eye 6.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ntsi eye 6.3) Kirya (Blench) ntʃí eye 6.4) Psikye (Angelo) nʃi eyes 6.4.1) Psikye (Angelo) hsú eyes 6.5) Bana (Lienhard) m(ə̀)tsə́ oeil

7Proto-Kotoko North *tsɨ eye oeil 7.1) Afade (Allison) tsɨ eye œil 7.2) Mpade (Allison) sɨ́ eye œil 7.3) Malgbe (Allison) eye œil 7.4) Maltam (Allison) eye œil

8Proto-Kotoko Centre *sɨ eye oeil 8.1) Lagwan (Allison) eye œil 8.2) Mser (Allison) eye œil
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dzaj v. to bite mordre (5 groups, 14 languages) syn: hʷɨpɨɗ.
This root is largely stable, with the only change being the unestablished change *dz to /ts/ in the Daba and Maroua groups. The final *j is realised as the palatalisation prosody in the Mafa, Mandara and Maroua groups, which is a common sporadic process. The Proto-Daba root is prenasalised, which is also a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Daba *ntsa bite mordre 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtʃɑ bite (v) mordre 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtʃɑ gnaw ronger 1.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtʃɑ sting piquer 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtsɑ bite (v) mordre 1.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtsɑ sting piquer 1.3) Daba (Lienhard) ᵑgàtʃ mordre, tourmenter, aboyer

2Proto-Mafa *dza ʸ bite mordre 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) n dʒe mordre 2.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) dʒ- mordre

3Proto-Mandara *dza ʸ bite mordre 3.1) Matal (Branger) matsaj bite mordre 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ⁿdʒewé 1 mordre 3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) dʒa bite, beat (with stick) 3.4) Dghwede (Frick) ⁿdzaxa bite

4Proto-Mofu *dzaj bite mordre 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mātsāj mordre, piquer plusieurs fois 4.2) Zulgo (Haller) dze(-r) mordre 4.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) dzaj bite (v) mordre 4.3.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) a dzaj mordre 4.3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) medze strike (snake) mordre, piquer (serpent) 4.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézèj mordre 4.4.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézèj piquer (serpent) 4.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́z mordre, piquer (serpent)

5Proto-Maroua *tsɨ ʸ bite mordre 5.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) tʃi mordre
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ᵑgʷɨts ʸ n. hair cheveux (5 groups, 17 languages) C syn: sɨᵐbɨti ʸ.
This is one of the few roots that contain *ᵑgʷ. The root is only attested in five groups, but these cover a wide area, possibly indicating a good time depth. The *ts has the irregular reflexes *s in Proto-Tera and *dz in Proto-Mandara.

1Proto-Mafa *ᵑgʷatsɨ hair cheveux 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) gʷátsə géɗ cheveux 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ŋgʷetʃ ta jaŋ hair (of head) cheveux (de tête)

2Proto-Tera *ɣʷasi hair cheveux 2.1) Tera (Newman) ɣos hair (of head); hair (of body); feather 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɣosi djin hair (of head) 2.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) weeʃa hair

3Proto-Mandara *gʷɨdzɨ ʸ hair cheveux 3.1) Matal (Branger) aŋidz, aŋidʒ hair cheveux 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ᵑgutsa,-ə cheveux 3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ugdʒe hair 3.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) gùd͡ʒa hair (of head) 3.5) Dghwede (Frick) guⁿdza hair

4Proto-Mofu *aᵑgʷɨts ʸ hair cheveux 4.1) Muyang (Smith) eŋɡʉtʃ hair on body, fur, feathers 4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) aᵑgʉz hair poil 4.3) Merey (Gravina) məkʷes cheveux 4.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) aŋgʷetʃ hair (of head) cheveux (de tête) 4.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) éŋgʷetʃ poils, cheveux, chevelure, crinière

5Proto-Maroua *ᵑgʷɨtsɨ ʸ hair cheveux 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ngʷitʃi poil, cheveux 5.2) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ᵑgùzóʼ hair (on head) cheveux (chevelure)
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pitsɨ nf. sun soleil (14 groups, 45 languages) A
In Proto-Central Chadic [p] and [f] were allophones of *p, but they split into separate phonemes by the time of the group proto-languages. [p] was the word-initial allopohone of *p, and so *p is found in many groups. *f is the reflex in Proto-Bata, Proto-Tera, Proto-Mandara, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Higi *v being a development from *f. There is no known rule to account for this change. *ts has the reflex *s in Proto-Sukur (regular) and in Proto-Maroua (irregular). It has the regular reflex *t in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Tera *ɗ being an unestablished development from *t.

1Proto-Bata *fitɨ sun soleil 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) fitən Soleil, s'emploie aussi pour désigner le jour comme durée. 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) fətə soleil, jour 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) fete le soleil

2Proto-Daba *pɨts ʸ sun soleil 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) pes daytime journée 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) pes sun soleil 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) piʃ sun soleil 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) piʃ day jour 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) pis sun soleil 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) pītʃ le soleil, le jour

3Proto-Mafa *pats sun soleil 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) páts soleil, jour (lumière) 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) pas day jour 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) pas sun soleil

4Proto-Tera *fɨɗa sun soleil 4.1) Tera (Newman) fəɗa sun 4.1.1) Tera (Newman) fəɗa day 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) fu̱ɗa day 4.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) fu̱ɗa sun 4.2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) fu̱ɗar day

5Proto-Sukur *pis sun soleil 5.1) Sukur (David) pis sun 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) pis sun; the star that shine in the sky during the day and give the earth heat and light.

