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ɗ


ɗakʷa ʸadj.whiteblanc717B
This root has two primary reflexes, *ɗakʷ and *kʷaɗ. The first is found in the Mandara and Musgum groups, and the second in the groups around the Mandara Mountains. It is not possible to be certain which of these constituted the Proto-Central Chadic root, or if it took the form *kʷaɗak. Palatalization is attested in many of the groups.
1Proto-Daba*kʷɨkʷɨɗak ʸwhiteblanc1.1MbudumNdokobaïkjkjɗːek(be) white(être) blanc2Proto-Mafa*kʷaɗ ʸwhiteblanc2.1MafaBarreteaukʷíɗ-kʷíɗɗeʼeblanc2.2CuvokGravinakʷeɗ kʷeɗtout blanc3Proto-Hurza*maɗakʷa ʸ, kʷaɗak ʸwhiteblanc3.1MbukoGravinakʷeɗekkʷeɗekwhitetout blanc1MbukoGravinakʷekʷeɗekwhiteblanc3.2VameKinnairdmēɗēkʷéwhiteblanc4Proto-Mandara*maɗakʷɨwhiteblanc4.1MatalBrangermǣɗɪ́kʷᵘ̀ɡāwhiteblanc4.2PodokoSwackhammermeɗékʷe,-ublancheur1PodokoSwackhammermeɗékʷeblanchir2PodokoSwackhammermeɗékulá meɗekʷele blanchir4.3GlavdaNghagyivamàɗᵊkʷa(be) white4.4DghwedeFrickmatʼakʷawhite5Proto-Mofu*kʷaɗak ʸwhiteblanc5.1OuldemeKinnairdmèɗèkʷèwhiteblanc5.2GemzekSabataikʷeɗek kʷeɗekblanc5.3MereyGravinakuɗekuɗekblanc1MereyGravinamezebe kʷeɗek herre(be) white(être) blanc5.4Mofu NorthBarreteaukʷēɗék kʷēɗékblanc5.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkʷéɗék kʷéɗékblanc (des cendres, de poussière, de froid)6Proto-Maroua*kʷaɗak ʸwhiteblanc6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷeɗekblanc7Proto-Musgum*mɨɗɨkʷɨjwhiteblanc7.1MulwiTourneuxmuɗukʷiiblanc7.2VulumTourneuxmuɗukʷiiblanc
ɗakʷɨrn.grey haircheveux gris717B
This root is possibly related to the root *ɗakʷa ʸ 'white'. As expected, the *r has become *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, i.e. Mandara, Mofu and Maroua, and in Cuvok (Mafa group). The labialisation component of *kʷ has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua and Proto-Daba, which is a common sporadic change. In these same languages, the resulting *k has become *h, an unestablished change. The initial *ɗ has been lost in many languages, which is a common sporadic change. This has resulted in compensatory reduplication in Daba, also a common sporadic change.
1Proto-Daba*hɨhɨl ʷgrey haircheveux gris1.1DabaLienhardhùhúlles cheveux gris2Proto-Mafa*kʷarajgrey haircheveux gris2.1CuvokGravinakʷalajwhite haircheveux blancs3Proto-Sukur*kʷirgrey haircheveux gris3.1SukurThomaskʷirgrey; having grey hair.4Proto-Hurza*ɗakʷargrey haircheveux gris4.1MbukoGravinaɗəɗukʷargrey hairscheveux gris1MbukoGravinadədukʷarcheveux gris4.2VameKinnairdākʷárhair, whitese dit des cheveux blancs qui se trouvent sur la tête d'un vieux.5Proto-Mandara*kʷɨlɨgrey haircheveux gris5.1PodokoSwackhammerkulala,-əcheveu blanc5.2MandaraFluckigerkulijecheveu blanc6Proto-Mofu*ɗakʷɨlgrey haircheveux gris6.1MuyangSmithɑkʷɑlwhite haircheveux blancs6.2MadaNkoumouakkʷalcheveux blancs6.3MolokoFriesenɗakʷəlwhite haircheveux blanc6.4ZulgoHallerakúlcheveux (m.pl.) blancs6.5GemzekSabataiakʷalwhite haircheveux blancs6.6MereyGravinamaɗakʷalwhite haircheveux blancs6.7DugworJubumnamaɗakolwhite haircheveux blancs6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthegʷelwhite haircheveux blancs7Proto-Maroua*hal ʷgrey haircheveux gris7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanholcheveux blancs7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouanholwhite haircheveux blancs
ɗapnf.millet ballboule de mil1026A
This root is the common word for the lump of cooked millet that forms the staple in the region. The root is extremely stable. It is found across the Northern Mandara Mountains and the Nigerian Plains. In Proto-Central Chadic, *p was realised as [f] word-finally, and this became phonemicized in the descendants of Proto-Central Chadic.
1Proto-Bata*ɗafafoodboule1.1JimiDjibiɗafanNourriture2Proto-Mafa*ɗafmilletboule2.1MafaNdokobaiɗaffoodboule de mil, repas2.2CuvokGravinaɗafboule3Proto-Sukur*ɗafmillet lumpboule de mil3.1SukurThomasɗaffood: things that people or animals eats.4Proto-Hurza*ɗafmilletboule4.1MbukoGravinaɗafmillet ball, foodboule de mil, nourriture4.2VameKinnairdɗə̄fkāboule de mil5Proto-Margi*ɗɨfɨmilletboule5.1MargiHoffmanɗəfəmush, boule5.2Margi SouthHarleydufaufood5.3KilbaSchuhɗəfatuwo, millet boule6Proto-Mandara*ɗafɨmilletboule6.1PodokoSwackhammerɗafá,-əboule, nourriture qui se mange avec la sauce6.2MandaraFluckigerɗáfácouscous (m), nourriture (f)6.3MalgwaLöhrɗafafood gen.(cooked)7Proto-Mofu*ɗafmilletboule7.1OuldemeKinnairdɗàffufuboule7.2MuyangSmithɗɑfball of millet couscous, staple foodboule de mil, nourriture de base7.3MolokoFriesenɗaffood; meal; boulerepas; boule7.4ZulgoHallerɗafboule (f.) de mil7.5GemzekSabataiɗaffoodnourriture7.6MereyGravinaɗafnourriture7.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗafsorghum ball"boule de mil" (fr. d'Afrique) ; nourriture8Proto-Maroua*ɗafmilletboule8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɗaf(Mj), ɗaf (Mt, Mv)nourriture, repas, manger (boule de mil plus sauce)8.2MbazlaTourneuxɗafboule9Proto-Lamang*ɗafamilletboule9.1LamangWolffɗafamillet boule9.2HdiBramlettɗafasorghum mush, foodla boule10Proto-Higi*ɗafamilletboule10.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɗafafood10.2KiryaBlenchɗàfàfood10.3BanaLienhardɗàfànourriture
ɗawɨkn.goatchèvre1542C
This is a well-attested Proto-Central Chadic root. The evidence for the initial *ɗ is limited. It is only present in Mofu-Gudur and Cuvok. In Sukur and the Maroua group it has the reflex *ʔ, and in the Musgum group it has the reflex *j, both of which are unestablished changes. In Mafa it has fused with *w to become /ɓ/, a common sporadic process. In Podoko, Mandara and Malgwa, the loss of *ɗ has been compensated for by the addition of a prefixed /n/, which is a common sporadic process in these languages. In many groups the *w has fused with the *k to create *kʷ. The *k or the *kʷ has also changed to *hʷ in the Bata and Daba groups, *gʷ in the Lamang group and *ɣʷ in the Kotoko Centre group. None of these changes are established as regular changes.
