Search results for "tsɨwi"

tsɨwi v. to cry pleurer (11 groups, 34 languages) B
The initial *ts has the reflex *t in several groups. In Proto-Bata, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Musgum this is part of a regular process, but in other groups it is a sporadic change. The change *ts→s in Proto-Kotoko Centre is regular. In Mandara and Malgwa, the palatalisation prosody has developed, which has caused the palatalisation of *t. There is a regular process whereby palatalised alveolars are realised as palatalised velars, which here gives *tʲ→kʲ.

1Proto-Bata *tɨwɨ cry pleurer 1.1) Bata (Boyd) túú cry 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) tuu cry, weep 1.2.1) Gude (Hoskinson) tuu howl (of animal) 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) tuwə pleurer

2Proto-Margi *tiwi, tɨwa cry pleurer 2.1) Bura (Blench) tua, tuwa Funeral (crying) 2.1.1) Bura (Blench) tua, tuwa To cry (in general) 2.1.2) Bura (Blench) tua, tuwa To mourn, weep 2.2) Margi (Hoffman) ti to cry 2.3) Margi South (Hoffman) tiwi to cry 2.4) Kilba (Schuh) tiwi cry, crying 2.4.1) Kilba (Hoffman) tiwi to cry

3Proto-Mandara *tɨwa ʸ cry pleurer 3.1) Matal (Branger) matəwaj // matuwaj matəwaj, matuwaj cry pleurer 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) tawa 1 pleurer 3.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) tawa 3 faire un bruit (animal ou moteur) 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) kjua pleurer 3.4) Malgwa (Löhr) kjuwa cry 3.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) túːga cry, weep

4Proto-Mofu *tɨwɨ cry pleurer 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) tūwō weep pleurer 4.2) Muyang (Smith) tʉwi weep ; cry pleurer 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) təwe cry pleurer 4.4) Zulgo (Haller) túwá pleurer, répandre des larmes 4.4.1) Zulgo (Haller) túwá (ᵑgát) pleurer qn., s'affliger pour qn. 4.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) metuwe wail, ululate (at funeral) (v) pleurer, gémir, ululer 4.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) metuwe cry, weep pleurer 4.6) Merey (Gravina) tuwa cry, weep pleurer 4.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətuwaj cry, weep pleurer 4.7.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətuwaj mɗumej wail, ululate (at funeral) (v) pleurer, gémir, ululer 4.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təw pleurer, crier ; chanter (oiseau) ; résonner (instrument de musique) 4.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təw couler (sève), suinter 4.8.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təw produire abondamment (huile)

5Proto-Maroua *tɨwa cry pleurer 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) tuwuj pleurer 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) tuwuj zuŋ pleurer 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tuwaj cry, weep pleurer 5.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tuwa vo wail, ululate (at funeral) (v) pleurer, gémir, ululer 5.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) tuwaj pleurer

6Proto-Lamang *tawa cry pleurer 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) tawa cry, weep, mourn 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) taw cry le pleur 6.2.1) Hdi (Bramlett) tawaj to cry pleurer

7Proto-Kotoko Island *tsuj cry pleurer 7.1) Buduma (McKone) tʃuj pleurer.

8Proto-Kotoko North *tsɨwe cry pleurer 8.1) Afade (Allison) tsɨwe cry, weep pleurer 8.2) Mpade (Allison) swè wail, ululate (at funeral) (v); cry, weep pleurer, gémir, ululer; pleurer 8.3) Malgbe (Allison) suwe; kidɨ gba suwe; sue wail, ululate (at funeral) (v); cry, weep pleurer, gémir, ululer; pleurer

9Proto-Kotoko Centre *sɨwe cry pleurer 9.1) Lagwan (Allison) sɨwe; ⁿdɨsɨwun sɨwe wail, ululate (at funeral) (v); cry, weep pleurer, gémir, ululer; pleurer 9.2) Mser (Allison) swe wail, ululate (at funeral) (v); cry, weep pleurer, gémir, ululer; pleurer

10Proto-Kotoko South *tsɨwja cry pleurer 10.1) Zina (Odden) tʃùwjà cry, weep pleurer

11Proto-Musgum *tɨwa cry pleurer 11.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) tuwi pleurer, crier (pour des animaux) 11.2) Mbara (Tourneux) tuwa weep
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dzɨwɨɗ ʸ nf/m fly mouche (17 groups, 44 languages) A
This well-attested root is found in all groups except for the Tera group. There is support for the palatalisation prosody across the reconstructions of the forms of the group proto-languages. In many cases there is the common change *ɗ to /j/ under palatalization. In Proto-Bata *ɗ has been reduced to *ʔ, and in Proto-Kotoko North it has fused with *dz to form the ejective *tsʼ. Both of these are common sporadic changes. The *dz is variously realised as /d/, /z/, /ts/. The changes in Proto-Margi, Proto-Musgum and Proto-Kotoko Centre are regular, but the rest are unestablished. The *w has been lost in Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Gidar, which is a common sporadic change.