6Proto-Hurza *pats sun soleil 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) pats sun soleil 6.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) pats day jour (m) 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ápās sun soleil

7Proto-Margi *pɨtsi sun soleil 7.1) Bura (Blench) ptʃi Day (when counting) 7.1.1) Bura (Blench) ptʃi Sun 7.2) Margi South (Harley) pətʃi sun. day 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) pətʃi sun

8Proto-Mandara *fatsɨ ʸ sun soleil 8.1) Matal (Branger) āfàts sun soleil 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) patsa,-a jour 8.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) patsa,-ə soleil 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) vatʃija sun, daylight 8.4) Glavda (Owens) fač day, sun 8.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) fàt͡ʃíja sun 8.4.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) dvàt͡ʃīja day 8.5) Dghwede (Frick) fitʃe sun, day

9Proto-Mofu *pats sun soleil 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) fat sun soleil 9.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) fat l´heure du jour 9.2) Muyang (Smith) fɑt sun ; day soleil; jour 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) fat sun soleil 9.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) fat day jour; moment 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) pat soleil m. 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) pat sun soleil 9.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) həpət day jour 9.6) Merey (Gravina) pat soleil 9.6.1) Merey (Gravina) həpat day jour, journée, midi 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) pat sun soleil 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas soleil 9.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas jour 9.8.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas moment, heure 9.8.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas soleil 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pas day, sun soleil 9.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pas jour, lumière 9.9.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pas moment, heure 9.9.3) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) papas jour

10Proto-Maroua *pas sun soleil 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) pas sun soleil 10.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) pas soleil 10.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) pǎs sun soleil

11Proto-Lamang *fiti sun soleil 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) fítí sun 11.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) vítá day 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) fitik day, sun le jour, le soleil

12Proto-Higi *vɨtsi sun soleil 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vetʃi sun 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vitʃi sun 12.3) Kirya (Blench) və̀tʃí sun 12.4) Psikye (Angelo) vətʃi day 12.5) Bana (Lienhard) v(ə)tʃí soleil, jour 12.5.1) Bana (Lienhard) ftʃà jour

13Proto-Kotoko South *fatsa sun soleil 13.1) Zina (Odden) ávàtʃá sun soleil 13.2) Mazera (Allison) fatʃa sun soleil

14Proto-Musgum *futɨj sun soleil 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) futii soleil 14.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) futii soleil 14.3) Mbara (Tourneux) futaj sun 14.4) Muskum (Tourneux) fasa soleil
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rɨwɨts ʸ nm. hearth foyer (11 groups, 30 languages) A
This word refers to the fireplace with three stones that is used for cooking. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok (separately). There was a regular change *ts→t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang. The same change in Proto-Mofu and Proto-Higi is irregular. It is expected that *ts would have the reflex /s/ in Sukur, but this is not the case. *w has been reanalysed as a vowel in Sukur, and has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process. The palatalisation prosody is found in all groups where it exists, except for Sukur. The front vowels in Proto-Lamang are reflexes of the palatalisation prosody.

1Proto-Bata *rɨtɨ ʸ hearth foyer 1.1) Sharwa (Gravina) rjəti foyer

2Proto-Daba *lɨwɨts ʸ hearth foyer 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ləwetʃ fireplace foyer 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) luwitʃ fireplace foyer

3Proto-Mafa *rɨwats ʸ hearth foyer 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ruwetʃ foyer à marmite 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) luwetʃ cooking stone pierre à cuire 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) luwetʃ fireplace foyer

4Proto-Sukur *ruts hearth foyer 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) ruts fireplace

5Proto-Hurza *rɨwats ʸ hearth foyer 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ruwetʃ fire foyer

6Proto-Mandara *lɨwtsɨ ʸ hearth foyer 6.1) Matal (Branger) ləts fireplace foyer 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) lutʃe,-ə foyer 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) eltʃa foyer (m) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) əltʃa stove, fireplace, hearth 6.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɨ̀lt͡sa fireplace

7Proto-Mofu *lɨwɨt ʸ hearth foyer 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) līwīt hearth foyer 7.2) Muyang (Smith) lʉwit hearth foyer 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) ləwte hearth, fireplace lieu pour cuire la nourriture 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) líwít foyer m. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) luwet fireplace foyer 7.6) Merey (Gravina) luwets feu de la cuisine 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) Luwet cooking stone pierre à cuire 7.7.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) luwet fireplace foyer 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) lə̀wèts foyer 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́ləwetʃ foyer

8Proto-Maroua *lɨwɨts ʸ hearth foyer 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) liwis(i) âtre, foyer 8.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) liwis(i) pierre du foyer 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) liwes cooking stone pierre à cuire 8.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) liwes fireplace foyer 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) lutʃi foyer

9Proto-Lamang *liti hearth foyer 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) liti fireplace 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) litik 3-stone cooking area le foyer à 3 pièrres

10Proto-Higi *lɨtwɨ hearth foyer 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) rə̀twə́ Fireplace. 10.2) Bana (Lienhard) lə̀t(ə) foyer à cuire

11Proto-Musgum *lɨwɨt ʸ hearth foyer 11.1) Mbara (Tourneux) liwit fire-place, hearth 11.2) Muskum (Tourneux) wit foyer
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