1Proto-Bata*ɨhʷɨgoatchèvre1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀hʷá - əgoat1.2SharwaGravinahʷəChèvre1SharwaGravinahʷəchèvre1.3TsuvanJohnstonahʷele chèvre2Proto-Daba*ŋhʷagoatchèvre2.1BuwalViljoenŋhʷɑgoatchèvre2.2GavarViljoenŋhʷɑgoatchèvre3Proto-Mafa*ɗawɨkgoatchèvre3.1MafaNdokobaiɓakʷ, ɓakʷaj, ɓakʷij hajchevre1MafaBarreteauɓókʷchèvre3.2CuvokGravinaɗakʷgoatchèvre4Proto-Sukur*ʔɨjɨkʷgoatchèvre4.1SukurThomasʼijukgoat; an animals with horns and a coat of hairs, that lives as demostic.4.2SukurDavidijukʼgoat5Proto-Hurza*awakgoatchèvre5.1MbukoGravinaawakgoatchèvre5.2VameKinnairdāwākgoatchèvre6Proto-Margi*kʷigoatchèvre6.1BuraBlenchkʷiGoat6.2MargiHoffmankugoat6.3KilbaSchuhkʷa/kugoat7Proto-Mandara*ɗawakgoatchèvre7.1MatalBrangerawakgoatchèvre7.2PodokoSwackhammernawá,-əchèvre7.3MandaraFluckigernáwimechèvre (f)7.4MalgwaLöhrnawegoat7.5GlavdaOwensaaggoat1GlavdaNghagyivaáːgʷagoat2GlavdaOwensdwággoat8Proto-Mofu*ɗawakgoatchèvre8.1OuldemeKinnairdāwákgoatchèvre8.2MuyangSmithɑwɑkgoatchèvre8.3MolokoFriesenawakgoatchèvre8.4ZulgoHallerawakchèvre f.1ZulgoHallerawákchèvre f.8.5GemzekSabataiawakgoatchèvre1GemzekSabataiawakgoatchèvre8.6MereyGravinawakgoatchèvre8.7DugworJubumnaawakgoatchèvre8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗakʷgoatchèvre (nom gén.), caprin9Proto-Maroua*ʔawɨgoatchèvre9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanʼawchèvre1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanawchèvre9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouawgoatchèvre9.3MbazlaTourneuxʼawuchèvre1MbazlaSILSurveyáwūʼgoatchèvre10Proto-Lamang*agʷɨgoatchèvre10.1LamangWolffógògoat10.2HdiBramlettgugoatla chèvre11Proto-Higi*kʷɨgoatchèvre11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykʷə1.goat.2.hearsay.11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykʷogoat11.3KiryaBlenchgoat11.4PsikyeAngelokʷəgoat11.5BanaLienhardkʷə̀chèvre12Proto-Kotoko Centre*nɣʷagoatchèvre12.1MserAllisonnɣogoatchèvre13Proto-Kotoko South*awagoatchèvre13.1ZinaOddenàwàgoatchèvre14Proto-Musgum*jawakgoatchèvre14.1VulumTourneuxjekchèvre14.2MbaraTourneuxwehe-goatbouc14.3MuskumTourneuxjawchèvre15Proto-Gidar*hawagoatchèvre15.1GidarHungerfordhawachèvre15.2GidarSchuhhawachèvre
ɗawɨmnf.bee, honeyabeille, miel1436C
This root is used both for the bee and for honey in most of the languages presented. In the proto-language reconstructions, 'honey' is given as the gloss, but only as a label. The reconstruction of the root poses several challenges. In the Daba and Mafa groups, the *ɗ and *w have fused, resulting in *ɓ in the Daba group and *ᵐgb in the Mafa groups. In many groups, the *ɗ or the *w has been lost. In many languages across almost all groups, this has triggered compensatory reduplication of the *m. In Mandara and Malgwa the loss has been compensated for by a prefixed /n/. In several languages the *w has been reanalysed as a vowel, or as the labialisation prosody. All of these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Daba*ɗawamhoneymiel1.1BuwalViljoenɓɑmɑmbeeabeille1.2GavarViljoenɑmɑmbeeabeille1.3MbudumNdokobaïɓəɓambeeabeille1.4DabaLienhardɓòɓómle miel, l'abeille2Proto-Mafa*ᵐgbamhoneymiel2.1CuvokGravinamgbambeeabeille1CuvokGravinamgbamhoneymiel3Proto-Sukur*mamhoneymiel3.1SukurDavidmamhoney3.2SukurThomasmamhoney; a sweet sticky yellow substance made by bees.4Proto-Hurza*wɨmamhoneymiel4.1MbukoGravinaumambeeabeille1MbukoGravinaumamhoneymiel4.2VameKinnairdāmə̄māk 1beeabeille1VameKinnairdāmə̄māk 2honeymiel5Proto-Margi*wɨmɨhoneymiel5.1BuraBlenchmumaHoney5.2MargiHoffmanməməhoney6Proto-Mandara*ɗamahoneymiel6.1PodokoSwackhammermama,-ə 1abeille1PodokoSwackhammermama,-ə 2miel6.2MandaraFluckigernamamiel (m), abeille (f)6.3MalgwaLöhrnamabee, honey6.4GlavdaNghagyivamàmːbee7Proto-Mofu*awɨmhoneymiel7.1OuldemeKinnairdāmābeeabeille1OuldemeKinnairdāmāhoneymiel7.2MuyangSmithàmúhoney, beemiel, abeille7.3MadaNkoumouámaabeille7.4MolokoFriesenomomhoneymiel7.5ZulgoHalleramúmabeille f.7.6GemzekSabataiawombeeabeille7.7MereyGravinawumbeeabeille1MereyGravinawumhoneymiel7.8DugworJubumnaamamhoneymiel7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthamambee, honeyabeille 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthamammiel8Proto-Maroua*amamhoneymiel8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouamamhoneymiel1Giziga MarvaHamidouamambeeabeille8.2MbazlaTourneuxʼamammiel9Proto-Lamang*omohoneymiel9.1LamangWolffómóhoney10Proto-Kotoko North*mamhoneymiel10.1AfadeAllisonmambeeabeille10.2MalgbeAllisonmamhoneymiel1MalgbeAllisonmambeeabeille10.3MpadeAllisonmàmhoneymiel1MpadeAllisonmàmbeeabeille11Proto-Kotoko Centre*imamhoneymiel11.1LagwanAllisonimanhoneymiel1LagwanAllisonimanbeeabeille11.2MserAllisonmamhoneymiel1MserAllisonmambeeabeille12Proto-Kotoko South*amamahoneymiel12.1ZinaOddenámámáhoneymiel13Proto-Musgum*wamajhoneymiel13.1VulumTourneuxaamiiabeille13.2MbaraTourneuxmomojbeeabeille1MbaraTourneuxmomojhoneymiel13.3MuskumTourneuxamtuabeille14Proto-Gidar*amɨmahoneymiel14.1GidarSchuhaməma/amiel14.2GidarHungerfordamamaabeille
ɗɨjɨkʷn.birdoiseau931A
This is the generic term for a small bird. The initial *ɗ is attested in most groups. In Sukur, Margi South, Kilba, Mandara, Margi and Bana the *ɗ and *j have fused to create /ʔʲ/, which is a common sporadic process. In the Tera group the *j has probably been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, and in Bura and Dghwede it has been reanalysed as a vowel. The labialisation on the *kʷ is reconstructed on the basis of its presence in the Margi group, with support from the Higi, Maroua and Mofu groups. The reason for the development of *ŋʷ in the Mofu group is unclear.
1Proto-Mafa*ɗɨjakbirdoiseau1.1MafaBarreteauɗijakoiseau. nom gén. des petits oiseaux1.2CuvokGravinaɗijakbirdoiseau2Proto-Tera*ɗikibirdoiseau2.1TeraNewmanɗikibird2.2NyimatliHarleydjikabird3Proto-Sukur*ʔʲakbirdoiseau3.1SukurDavidʼjakbird3.2SukurThomasʼjakbird;- is a general term for flying birds.4Proto-Margi*ɗɨjakʷbirdoiseau4.1BuraBlenchɗíkáBird4.2MargiHoffmanʼikjibird4.3Margi SouthHoffmanʼjagubird4.4KilbaHoffmanʼjagubird1KilbaSchuhʼjaku/əbird5Proto-Mandara*ɗɨjakbirdoiseau5.1MatalBrangerɗəjaŋ, ɗijaŋbirdoiseau5.2PodokoSwackhammerɗija,-aoiseau5.3MandaraFluckigerƴieoiseau (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrɠjijebird gen.5.5GlavdaNghagyivaɗìːkabird1GlavdaOwensďiíbird5.6DghwedeFricktʼiᵑgebird6Proto-Mofu*ɗɨjɨŋʷbirdoiseau6.1OuldemeKinnairdāɗēŋʷoiseau6.2MuyangSmitheɗiŋbird (general word)oiseau (mot général)6.3MolokoFrieseneɗəjenbirdoiseau6.4ZulgoHallerɗijeŋoiseau m.6.5GemzekSabataidijiŋbirdoiseau1GemzekSabataiɗijiŋbirdoiseau6.6MereyGravinaɗijeŋbirdoiseau6.7DugworJubumnaɗijeŋbirdoiseau6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗijaŋoiseau (nom gén.)7Proto-Maroua*ɗɨjɨwbirdoiseau7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɗiju(w)oiseau (en général)7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɗijewbirdoiseau7.3MbazlaTourneuxɗijawoiseau8Proto-Lamang*ɗɨjakbirdoiseau8.1LamangWolffɗíjákábird8.2HdiBramlettɗijakbirdl'oiseau9Proto-Higi*ɗɨjɨkʷɨbirdoiseau9.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyijobird9.2KiryaBlenchíkə́bird9.3BanaLienhardʼjìgʷùoiseau
ɗɨjɨmnm.watereau1753A
The *ɗ is reconstructed on the evidence from the Bata, Tera, Hurza, Kotoko South and Musgum groups. In all of these groups there is evidence for a glottal element, in most cases [ʔ]. In the Tera group the *ɗ and *j have fused to form /ɗʲ/.