1Proto-Bata *dzɨʔɨ ʸ fly mouche 1.1) Bata (Boyd) dʒitto fly 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) dʒì ʼ í́lá cow fly. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) dʒiʼin Mouche 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) dʒiʼi mouche

2Proto-Daba *dzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) dʒedʒəweɗ fly (n) mouche 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) dʒiwiɗ fly (n) mouche 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) dʒidʒiwəɗ fly (n) mouche 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) tʃèdī la mouche

3Proto-Mafa *dzɨwaj fly mouche 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) dzúwáj mouche

4Proto-Sukur *dzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 4.1) Sukur (David) dʒuwi fly mouche 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) dʒui fly;- general term for flies.

5Proto-Hurza *dzɨwaj fly mouche 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) dzuwaj fly mouche 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) dzùwàj fly mouche

6Proto-Margi tsɨɗɨ ʸ fly mouche 6.1) Margi (Hoffman) tʃiɗi fly mouche 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) tʃəɗi fly (n) mouche 6.3) Bura (Blench) tʃiri General name for the fly and bee group of insects mouche

7Proto-Mandara *ⁿdzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 7.1) Matal (Branger) zwaj, zəwaj, zuwaj fly mouche 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ⁿdʒəwe,-ə mouche 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ⁿdʒáŋʷá mouche (f), espèce (sens figuré) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ⁿdʒəŋʷa fly mouche 7.5) Glavda (Owens) nğu fly mouche 7.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) nd͡ʒùja fly (n) mouche

8Proto-Mofu *dzɨwaj fly mouche 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) zùwàj fly mouche 8.2) Muyang (Smith) ezʉwi house fly; fly mouche 8.2.1) Muyang (Smith) ezʉwi dummy opponent in a game adversaire imaginaire dans un jeu de société 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) dʒəwaj fly mouche 8.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) dʒəwaj 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) dzìwe mouche f. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) dzuwe fly (n) mouche 8.6) Merey (Gravina) dzuwaj fly (n) mouche 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) dʒuwaj fly (n) mouche 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) dzùwáj mouche 8.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́dʒadʒəwaj mouche (nom gén.)

9Proto-Maroua *dzɨdzɨwɨɗ ʸ fly mouche 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dʒidʒiwiɗ(i) mouche 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) dʒidʒiwiɗ(i) abeille 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) dʒidʒiweɗ fly (n) mouche

10Proto-Lamang *ziwɗi fly mouche 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) ziɗi fly 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ziɗikʷ fly la mouche

11Proto-Higi *zʲɨwiɗ fly mouche 11.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ʒiwi fly (insect); housefly mouche 11.2) Kirya (Blench) ʒéw housefly mouche 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) ʒíɓ(i) mouche

12Proto-Kotoko Island *hadzu fly mouche 12.1) Buduma (McKone) hâdʒu mouche.

13Proto-Kotoko North *tsʼɨwi fly mouche 13.1) Afade (Allison) tsɨwi fly (n) mouche 13.2) Maltam (Allison) sʼiwi fly (n) mouche

14Proto-Kotoko Centre *zɨwiɗ fly mouche 14.1) Lagwan (Allison) zu fly (n) mouche 14.2) Mser (Allison) msʼɨwi fly (n) mouche

15Proto-Kotoko South *dzadzwi fly mouche 15.1) Zina (Odden) dʒàdʒwì fly (n) mouche

16Proto-Musgum *dɨwaj fly mouche 16.1) Vulum (Tourneux) aduwaj mouche 16.2) Mbara (Tourneux) tuwaj fly (insect) mouche

17Proto-Gidar *zɨkɗa ʸ fly mouche 17.1) Gidar (Hungerford) zikɗe mouche 17.2) Gidar (Schuh) zikɗe/e mouche
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