1Proto-Bata*maʔiwatereau1.1GudeHoskinsonmàʼínəwater1.2JimiDjibimaʼiEau1.3SharwaGravinamaʼieau2Proto-Daba*jɨmwatereau2.1BuwalViljoenjɑmwatereau1BuwalViljoenjɑmcolourcouleur2BuwalViljoenjɑmjuicejus2.2GavarViljoenjəmwatereau1GavarViljoenjəmcolourcouleur2.3MbudumNdokobaïjimwatereau2.4DabaLienhardjə̄ml'eau3Proto-Mafa*jamwatereau3.1MafaNdokobaijamwatereau 3.2CuvokGravinajamwatereau4Proto-Tera*ɗʲɨmwatereau4.1TeraNewmanƴimwater4.2NyimatliHarleyɗjimwater4.3HwanaHarleyāːmáwater5Proto-Sukur*jamwatereau5.1SukurDavidijamwater, rain5.2SukurThomasjamwater6Proto-Hurza*aʔamwatereau6.1MbukoGravinaaʼamwatereau6.2VameKinnairdāhʷámwatereau7Proto-Margi*jimiwatereau7.1MargiHoffmanʼimiwater7.2Margi SouthHarleyimiwater7.3BuraBlenchjimiWater8Proto-Mandara*jɨwɨwatereau8.1MatalBrangerjːāwwatereau8.2PodokoSwackhammerjəwá,-əeau, jus8.3MandaraFluckigerjaweeau (f)8.4MalgwaLöhrjawewater8.5GlavdaNghagyivajùwawater1GlavdaOwensíiwater2GlavdaOwensjuwater, color8.6DghwedeFrickjiwewater9Proto-Mofu*jamwatereau9.1OuldemeKinnairdjàmwatereau9.2MuyangSmithjamwater ; colour ; interestl'eau; couleur; intérêt9.3MolokoFriesenjamwatereau9.4ZulgoHallerjameau f.9.5GemzekSabataijaml' eau9.6MereyGravinajamwatereau9.7DugworJubumnajamwatereau1DugworJubumnajamjuicejus9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaujàmeau9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthjamwatereau ; jus 10Proto-Maroua*jamwatereau10.1Giziga MarvaHamidoujamwatereau10.2MbazlaTourneuxjameau11Proto-Lamang*imiwatereau11.1LamangWolffímíwater11.2HdiBramlettimiwaterl'eau12Proto-Higi*jamewatereau12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyjamewater12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyjemjiwater12.3KiryaBlenchjàmə́water12.4PsikyeAngelojemúwater12.5BanaLienhardjàmeau13Proto-Kotoko Island*amajwatereau13.1BudumaMcKoneamajwatereau14Proto-Kotoko North*amewatereau14.1AfadeAllisonamewatereau14.2MpadeAllisonàméwatereau14.3MalgbeAllisonamwatereau15Proto-Kotoko Centre*amwatereau15.1LagwanAllisonamwatereau15.2MserAllisonamwatereau16Proto-Kotoko South*aʔɨmwatereau16.1ZinaOddenámíwatereau16.2MazeraAllisonaʔɨmwatereau17Proto-Musgum*ʔɨjamwatereau17.1VulumTourneuxjemeau17.2MbaraTourneuxʼamwater17.3MuskumTourneuxjamueau
ɗɨkɨn ʸnm.claw, fingernailgriffe, ongle610A
The languages where this root is attested are relatively few, but spread over a wide area. This may indicate that the root did exist in Proto-Central Chadic. The initial *ɗ is realised as /r/ in Cuvok, which is an unestablished change, and in the Kotoko North and Centre groups it has fused with the *k to create the velar ejective *kʼ, which is a common sporadic process. There is no known process to account for the initial /h/ in Mazera. In Kotoko North and Centre, there is prenasalisation of the initial consonant, a common sporadic process. The *k has the reflex /h/ in Cuvok and Hdi, an unestablished process. The final *n has become /ŋ/ in Cuvok, Mbazla and Hdi, which is a regular change. The change *n to /r/ in Maltam and Mser is a common but non-systematic process. The reconstruction of the palatalisation prosody is supported by the presence of the prosody in Cuvok and Mbazla.
1Proto-Mafa*rɨhaŋ ʸclawgriffe1.1CuvokGravinarəheŋfingernailongle1CuvokGravinarəheŋclawgriffe2Proto-Maroua*ɗɨkɨŋ ʸclawgriffe2.1MbazlaTourneuxɗikiŋgriffe, ongle1MbazlaSILSurveylìkíŋclawgriffe3Proto-Lamang*ɗahɨŋclawgriffe3.1HdiBramlettɗahəŋclaw, fingernailla griffe, l'ongle4Proto-Kotoko North*nkʼanclawgriffe4.1AfadeAllisonnkʼanfingernailongle4.2MpadeAllisonnkʼanclawgriffe1MpadeAllisonnkʼanfingernailongle4.3MalgbeAllisonnkʼɨnclawgriffe1MalgbeAllisonnkʼɨnfingernailongle4.4MaltamAllisonᵑgareclawgriffe5Proto-Kotoko Centre*nkʼɨnclawgriffe5.1LagwanAllisonnkʼɨniclawgriffe5.2MserAllisonnkʼɨrclawgriffe1MserAllisonnkʼɨrfingernailongle6Proto-Kotoko South*hɨkɨneclawgriffe6.1MazeraAllisonkʷare; hɨkɨne; hakanefingernailongle
ɗiɬnm.boneos1443Bsynkɨrakaɬ ʸ
This widely-attested root is close to the root *ɗɨɬɨj 'egg', but the presence of *i in the root rather than a final *j makes a big difference to the reflexes in individual languages. The initial *ɗ is realised as *t in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Sukur, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Maroua, an unestablished change. It has been lost in many groups, triggering compensatory reduplication in the Mandara and Kotoko South groups, and in some Mofu group languages. It has fused with the *i in the Tera and Higi groups to create a palatalised glottal or a velar implosive. In the Kotoko North and South groups it has fused with the *ɬ to create an ejective. These fusion processes are common sporadic changes. The *ɬ is expected to have the reflex *ɮ in the groups of the South sub-branch, but for this root it is only the case in the Bata group. Within the Bata group there is a subsequent change *ɮ to *l. In the Margi group and in Mandara and Malgwa in the Mandara group, *ɬ has become palatalised by processes originating with *i, and *ɬʲ has then been velarised to /hʲ/ as part of a regular process. Regular processes give *ɬ the reflexes *s in the Proto-Kotoko South and Mser, /ʃ/ in Mpade and /h/ in Buduma. In Mser the /ʃ/ is due to the effect of the front vowel on *s.
1Proto-Bata*iɮɨboneos1.1BachamaSkinneruulebone1.2GudeHoskinsonìlá -əbone.1.3JimiDjibiilənOs1.4SharwaGravinaalləos1.5TsuvanJohnstoniɮel'os2Proto-Mafa*taɬ, ɬaɬarboneos2.1MafaBarreteautáɬos2.2CuvokGravinaɬaɬarboneos3Proto-Tera*ɠɨɬiboneos3.1TeraNewmanɠəɬbone3.2NyimatliHarleyqu̱ɬibone3.3GaʼandaGwajielabone4Proto-Sukur*taɬboneos4.1SukurDavidtaɬbone4.2SukurThomastaɬbone; any of the hard parts that form the skeleton of the body of a human and an animal.5Proto-Margi*ɗaɬɨ ʸboneos5.1BuraBlenchɗjàhùBone5.2KilbaSchuhɗihjibone6Proto-Mandara*ɬaɬiboneos6.1MatalBrangeraɬaɬboneos6.2PodokoSwackhammerɬaɬa,-əos6.3MandaraFluckigerhjáhjéos (m)6.4MalgwaLöhrhjehjebone6.5GlavdaOwensłabone1GlavdaNghagyivaɬàɬabone6.6DghwedeFrickɬaɬabone7Proto-Mofu*ɨtaɬboneos7.1OuldemeKinnairdàɬàɬboneos7.2MuyangSmithɑɬɑtboneos7.3MadaNkoumouaɬaɬos7.4ZulgoHalleratáɬos m.7.5GemzekSabataiataɬboneos7.6MereyGravinamətaɬboneos7.7DugworJubumnamətaɬboneos7.8Mofu NorthBarreteauⁿdàɬos8Proto-Maroua*ataɬ ʸboneos8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanteɬ(e), ateɬ(Mv), eteɬ (j)os, arrête8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouateɬboneos8.3MbazlaTourneuxʼaʼaɬos9Proto-Higi*ʔʲiɬɨboneos9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼjithləbone9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyiɬabone9.3KiryaBlenchíɬə́bone9.4BanaLienhardéɬêros (pl.)1BanaLienhardʼjíɬə́os10Proto-Kotoko Island*ahajboneos10.1BudumaMcKoneahajboneos11Proto-Kotoko North*enslʼiboneos11.1AfadeAllisonenɬʼiboneos11.2MpadeAllisonènʃíboneos11.3MalgbeAllisonenɬɨboneos12Proto-Kotoko Centre*eɬiboneos12.1LagwanAllisonaɬɨboneos12.2MserAllisonenʃiboneos13Proto-Kotoko South*asisʼɨboneos13.1ZinaOddenàsàsə̀boneos13.2MazeraAllisonasisʼeboneos14Proto-Gidar*ɬaŋɬaŋ ʸboneos14.1GidarHungerfordɬeŋɬeŋos14.2GidarSchuhɬeᵑgɬeᵑgos
ɗɨɬ ʸv.hatchéclore56Acfɗɨɬɨjtsaɬ ʸ
This root is related to *ɗɨɬɨj 'egg'. In Buwal and Cuvok, the palatalisation prosody has caused *ɗʲ to become *j.
1Proto-Daba*jaɬhatchéclore1.1BuwalViljoenjɑɬhatchéclore1BuwalViljoenjɑɬproduceproduire2Proto-Mafa*jɨɬahatchéclore2.1CuvokGravinajiɬahatchéclore3Proto-Hurzaɗɨɬ ʸhatchéclore3.1MbukoGravinaɗəɗeɬhatchéclore3.2VameKinnairdɗūɬíjāhatchéclore4Proto-Mofuɗɨɬ ʸhatchéclore4.1MuyangSmithɗiɬhatchéclore5Proto-Gidar*wɨdaɬa ʸhatchéclore5.1GidarHungerfordwədeɬeéclore
ɗɨɬɨjnm.eggœuf1650Acfɗɨɬ ʸ
This is one of the most widely attested roots that have been reconstructed. There is significant variety in the realisations, where we can see evidence of most of the significant processes that have taken place in Central Chadic. In the Daba and Musgum groups there has been metathesis of the *ɗ and the *ɬ, and in the Higi group there has been metathesis of the *ɬ and *j. Metathesis is common, but not predictable. In the Maroua and Musgum groups, the *ɗ has become *t, though this change has not been established as a regular change. In many groups the *ɗ has been lost, and this has triggered compensatory reduplication in the Mafa, Margi and Lamang groups, and compensatory prefixation in the Daba group. The final *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Daba, Proto-Margi and Proto-Maroua, and as a vowel in Proto-Bata, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Lamang. These processes are all common, but not predictable. The *ɬ has become *ɮ in the languages of the South sub-branch, i.e. Proto-Bata, Proto-Daba and Proto-Sukur, as part of a regular process, though not in the Mafa group. There is a subsequent regular change *ɮ to /l/ within the Bata group. In the Margi group and Glavda from the Mandara group, the *j or the palatalisation prosody has created *ɬʲ, which is then velarised as part of a regular sporadic process affecting palatalised alveolar consonants, resulting in /hʲ/. *ɬ is realised as /s/ in the Kotoko South group and Mser, and as /ʃ/ in Mpade, both of which are regular processes. The prenasalisation found in some of the Kotoko groups is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*ɗaɮieggoeuf1.1GudeHoskinsonàlínəegg.1.2JimiDjibialinOeuf1.3SharwaGravinaallioeuf, oeux1.4BataBoydɗùùleegg2Proto-Daba*naɮɨɗ ʸeggoeuf2.1BuwalViljoenneɬeeggœuf2.2GavarViljoenɑnɬieggœuf2.3MbudumNdokobaïmiɬiɗeggœuf2.4DabaLienhardnèɮī ʼl'oeuf3Proto-Mafa*ɬaɬajeggoeuf3.1MafaNdokobaiɬaɬajoeuf3.2CuvokGravinaɬeɬejeggœuf4Proto-Sukur*ɗaᵑgaɮajeggoeuf4.1SukurDavidⁿdaŋaɮajegg4.2SukurThomasɗaᵑgaɮaiegg5Proto-Hurza*ɬajeggoeuf5.1MbukoGravinaɬajegg(s)oeuf, oeux5.2VameKinnairdɮájeggoeuf6Proto-Margi*ɬɨɬɨ ʸeggoeuf6.1MargiHoffmanihjiegg6.2KilbaSchuhhjihjiegg(s)6.3BuraBlenchhihiEgg7Proto-Mandara*ɗɨɬɨjaeggoeuf7.1MatalBrangerɬaɬajeggoeuf7.2PodokoSwackhammerɬɨɬe,-ioeuf7.3MandaraFluckigerɬájáoeuf (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrthlajaegg(s)7.5GlavdaOwensçiegg, testes1GlavdaNghagyivaçìːjaegg7.6DghwedeFrickɬəɬeegg8Proto-Mofu*ɗɨɬɨjeggoeuf8.1OuldemeKinnairdɬàɬájeggoeuf8.2MuyangSmithejɬieggoeuf1MuyangSmithejɬieggoeuf8.3MolokoFrieseneɬeɬeɗeggoeuf8.4ZulgoHallerɬèɬéoeuf m.8.5GemzekSabataiɗəɬeeggœuf8.6MereyGravinaɗəɬeeggœuf1MereyGravinaɗəɬeeggœuf8.7DugworJubumnaaɬajeggœuf8.8Mofu NorthBarreteauɬéɬēɗoeuf8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɬeɬéɗoeuf9Proto-Maroua*ataɬ ʸeggoeuf9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanteɬ(e), ateɬ(Mv), eteɬ (j)oeuf9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouateɬeggœuf9.3MbazlaTourneuxaɬajœuf10Proto-Lamang*ɬiɬieggoeuf10.1LamangWolffɬíɬíeggs10.2HdiBramlettɬiɬikeggl'oeuf11Proto-Higi*jɨɬɨeggoeuf11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɬiɬəegg11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyjəɬeegg11.3KiryaBlenchɬìɬí kòntə́káegg11.4BanaLienhardɬìɬìoeufs12Proto-Kotoko North*enɬɨeggoeuf12.1AfadeAllisonenɬoeggœuf12.2MpadeAllisonènʃóeggœuf12.3MalgbeAllisonenɬɨeggœuf13Proto-Kotoko Centre*enɬɨeggoeuf13.1LagwanAllisonnɬɨeggœuf13.2MserAllisonensɨeggœuf14Proto-Kotoko South*nsieggoeuf14.1ZinaOddennsíeggœuf15Proto-Musgum*ɮat ʸeggoeuf15.1VulumTourneuxeŋɮeoeuf15.2MbaraTourneuxŋɮaegg15.3MuskumTourneuxɮetoeuf16Proto-Gidar*ɗaᵑgɮa ʸeggoeuf16.1GidarSchuhɗeᵑgɮe/eoeuf16.2GidarHungerfordɗeŋle, ɗeŋleɗeoeuf, oeufs
ɗɨrɨnɨh ʸn.tonguelangue418Csynɣanaɗ ʸnaɬɨj
This root is difficult to establish. The initial *ɗ has support from some languages in the Mofu and Maroua groups, either as /ɗ/ or as /ʔ/. The medial *n is expected to have become *r in the Mandara group and parts of the Mofu group, whilst the *r should have become *l in all the groups that are represented except the Mafa group. It is possible that the resulting sequence was reduced from *lɨr to *lr to *r in the Mandara and Mofu groups, which would explain the surface forms that we find. The /l/ in Matal is a regular change from the resulting *r. The *ɗ and *h have both been lost in many languages, which is a common sporadic change. In Mandara and Malgwa, the loss of the *ɗ has triggered compensatory prefixation of /n/. The palatalisation prosody is present in three of the four groups.
1Proto-Mafa*lanaŋ ʸtonguelangue1.1MafaBarreteaulénélangue1MafaBarreteauléʼénlangue1.2CuvokGravinaneneŋtonguelangue2Proto-Mandara*ɨrɨhtonguelangue2.1MatalBrangerālàhtonguelangue2.2MandaraFluckigernaralangue (f)2.3MalgwaLöhrnaretongue2.4GlavdaNghagyivaɛ̄ɾɛ̄xatongue2.5DghwedeFrickrəxetongue3Proto-Mofu*ɗɨrɨnah ʸtonguelangue3.1OuldemeKinnairdmàrótonguelangue3.2MuyangSmitharəɗtongue ; budlangue; bourgeon3.3MadaNkoumouárralangue3.4MolokoFrieseńhərnektonguelangue3.5ZulgoHalleràràhlangue f.3.6GemzekSabataiarahtonguelangue3.7MereyGravinaɗərnehlangue3.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthnenehlangue (organe) (Gud.)1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗərnelangue (organe) (Mokong)4Proto-Maroua*ɗɨrna ʸtonguelangue4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanʼirne, irnelangue4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouirnetonguelangue1Giziga MarvaHamidouirnelanguagelangue, langage4.3MbazlaTourneuxnelangue1MbazlaSILSurveynɛ́ʼtonguelangue
ɗɨwahnf.breastsein1342A
The basic sense of the root is 'breast', but in many languages it is also covers the concept 'milk'. The history of the root is complicated due to the fact that all three of the consonants in the root are prone to reanalysis or loss. The initial *ɗ is only retained in some languages of the Mofu and Maroua groups. In many cases it has fused with the *w to create either *ʔʷ or *ɓ, which is a common sporadic process. It has been lost in the Mafa and Kotoko Centre groups. The final *h has been lost in the majority of languages, but is retained in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. When the *w has not fused with *ɗ, it is retained.
1Proto-Bata*ʔʷabreastsein1.1BataBoydwàtouncooked fresh milk, lait cru1.2GudeHoskinsonʼwánə(inher. poss., body part) breast, milk1.3JimiDjibiwanlait1.4SharwaGravinaʼwasein, lait1.5TsuvanJohnstonʼwakənle lait2Proto-Daba*ʔʷabreastsein2.1BuwalViljoenbreast; milk; uddersein; lait; pis, mamelle2.2GavarViljoenŋʼwɑudder; breast; milkmamelle; sein (mamelle); lait2.3MbudumNdokobaïwaudder; breastpis, mamelle; sein (mamelle)3Proto-Mafa*wabreastsein3.1MafaBarreteauwasein3.2CuvokGravinawabreast; uddersein (mamelle); pis, mamelle4Proto-Tera*ɓiɓibreastsein4.1TeraNewmanɓuɓu, ɓiɓibreast, fem.4.2NyimatliHarleyɓiɓibreast5Proto-Sukur*ʔʷabreast, milksein, lait5.1SukurDavidʼwabreast5.2SukurThomasʼwabreast; milk:- is a milk from the breast of either human female and animals.6Proto-Margi*ʔɨwabreastsein6.1BuraBlenchʼùwàWoman’s breast6.2MargiHoffmanuʼwabreast, milk6.3Margi SouthHarleyuʼwabreast6.4KilbaSchuhʼwabreast; milk7Proto-Mandara*wɨɓabreastsein7.1MatalBrangerawabreastsein7.2PodokoSwackhammeruɓa,-asein; lait7.3MandaraFluckigerubemamelle (f), sein (m), tétine (f)7.4MalgwaLöhruuɓebreast, female7.5GlavdaNghagyivaùːɓabreast7.6DghwedeFrickwupʼabreast, milk8Proto-Mofu*ɗɨwahbreastsein8.1OuldemeKinnairdāɗūwábreast; milksein; lait8.2MuyangSmithɗuwɑbreast ; milklait; mamelle; sein8.3MadaNkoumouɗwalait; sein (mamelle)8.4ZulgoHalleràwàhlait m.; sein m.8.5GemzekSabataiawahbreastsein (mamelle)8.6MereyGravinawahudder; breastpis, mamelle; sein (mamelle)8.7DugworJubumnaawahudder; breastpis, mamelle; sein (mamelle)8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗəwásein, mamelle, pis; lait9Proto-Maroua*ɗɨwabreastsein9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɗuwalait, sein, mamelle9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɗuwabreast; uddersein (mamelle); pis, mamelle9.3MbazlaTourneuxʼwasein, lait1MbazlaSILSurveywāʼbreastsein10Proto-Lamang*ɗɨwabreastsein10.1LamangWolffúɓábreast, milk10.2HdiBramlettuʼabreastle sein11Proto-Higi*ʔʷabreastsein11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyuwobreast (women's)11.2KiryaBlenchʼwábreast, milk11.3BanaLienhardʼwálait, sein12Proto-Kotoko North*eʔʷibreastsein12.1AfadeAllisoneʔwibreastsein (mamelle)12.2MaltamAllisoneᵐbibreastsein (mamelle)13Proto-Kotoko Centre*iwibreastsein13.1LagwanAllisoniwibreast; uddersein (mamelle); pis, mamelle


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ɗ


ɗakʷa ʸadj.whiteblanc717B
This root has two primary reflexes, *ɗakʷ and *kʷaɗ. The first is found in the Mandara and Musgum groups, and the second in the groups around the Mandara Mountains. It is not possible to be certain which of these constituted the Proto-Central Chadic root, or if it took the form *kʷaɗak. Palatalization is attested in many of the groups.
1Proto-Daba*kʷɨkʷɨɗak ʸwhiteblanc1.1MbudumNdokobaïkjkjɗːek(be) white(être) blanc2Proto-Mafa*kʷaɗ ʸwhiteblanc2.1MafaBarreteaukʷíɗ-kʷíɗɗeʼeblanc2.2CuvokGravinakʷeɗ kʷeɗtout blanc3Proto-Hurza*maɗakʷa ʸ, kʷaɗak ʸwhiteblanc3.1MbukoGravinakʷeɗekkʷeɗekwhitetout blanc1MbukoGravinakʷekʷeɗekwhiteblanc3.2VameKinnairdmēɗēkʷéwhiteblanc4Proto-Mandara*maɗakʷɨwhiteblanc4.1MatalBrangermǣɗɪ́kʷᵘ̀ɡāwhiteblanc4.2PodokoSwackhammermeɗékʷe,-ublancheur1PodokoSwackhammermeɗékʷeblanchir2PodokoSwackhammermeɗékulá meɗekʷele blanchir4.3GlavdaNghagyivamàɗᵊkʷa(be) white4.4DghwedeFrickmatʼakʷawhite5Proto-Mofu*kʷaɗak ʸwhiteblanc5.1OuldemeKinnairdmèɗèkʷèwhiteblanc5.2GemzekSabataikʷeɗek kʷeɗekblanc5.3MereyGravinakuɗekuɗekblanc1MereyGravinamezebe kʷeɗek herre(be) white(être) blanc5.4Mofu NorthBarreteaukʷēɗék kʷēɗékblanc5.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkʷéɗék kʷéɗékblanc (des cendres, de poussière, de froid)6Proto-Maroua*kʷaɗak ʸwhiteblanc6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷeɗekblanc7Proto-Musgum*mɨɗɨkʷɨjwhiteblanc7.1MulwiTourneuxmuɗukʷiiblanc7.2VulumTourneuxmuɗukʷiiblanc
ɗakʷɨrn.grey haircheveux gris717B
This root is possibly related to the root *ɗakʷa ʸ 'white'. As expected, the *r has become *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, i.e. Mandara, Mofu and Maroua, and in Cuvok (Mafa group). The labialisation component of *kʷ has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua and Proto-Daba, which is a common sporadic change. In these same languages, the resulting *k has become *h, an unestablished change. The initial *ɗ has been lost in many languages, which is a common sporadic change. This has resulted in compensatory reduplication in Daba, also a common sporadic change.
1Proto-Daba*hɨhɨl ʷgrey haircheveux gris1.1DabaLienhardhùhúlles cheveux gris2Proto-Mafa*kʷarajgrey haircheveux gris2.1CuvokGravinakʷalajwhite haircheveux blancs3Proto-Sukur*kʷirgrey haircheveux gris3.1SukurThomaskʷirgrey; having grey hair.4Proto-Hurza*ɗakʷargrey haircheveux gris4.1MbukoGravinaɗəɗukʷargrey hairscheveux gris1MbukoGravinadədukʷarcheveux gris4.2VameKinnairdākʷárhair, whitese dit des cheveux blancs qui se trouvent sur la tête d'un vieux.5Proto-Mandara*kʷɨlɨgrey haircheveux gris5.1PodokoSwackhammerkulala,-əcheveu blanc5.2MandaraFluckigerkulijecheveu blanc6Proto-Mofu*ɗakʷɨlgrey haircheveux gris6.1MuyangSmithɑkʷɑlwhite haircheveux blancs6.2MadaNkoumouakkʷalcheveux blancs6.3MolokoFriesenɗakʷəlwhite haircheveux blanc6.4ZulgoHallerakúlcheveux (m.pl.) blancs6.5GemzekSabataiakʷalwhite haircheveux blancs6.6MereyGravinamaɗakʷalwhite haircheveux blancs6.7DugworJubumnamaɗakolwhite haircheveux blancs6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthegʷelwhite haircheveux blancs7Proto-Maroua*hal ʷgrey haircheveux gris7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanholcheveux blancs7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouanholwhite haircheveux blancs
ɗapnf.millet ballboule de mil1026A
This root is the common word for the lump of cooked millet that forms the staple in the region. The root is extremely stable. It is found across the Northern Mandara Mountains and the Nigerian Plains. In Proto-Central Chadic, *p was realised as [f] word-finally, and this became phonemicized in the descendants of Proto-Central Chadic.
1Proto-Bata*ɗafafoodboule1.1JimiDjibiɗafanNourriture2Proto-Mafa*ɗafmilletboule2.1MafaNdokobaiɗaffoodboule de mil, repas2.2CuvokGravinaɗafboule3Proto-Sukur*ɗafmillet lumpboule de mil3.1SukurThomasɗaffood: things that people or animals eats.4Proto-Hurza*ɗafmilletboule4.1MbukoGravinaɗafmillet ball, foodboule de mil, nourriture4.2VameKinnairdɗə̄fkāboule de mil5Proto-Margi*ɗɨfɨmilletboule5.1MargiHoffmanɗəfəmush, boule5.2Margi SouthHarleydufaufood5.3KilbaSchuhɗəfatuwo, millet boule6Proto-Mandara*ɗafɨmilletboule6.1PodokoSwackhammerɗafá,-əboule, nourriture qui se mange avec la sauce6.2MandaraFluckigerɗáfácouscous (m), nourriture (f)6.3MalgwaLöhrɗafafood gen.(cooked)7Proto-Mofu*ɗafmilletboule7.1OuldemeKinnairdɗàffufuboule7.2MuyangSmithɗɑfball of millet couscous, staple foodboule de mil, nourriture de base7.3MolokoFriesenɗaffood; meal; boulerepas; boule7.4ZulgoHallerɗafboule (f.) de mil7.5GemzekSabataiɗaffoodnourriture7.6MereyGravinaɗafnourriture7.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗafsorghum ball"boule de mil" (fr. d'Afrique) ; nourriture8Proto-Maroua*ɗafmilletboule8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɗaf(Mj), ɗaf (Mt, Mv)nourriture, repas, manger (boule de mil plus sauce)8.2MbazlaTourneuxɗafboule9Proto-Lamang*ɗafamilletboule9.1LamangWolffɗafamillet boule9.2HdiBramlettɗafasorghum mush, foodla boule10Proto-Higi*ɗafamilletboule10.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɗafafood10.2KiryaBlenchɗàfàfood10.3BanaLienhardɗàfànourriture
ɗawɨkn.goatchèvre1542C
This is a well-attested Proto-Central Chadic root. The evidence for the initial *ɗ is limited. It is only present in Mofu-Gudur and Cuvok. In Sukur and the Maroua group it has the reflex *ʔ, and in the Musgum group it has the reflex *j, both of which are unestablished changes. In Mafa it has fused with *w to become /ɓ/, a common sporadic process. In Podoko, Mandara and Malgwa, the loss of *ɗ has been compensated for by the addition of a prefixed /n/, which is a common sporadic process in these languages. In many groups the *w has fused with the *k to create *kʷ. The *k or the *kʷ has also changed to *hʷ in the Bata and Daba groups, *gʷ in the Lamang group and *ɣʷ in the Kotoko Centre group. None of these changes are established as regular changes.
1Proto-Bata*ɨhʷɨgoatchèvre1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀hʷá - əgoat1.2SharwaGravinahʷəChèvre1SharwaGravinahʷəchèvre1.3TsuvanJohnstonahʷele chèvre2Proto-Daba*ŋhʷagoatchèvre2.1BuwalViljoenŋhʷɑgoatchèvre2.2GavarViljoenŋhʷɑgoatchèvre3Proto-Mafa*ɗawɨkgoatchèvre3.1MafaNdokobaiɓakʷ, ɓakʷaj, ɓakʷij hajchevre1MafaBarreteauɓókʷchèvre3.2CuvokGravinaɗakʷgoatchèvre4Proto-Sukur*ʔɨjɨkʷgoatchèvre4.1SukurThomasʼijukgoat; an animals with horns and a coat of hairs, that lives as demostic.4.2SukurDavidijukʼgoat5Proto-Hurza*awakgoatchèvre5.1MbukoGravinaawakgoatchèvre5.2VameKinnairdāwākgoatchèvre6Proto-Margi*kʷigoatchèvre6.1BuraBlenchkʷiGoat6.2MargiHoffmankugoat6.3KilbaSchuhkʷa/kugoat7Proto-Mandara*ɗawakgoatchèvre7.1MatalBrangerawakgoatchèvre7.2PodokoSwackhammernawá,-əchèvre7.3MandaraFluckigernáwimechèvre (f)7.4MalgwaLöhrnawegoat7.5GlavdaOwensaaggoat1GlavdaNghagyivaáːgʷagoat2GlavdaOwensdwággoat8Proto-Mofu*ɗawakgoatchèvre8.1OuldemeKinnairdāwákgoatchèvre8.2MuyangSmithɑwɑkgoatchèvre8.3MolokoFriesenawakgoatchèvre8.4ZulgoHallerawakchèvre f.1ZulgoHallerawákchèvre f.8.5GemzekSabataiawakgoatchèvre1GemzekSabataiawakgoatchèvre8.6MereyGravinawakgoatchèvre8.7DugworJubumnaawakgoatchèvre8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗakʷgoatchèvre (nom gén.), caprin9Proto-Maroua*ʔawɨgoatchèvre9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanʼawchèvre1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanawchèvre9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouawgoatchèvre9.3MbazlaTourneuxʼawuchèvre1MbazlaSILSurveyáwūʼgoatchèvre10Proto-Lamang*agʷɨgoatchèvre10.1LamangWolffógògoat10.2HdiBramlettgugoatla chèvre11Proto-Higi*kʷɨgoatchèvre11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykʷə1.goat.2.hearsay.11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykʷogoat11.3KiryaBlenchgoat11.4PsikyeAngelokʷəgoat11.5BanaLienhardkʷə̀chèvre12Proto-Kotoko Centre*nɣʷagoatchèvre12.1MserAllisonnɣogoatchèvre13Proto-Kotoko South*awagoatchèvre13.1ZinaOddenàwàgoatchèvre14Proto-Musgum*jawakgoatchèvre14.1VulumTourneuxjekchèvre14.2MbaraTourneuxwehe-goatbouc14.3MuskumTourneuxjawchèvre15Proto-Gidar*hawagoatchèvre15.1GidarHungerfordhawachèvre15.2GidarSchuhhawachèvre
ɗawɨmnf.bee, honeyabeille, miel1436C
This root is used both for the bee and for honey in most of the languages presented. In the proto-language reconstructions, 'honey' is given as the gloss, but only as a label. The reconstruction of the root poses several challenges. In the Daba and Mafa groups, the *ɗ and *w have fused, resulting in *ɓ in the Daba group and *ᵐgb in the Mafa groups. In many groups, the *ɗ or the *w has been lost. In many languages across almost all groups, this has triggered compensatory reduplication of the *m. In Mandara and Malgwa the loss has been compensated for by a prefixed /n/. In several languages the *w has been reanalysed as a vowel, or as the labialisation prosody. All of these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Daba*ɗawamhoneymiel1.1BuwalViljoenɓɑmɑmbeeabeille1.2GavarViljoenɑmɑmbeeabeille1.3MbudumNdokobaïɓəɓambeeabeille1.4DabaLienhardɓòɓómle miel, l'abeille2Proto-Mafa*ᵐgbamhoneymiel2.1CuvokGravinamgbambeeabeille1CuvokGravinamgbamhoneymiel3Proto-Sukur*mamhoneymiel3.1SukurDavidmamhoney3.2SukurThomasmamhoney; a sweet sticky yellow substance made by bees.4Proto-Hurza*wɨmamhoneymiel4.1MbukoGravinaumambeeabeille1MbukoGravinaumamhoneymiel4.2VameKinnairdāmə̄māk 1beeabeille1VameKinnairdāmə̄māk 2honeymiel5Proto-Margi*wɨmɨhoneymiel5.1BuraBlenchmumaHoney5.2MargiHoffmanməməhoney6Proto-Mandara*ɗamahoneymiel6.1PodokoSwackhammermama,-ə 1abeille1PodokoSwackhammermama,-ə 2miel6.2MandaraFluckigernamamiel (m), abeille (f)6.3MalgwaLöhrnamabee, honey6.4GlavdaNghagyivamàmːbee7Proto-Mofu*awɨmhoneymiel7.1OuldemeKinnairdāmābeeabeille1OuldemeKinnairdāmāhoneymiel7.2MuyangSmithàmúhoney, beemiel, abeille7.3MadaNkoumouámaabeille7.4MolokoFriesenomomhoneymiel7.5ZulgoHalleramúmabeille f.7.6GemzekSabataiawombeeabeille7.7MereyGravinawumbeeabeille1MereyGravinawumhoneymiel7.8DugworJubumnaamamhoneymiel7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthamambee, honeyabeille 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthamammiel8Proto-Maroua*amamhoneymiel8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouamamhoneymiel1Giziga MarvaHamidouamambeeabeille8.2MbazlaTourneuxʼamammiel9Proto-Lamang*omohoneymiel9.1LamangWolffómóhoney10Proto-Kotoko North*mamhoneymiel10.1AfadeAllisonmambeeabeille10.2MalgbeAllisonmamhoneymiel1MalgbeAllisonmambeeabeille10.3MpadeAllisonmàmhoneymiel1MpadeAllisonmàmbeeabeille11Proto-Kotoko Centre*imamhoneymiel11.1LagwanAllisonimanhoneymiel1LagwanAllisonimanbeeabeille11.2MserAllisonmamhoneymiel1MserAllisonmambeeabeille12Proto-Kotoko South*amamahoneymiel12.1ZinaOddenámámáhoneymiel13Proto-Musgum*wamajhoneymiel13.1VulumTourneuxaamiiabeille13.2MbaraTourneuxmomojbeeabeille1MbaraTourneuxmomojhoneymiel13.3MuskumTourneuxamtuabeille14Proto-Gidar*amɨmahoneymiel14.1GidarSchuhaməma/amiel14.2GidarHungerfordamamaabeille
ɗɨjɨkʷn.birdoiseau931A
This is the generic term for a small bird. The initial *ɗ is attested in most groups. In Sukur, Margi South, Kilba, Mandara, Margi and Bana the *ɗ and *j have fused to create /ʔʲ/, which is a common sporadic process. In the Tera group the *j has probably been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, and in Bura and Dghwede it has been reanalysed as a vowel. The labialisation on the *kʷ is reconstructed on the basis of its presence in the Margi group, with support from the Higi, Maroua and Mofu groups. The reason for the development of *ŋʷ in the Mofu group is unclear.
1Proto-Mafa*ɗɨjakbirdoiseau1.1MafaBarreteauɗijakoiseau. nom gén. des petits oiseaux1.2CuvokGravinaɗijakbirdoiseau2Proto-Tera*ɗikibirdoiseau2.1TeraNewmanɗikibird2.2NyimatliHarleydjikabird3Proto-Sukur*ʔʲakbirdoiseau3.1SukurDavidʼjakbird3.2SukurThomasʼjakbird;- is a general term for flying birds.4Proto-Margi*ɗɨjakʷbirdoiseau4.1BuraBlenchɗíkáBird4.2MargiHoffmanʼikjibird4.3Margi SouthHoffmanʼjagubird4.4KilbaHoffmanʼjagubird1KilbaSchuhʼjaku/əbird5Proto-Mandara*ɗɨjakbirdoiseau5.1MatalBrangerɗəjaŋ, ɗijaŋbirdoiseau5.2PodokoSwackhammerɗija,-aoiseau5.3MandaraFluckigerƴieoiseau (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrɠjijebird gen.5.5GlavdaNghagyivaɗìːkabird1GlavdaOwensďiíbird5.6DghwedeFricktʼiᵑgebird6Proto-Mofu*ɗɨjɨŋʷbirdoiseau6.1OuldemeKinnairdāɗēŋʷoiseau6.2MuyangSmitheɗiŋbird (general word)oiseau (mot général)6.3MolokoFrieseneɗəjenbirdoiseau6.4ZulgoHallerɗijeŋoiseau m.6.5GemzekSabataidijiŋbirdoiseau1GemzekSabataiɗijiŋbirdoiseau6.6MereyGravinaɗijeŋbirdoiseau6.7DugworJubumnaɗijeŋbirdoiseau6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗijaŋoiseau (nom gén.)7Proto-Maroua*ɗɨjɨwbirdoiseau7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɗiju(w)oiseau (en général)7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɗijewbirdoiseau7.3MbazlaTourneuxɗijawoiseau8Proto-Lamang*ɗɨjakbirdoiseau8.1LamangWolffɗíjákábird8.2HdiBramlettɗijakbirdl'oiseau9Proto-Higi*ɗɨjɨkʷɨbirdoiseau9.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyijobird9.2KiryaBlenchíkə́bird9.3BanaLienhardʼjìgʷùoiseau
ɗɨjɨmnm.watereau1753A
The *ɗ is reconstructed on the evidence from the Bata, Tera, Hurza, Kotoko South and Musgum groups. In all of these groups there is evidence for a glottal element, in most cases [ʔ]. In the Tera group the *ɗ and *j have fused to form /ɗʲ/.
1Proto-Bata*maʔiwatereau1.1GudeHoskinsonmàʼínəwater1.2JimiDjibimaʼiEau1.3SharwaGravinamaʼieau2Proto-Daba*jɨmwatereau2.1BuwalViljoenjɑmwatereau1BuwalViljoenjɑmcolourcouleur2BuwalViljoenjɑmjuicejus2.2GavarViljoenjəmwatereau1GavarViljoenjəmcolourcouleur2.3MbudumNdokobaïjimwatereau2.4DabaLienhardjə̄ml'eau3Proto-Mafa*jamwatereau3.1MafaNdokobaijamwatereau 3.2CuvokGravinajamwatereau4Proto-Tera*ɗʲɨmwatereau4.1TeraNewmanƴimwater4.2NyimatliHarleyɗjimwater4.3HwanaHarleyāːmáwater5Proto-Sukur*jamwatereau5.1SukurDavidijamwater, rain5.2SukurThomasjamwater6Proto-Hurza*aʔamwatereau6.1MbukoGravinaaʼamwatereau6.2VameKinnairdāhʷámwatereau7Proto-Margi*jimiwatereau7.1MargiHoffmanʼimiwater7.2Margi SouthHarleyimiwater7.3BuraBlenchjimiWater8Proto-Mandara*jɨwɨwatereau8.1MatalBrangerjːāwwatereau8.2PodokoSwackhammerjəwá,-əeau, jus8.3MandaraFluckigerjaweeau (f)8.4MalgwaLöhrjawewater8.5GlavdaNghagyivajùwawater1GlavdaOwensíiwater2GlavdaOwensjuwater, color8.6DghwedeFrickjiwewater9Proto-Mofu*jamwatereau9.1OuldemeKinnairdjàmwatereau9.2MuyangSmithjamwater ; colour ; interestl'eau; couleur; intérêt9.3MolokoFriesenjamwatereau9.4ZulgoHallerjameau f.9.5GemzekSabataijaml' eau9.6MereyGravinajamwatereau9.7DugworJubumnajamwatereau1DugworJubumnajamjuicejus9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaujàmeau9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthjamwatereau ; jus 10Proto-Maroua*jamwatereau10.1Giziga MarvaHamidoujamwatereau10.2MbazlaTourneuxjameau11Proto-Lamang*imiwatereau11.1LamangWolffímíwater11.2HdiBramlettimiwaterl'eau12Proto-Higi*jamewatereau12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyjamewater12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyjemjiwater12.3KiryaBlenchjàmə́water12.4PsikyeAngelojemúwater12.5BanaLienhardjàmeau13Proto-Kotoko Island*amajwatereau13.1BudumaMcKoneamajwatereau14Proto-Kotoko North*amewatereau14.1AfadeAllisonamewatereau14.2MpadeAllisonàméwatereau14.3MalgbeAllisonamwatereau15Proto-Kotoko Centre*amwatereau15.1LagwanAllisonamwatereau15.2MserAllisonamwatereau16Proto-Kotoko South*aʔɨmwatereau16.1ZinaOddenámíwatereau16.2MazeraAllisonaʔɨmwatereau17Proto-Musgum*ʔɨjamwatereau17.1VulumTourneuxjemeau17.2MbaraTourneuxʼamwater17.3MuskumTourneuxjamueau
ɗɨkɨn ʸnm.claw, fingernailgriffe, ongle610A
The languages where this root is attested are relatively few, but spread over a wide area. This may indicate that the root did exist in Proto-Central Chadic. The initial *ɗ is realised as /r/ in Cuvok, which is an unestablished change, and in the Kotoko North and Centre groups it has fused with the *k to create the velar ejective *kʼ, which is a common sporadic process. There is no known process to account for the initial /h/ in Mazera. In Kotoko North and Centre, there is prenasalisation of the initial consonant, a common sporadic process. The *k has the reflex /h/ in Cuvok and Hdi, an unestablished process. The final *n has become /ŋ/ in Cuvok, Mbazla and Hdi, which is a regular change. The change *n to /r/ in Maltam and Mser is a common but non-systematic process. The reconstruction of the palatalisation prosody is supported by the presence of the prosody in Cuvok and Mbazla.
1Proto-Mafa*rɨhaŋ ʸclawgriffe1.1CuvokGravinarəheŋfingernailongle1CuvokGravinarəheŋclawgriffe2Proto-Maroua*ɗɨkɨŋ ʸclawgriffe2.1MbazlaTourneuxɗikiŋgriffe, ongle1MbazlaSILSurveylìkíŋclawgriffe3Proto-Lamang*ɗahɨŋclawgriffe3.1HdiBramlettɗahəŋclaw, fingernailla griffe, l'ongle4Proto-Kotoko North*nkʼanclawgriffe4.1AfadeAllisonnkʼanfingernailongle4.2MpadeAllisonnkʼanclawgriffe1MpadeAllisonnkʼanfingernailongle4.3MalgbeAllisonnkʼɨnclawgriffe1MalgbeAllisonnkʼɨnfingernailongle4.4MaltamAllisonᵑgareclawgriffe5Proto-Kotoko Centre*nkʼɨnclawgriffe5.1LagwanAllisonnkʼɨniclawgriffe5.2MserAllisonnkʼɨrclawgriffe1MserAllisonnkʼɨrfingernailongle6Proto-Kotoko South*hɨkɨneclawgriffe6.1MazeraAllisonkʷare; hɨkɨne; hakanefingernailongle
ɗiɬnm.boneos1443Bsynkɨrakaɬ ʸ
This widely-attested root is close to the root *ɗɨɬɨj 'egg', but the presence of *i in the root rather than a final *j makes a big difference to the reflexes in individual languages. The initial *ɗ is realised as *t in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Sukur, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Maroua, an unestablished change. It has been lost in many groups, triggering compensatory reduplication in the Mandara and Kotoko South groups, and in some Mofu group languages. It has fused with the *i in the Tera and Higi groups to create a palatalised glottal or a velar implosive. In the Kotoko North and South groups it has fused with the *ɬ to create an ejective. These fusion processes are common sporadic changes. The *ɬ is expected to have the reflex *ɮ in the groups of the South sub-branch, but for this root it is only the case in the Bata group. Within the Bata group there is a subsequent change *ɮ to *l. In the Margi group and in Mandara and Malgwa in the Mandara group, *ɬ has become palatalised by processes originating with *i, and *ɬʲ has then been velarised to /hʲ/ as part of a regular process. Regular processes give *ɬ the reflexes *s in the Proto-Kotoko South and Mser, /ʃ/ in Mpade and /h/ in Buduma. In Mser the /ʃ/ is due to the effect of the front vowel on *s.
1Proto-Bata*iɮɨboneos1.1BachamaSkinneruulebone1.2GudeHoskinsonìlá -əbone.1.3JimiDjibiilənOs1.4SharwaGravinaalləos1.5TsuvanJohnstoniɮel'os2Proto-Mafa*taɬ, ɬaɬarboneos2.1MafaBarreteautáɬos2.2CuvokGravinaɬaɬarboneos3Proto-Tera*ɠɨɬiboneos3.1TeraNewmanɠəɬbone3.2NyimatliHarleyqu̱ɬibone3.3GaʼandaGwajielabone4Proto-Sukur*taɬboneos4.1SukurDavidtaɬbone4.2SukurThomastaɬbone; any of the hard parts that form the skeleton of the body of a human and an animal.5Proto-Margi*ɗaɬɨ ʸboneos5.1BuraBlenchɗjàhùBone5.2KilbaSchuhɗihjibone6Proto-Mandara*ɬaɬiboneos6.1MatalBrangeraɬaɬboneos6.2PodokoSwackhammerɬaɬa,-əos6.3MandaraFluckigerhjáhjéos (m)6.4MalgwaLöhrhjehjebone6.5GlavdaOwensłabone1GlavdaNghagyivaɬàɬabone6.6DghwedeFrickɬaɬabone7Proto-Mofu*ɨtaɬboneos7.1OuldemeKinnairdàɬàɬboneos7.2MuyangSmithɑɬɑtboneos7.3MadaNkoumouaɬaɬos7.4ZulgoHalleratáɬos m.7.5GemzekSabataiataɬboneos7.6MereyGravinamətaɬboneos7.7DugworJubumnamətaɬboneos7.8Mofu NorthBarreteauⁿdàɬos8Proto-Maroua*ataɬ ʸboneos8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanteɬ(e), ateɬ(Mv), eteɬ (j)os, arrête8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouateɬboneos8.3MbazlaTourneuxʼaʼaɬos9Proto-Higi*ʔʲiɬɨboneos9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼjithləbone9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyiɬabone9.3KiryaBlenchíɬə́bone9.4BanaLienhardéɬêros (pl.)1BanaLienhardʼjíɬə́os10Proto-Kotoko Island*ahajboneos10.1BudumaMcKoneahajboneos11Proto-Kotoko North*enslʼiboneos11.1AfadeAllisonenɬʼiboneos11.2MpadeAllisonènʃíboneos11.3MalgbeAllisonenɬɨboneos12Proto-Kotoko Centre*eɬiboneos12.1LagwanAllisonaɬɨboneos12.2MserAllisonenʃiboneos13Proto-Kotoko South*asisʼɨboneos13.1ZinaOddenàsàsə̀boneos13.2MazeraAllisonasisʼeboneos14Proto-Gidar*ɬaŋɬaŋ ʸboneos14.1GidarHungerfordɬeŋɬeŋos14.2GidarSchuhɬeᵑgɬeᵑgos
ɗɨɬ ʸv.hatchéclore56Acfɗɨɬɨjtsaɬ ʸ
This root is related to *ɗɨɬɨj 'egg'. In Buwal and Cuvok, the palatalisation prosody has caused *ɗʲ to become *j.
1Proto-Daba*jaɬhatchéclore1.1BuwalViljoenjɑɬhatchéclore1BuwalViljoenjɑɬproduceproduire2Proto-Mafa*jɨɬahatchéclore2.1CuvokGravinajiɬahatchéclore3Proto-Hurzaɗɨɬ ʸhatchéclore3.1MbukoGravinaɗəɗeɬhatchéclore3.2VameKinnairdɗūɬíjāhatchéclore4Proto-Mofuɗɨɬ ʸhatchéclore4.1MuyangSmithɗiɬhatchéclore5Proto-Gidar*wɨdaɬa ʸhatchéclore5.1GidarHungerfordwədeɬeéclore
ɗɨɬɨjnm.eggœuf1650Acfɗɨɬ ʸ
This is one of the most widely attested roots that have been reconstructed. There is significant variety in the realisations, where we can see evidence of most of the significant processes that have taken place in Central Chadic. In the Daba and Musgum groups there has been metathesis of the *ɗ and the *ɬ, and in the Higi group there has been metathesis of the *ɬ and *j. Metathesis is common, but not predictable. In the Maroua and Musgum groups, the *ɗ has become *t, though this change has not been established as a regular change. In many groups the *ɗ has been lost, and this has triggered compensatory reduplication in the Mafa, Margi and Lamang groups, and compensatory prefixation in the Daba group. The final *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Daba, Proto-Margi and Proto-Maroua, and as a vowel in Proto-Bata, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Lamang. These processes are all common, but not predictable. The *ɬ has become *ɮ in the languages of the South sub-branch, i.e. Proto-Bata, Proto-Daba and Proto-Sukur, as part of a regular process, though not in the Mafa group. There is a subsequent regular change *ɮ to /l/ within the Bata group. In the Margi group and Glavda from the Mandara group, the *j or the palatalisation prosody has created *ɬʲ, which is then velarised as part of a regular sporadic process affecting palatalised alveolar consonants, resulting in /hʲ/. *ɬ is realised as /s/ in the Kotoko South group and Mser, and as /ʃ/ in Mpade, both of which are regular processes. The prenasalisation found in some of the Kotoko groups is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*ɗaɮieggoeuf1.1GudeHoskinsonàlínəegg.1.2JimiDjibialinOeuf1.3SharwaGravinaallioeuf, oeux1.4BataBoydɗùùleegg2Proto-Daba*naɮɨɗ ʸeggoeuf2.1BuwalViljoenneɬeeggœuf2.2GavarViljoenɑnɬieggœuf2.3MbudumNdokobaïmiɬiɗeggœuf2.4DabaLienhardnèɮī ʼl'oeuf3Proto-Mafa*ɬaɬajeggoeuf3.1MafaNdokobaiɬaɬajoeuf3.2CuvokGravinaɬeɬejeggœuf4Proto-Sukur*ɗaᵑgaɮajeggoeuf4.1SukurDavidⁿdaŋaɮajegg4.2SukurThomasɗaᵑgaɮaiegg5Proto-Hurza*ɬajeggoeuf5.1MbukoGravinaɬajegg(s)oeuf, oeux5.2VameKinnairdɮájeggoeuf6Proto-Margi*ɬɨɬɨ ʸeggoeuf6.1MargiHoffmanihjiegg6.2KilbaSchuhhjihjiegg(s)6.3BuraBlenchhihiEgg7Proto-Mandara*ɗɨɬɨjaeggoeuf7.1MatalBrangerɬaɬajeggoeuf7.2PodokoSwackhammerɬɨɬe,-ioeuf7.3MandaraFluckigerɬájáoeuf (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrthlajaegg(s)7.5GlavdaOwensçiegg, testes1GlavdaNghagyivaçìːjaegg7.6DghwedeFrickɬəɬeegg8Proto-Mofu*ɗɨɬɨjeggoeuf8.1OuldemeKinnairdɬàɬájeggoeuf8.2MuyangSmithejɬieggoeuf1MuyangSmithejɬieggoeuf8.3MolokoFrieseneɬeɬeɗeggoeuf8.4ZulgoHallerɬèɬéoeuf m.8.5GemzekSabataiɗəɬeeggœuf8.6MereyGravinaɗəɬeeggœuf1MereyGravinaɗəɬeeggœuf8.7DugworJubumnaaɬajeggœuf8.8Mofu NorthBarreteauɬéɬēɗoeuf8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɬeɬéɗoeuf9Proto-Maroua*ataɬ ʸeggoeuf9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanteɬ(e), ateɬ(Mv), eteɬ (j)oeuf9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouateɬeggœuf9.3MbazlaTourneuxaɬajœuf10Proto-Lamang*ɬiɬieggoeuf10.1LamangWolffɬíɬíeggs10.2HdiBramlettɬiɬikeggl'oeuf11Proto-Higi*jɨɬɨeggoeuf11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɬiɬəegg11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyjəɬeegg11.3KiryaBlenchɬìɬí kòntə́káegg11.4BanaLienhardɬìɬìoeufs12Proto-Kotoko North*enɬɨeggoeuf12.1AfadeAllisonenɬoeggœuf12.2MpadeAllisonènʃóeggœuf12.3MalgbeAllisonenɬɨeggœuf13Proto-Kotoko Centre*enɬɨeggoeuf13.1LagwanAllisonnɬɨeggœuf13.2MserAllisonensɨeggœuf14Proto-Kotoko South*nsieggoeuf14.1ZinaOddennsíeggœuf15Proto-Musgum*ɮat ʸeggoeuf15.1VulumTourneuxeŋɮeoeuf15.2MbaraTourneuxŋɮaegg15.3MuskumTourneuxɮetoeuf16Proto-Gidar*ɗaᵑgɮa ʸeggoeuf16.1GidarSchuhɗeᵑgɮe/eoeuf16.2GidarHungerfordɗeŋle, ɗeŋleɗeoeuf, oeufs
ɗɨrɨnɨh ʸn.tonguelangue418Csynɣanaɗ ʸnaɬɨj
This root is difficult to establish. The initial *ɗ has support from some languages in the Mofu and Maroua groups, either as /ɗ/ or as /ʔ/. The medial *n is expected to have become *r in the Mandara group and parts of the Mofu group, whilst the *r should have become *l in all the groups that are represented except the Mafa group. It is possible that the resulting sequence was reduced from *lɨr to *lr to *r in the Mandara and Mofu groups, which would explain the surface forms that we find. The /l/ in Matal is a regular change from the resulting *r. The *ɗ and *h have both been lost in many languages, which is a common sporadic change. In Mandara and Malgwa, the loss of the *ɗ has triggered compensatory prefixation of /n/. The palatalisation prosody is present in three of the four groups.
1Proto-Mafa*lanaŋ ʸtonguelangue1.1MafaBarreteaulénélangue1MafaBarreteauléʼénlangue1.2CuvokGravinaneneŋtonguelangue2Proto-Mandara*ɨrɨhtonguelangue2.1MatalBrangerālàhtonguelangue2.2MandaraFluckigernaralangue (f)2.3MalgwaLöhrnaretongue2.4GlavdaNghagyivaɛ̄ɾɛ̄xatongue2.5DghwedeFrickrəxetongue3Proto-Mofu*ɗɨrɨnah ʸtonguelangue3.1OuldemeKinnairdmàrótonguelangue3.2MuyangSmitharəɗtongue ; budlangue; bourgeon3.3MadaNkoumouárralangue3.4MolokoFrieseńhərnektonguelangue3.5ZulgoHalleràràhlangue f.3.6GemzekSabataiarahtonguelangue3.7MereyGravinaɗərnehlangue3.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthnenehlangue (organe) (Gud.)1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗərnelangue (organe) (Mokong)4Proto-Maroua*ɗɨrna ʸtonguelangue4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanʼirne, irnelangue4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouirnetonguelangue1Giziga MarvaHamidouirnelanguagelangue, langage4.3MbazlaTourneuxnelangue1MbazlaSILSurveynɛ́ʼtonguelangue
ɗɨwahnf.breastsein1342A
The basic sense of the root is 'breast', but in many languages it is also covers the concept 'milk'. The history of the root is complicated due to the fact that all three of the consonants in the root are prone to reanalysis or loss. The initial *ɗ is only retained in some languages of the Mofu and Maroua groups. In many cases it has fused with the *w to create either *ʔʷ or *ɓ, which is a common sporadic process. It has been lost in the Mafa and Kotoko Centre groups. The final *h has been lost in the majority of languages, but is retained in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. When the *w has not fused with *ɗ, it is retained.
1Proto-Bata*ʔʷabreastsein1.1BataBoydwàtouncooked fresh milk, lait cru1.2GudeHoskinsonʼwánə(inher. poss., body part) breast, milk1.3JimiDjibiwanlait1.4SharwaGravinaʼwasein, lait1.5TsuvanJohnstonʼwakənle lait2Proto-Daba*ʔʷabreastsein2.1BuwalViljoenbreast; milk; uddersein; lait; pis, mamelle2.2GavarViljoenŋʼwɑudder; breast; milkmamelle; sein (mamelle); lait2.3MbudumNdokobaïwaudder; breastpis, mamelle; sein (mamelle)3Proto-Mafa*wabreastsein3.1MafaBarreteauwasein3.2CuvokGravinawabreast; uddersein (mamelle); pis, mamelle4Proto-Tera*ɓiɓibreastsein4.1TeraNewmanɓuɓu, ɓiɓibreast, fem.4.2NyimatliHarleyɓiɓibreast5Proto-Sukur*ʔʷabreast, milksein, lait5.1SukurDavidʼwabreast5.2SukurThomasʼwabreast; milk:- is a milk from the breast of either human female and animals.6Proto-Margi*ʔɨwabreastsein6.1BuraBlenchʼùwàWoman’s breast6.2MargiHoffmanuʼwabreast, milk6.3Margi SouthHarleyuʼwabreast6.4KilbaSchuhʼwabreast; milk7Proto-Mandara*wɨɓabreastsein7.1MatalBrangerawabreastsein7.2PodokoSwackhammeruɓa,-asein; lait7.3MandaraFluckigerubemamelle (f), sein (m), tétine (f)7.4MalgwaLöhruuɓebreast, female7.5GlavdaNghagyivaùːɓabreast7.6DghwedeFrickwupʼabreast, milk8Proto-Mofu*ɗɨwahbreastsein8.1OuldemeKinnairdāɗūwábreast; milksein; lait8.2MuyangSmithɗuwɑbreast ; milklait; mamelle; sein8.3MadaNkoumouɗwalait; sein (mamelle)8.4ZulgoHalleràwàhlait m.; sein m.8.5GemzekSabataiawahbreastsein (mamelle)8.6MereyGravinawahudder; breastpis, mamelle; sein (mamelle)8.7DugworJubumnaawahudder; breastpis, mamelle; sein (mamelle)8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗəwásein, mamelle, pis; lait9Proto-Maroua*ɗɨwabreastsein9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɗuwalait, sein, mamelle9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɗuwabreast; uddersein (mamelle); pis, mamelle9.3MbazlaTourneuxʼwasein, lait1MbazlaSILSurveywāʼbreastsein10Proto-Lamang*ɗɨwabreastsein10.1LamangWolffúɓábreast, milk10.2HdiBramlettuʼabreastle sein11Proto-Higi*ʔʷabreastsein11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyuwobreast (women's)11.2KiryaBlenchʼwábreast, milk11.3BanaLienhardʼwálait, sein12Proto-Kotoko North*eʔʷibreastsein12.1AfadeAllisoneʔwibreastsein (mamelle)12.2MaltamAllisoneᵐbibreastsein (mamelle)13Proto-Kotoko Centre*iwibreastsein13.1LagwanAllisoniwibreast; uddersein (mamelle); pis, mamelle