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ɣ


ɣajnm.compoundconcession1228Arel. tovɨn ʸ
The basic meaning of this root is the entire compound, whilst *vɨn ʸ denotes a single building. The initial *ɣ also has the reflexes /g/ and /h/. The reflex /h/ is regular in Mandara, Malgwa, Muyang, Moloko and Proto-Kotoko North. The reflex /g/ is regular in the Meri sub-group of the Mofu group. In the Mofu subgroup the *ɣ is regularly lost. The *j is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Daba, and is vocalised in Sukur, which are common sporadic processes. It combines with *a in Proto-Kotoko South, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Bata*hajɨhutcase1.1SharwaGravinahajəMaison2Proto-Daba*ga ʸhutcase2.1BuwalViljoengehousemaison2.2MbudumNdokobaïɡehousemaison3Proto-Mafa*gajhutcase3.1MafaBarreteaugájcase, consession4Proto-Sukur*ɣihutcase4.1SukurDavidɣíhouse4.2SukurThomasɣəihome; the house that you live in, especially with your family.5Proto-Hurza*agahutcase5.1MbukoGravinaàgaat_house_ofchez6Proto-Mandara*ɣajhutcase6.1MatalBrangergàjhutcase6.2PodokoSwackhammerkaja,-ə 1concession, case, maison1PodokoSwackhammerkaja,-ə 2conteneur6.3MandaraFluckigerconcession (f), maison (f)6.4GlavdaNghagyivaxàːwaentrance hut7Proto-Mofu*ɣajhutcase7.1OuldemeKinnairdɣàjhousemaison7.2MuyangSmithɑhɑjhousemaison, concession ; toute construction1MuyangSmithɑhɑjclassclasse7.3MolokoFriesenhájhouse, compoundmaison; concession7.4GemzekSabataigahousemaison7.5MereyGravinagajhutcase, maison1MereyGravinamaison7.6DugworJubumnagajhousemaison1DugworJubumnagajhutcase7.7Mofu NorthBarreteauʔájmaison (ensemble de case)7.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwajhomemaison, concession 8Proto-Maroua*gajhutcase8.1MbazlaSILSurveygáihousemaison9Proto-Higi*ɣajhutcase9.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣʷohouse9.2KiryaBlenchɣàjhouse9.3PsikyeAngelogehouse9.4BanaLienhardɣjìmaison10Proto-Kotoko North*hohutcase10.1AfadeAllisonhohousemaison10.2MpadeAllisonhohousemaison10.3MalgbeAllisonhahousemaison11Proto-Kotoko Centre*ɣaahutcase11.1LagwanAllisonɣaahousemaison12Proto-Kotoko South*ɣehutcase12.1MazeraAllisonɣehutcase1MazeraAllisonɣehousemaison
ɣanaɗ ʸnf.tonguelangue720synɗɨrɨnɨh ʸnaɬɨj
This root is found mostly in the South sub-branch of Central Chadic, but is also found in the Lamang and Higi groups. The *ɣ is realised as *g in Proto-Bata, Proto-Daba and Proto-Margi, which are unestablished changes. The *ɗ is only retained in the Daba group. In the Sukur, Lamang and Higi groups it is affected by the palatalisation prosody and is realised as *j, which is a regular process. The palatalisation prosody itself is only retained in Proto-Bata. In Proto-Tera it is vocalised, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Bata*gana ʸtonguelangue1.1JimiDjibigiananLa langue comme organe.1.2SharwaGravinaganalangue1.3TsuvanJohnstonaganala langue2Proto-Daba*ganaɗtonguelangue2.1BuwalViljoengɑnɑnɑtonguelangue2.2GavarViljoengɑɗɑɗɑŋtonguelangue2.3MbudumNdokobaïɡanaɗtonguelangue1MbudumNdokobaïɡanaɗlanguagelangue, langage2.4DabaLienhardgànàla langue, le langage3Proto-Tera*ɣinatonguelangue3.1TeraNewmanɣenatongue3.2NyimatliHarleyɣintongue4Proto-Sukur*ɣanajtonguelangue4.1SukurDavidɣanajtongue4.2SukurThomasɣanaitongue:- is the part in the mouth that moves around the mouth when talking or eating.5Proto-Margigar ʸtonguelangue5.1BuraBlenchkeᵑgjarTongue5.2MargiHoffmankjartongue5.3Margi SouthHarleykjartongue5.4KilbaSchuhkjartongue6Proto-Lamang*ɣanɨjtonguelangue6.1LamangWolffɣènètongue6.2HdiBramlettɣaniktonguela langue7Proto-Higi*ɣanɨjtonguelangue7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyannjətongue1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyaniətongue7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣanitongue7.3KiryaBlenchnɣànə́tongue7.4BanaLienhardɣànìlangue
ɣɨnnm.headtête831Asynɣʷɨ
The final *n has undergone the regular change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. The Mafa /gəɗ/ has come from *gɨr, which implies that this reflex was borrowed from that major group. *ɣ has the reflex /g/ in several languages, which is a regular change in Dghwede and the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. It developed into *k in Proto-Margi, probably via *h, though this change is unestablished. It has the regular reflex /h/ in Muyang, and has been lost in several languages, including the two Mofu subgroup languages where this change is regular. There are also instances of the reflex /j/ in Jimi, Cuvok, Mandara, Malgwa and Mbazla, but this change is unestablished. The Moloko and Giziga forms may represent compounds including the reflex of the proto-form.
1Proto-Bata*ɣɨnɨheadtête1.1GudeHoskinsonná -ə(inher. poss., body part) head, top1.2JimiDjibijinənTête1.3SharwaGravinaᵑgɨnətête1.4TsuvanJohnstonənela tête2Proto-Mafa*jaŋ, gɨɗheadtête2.1MafaNdokobaigəɗ kədatête de chien2.2CuvokGravinajaŋheadtête3Proto-Margi*kirheadtête3.1BuraBlenchkirHead; the top3.2MargiHoffmankərhead3.3Margi SouthHoffmankərhead1Margi SouthHarleykərhead3.4KilbaHoffmankərhead1KilbaSchuhkərhead4Proto-Mandara*ɣɨraheadtête4.1MatalBrangergəlheadtête4.2MandaraFluckigeriratête (f)4.3MalgwaLöhriirehead4.4GlavdaNghagyivaʁɾahead1GlavdaNghagyivaʁɾahead2GlavdaOwensγrhead, mind, intellect4.5DghwedeFrickgrehead5Proto-Mofu*ɣɨrheadtête5.1OuldemeKinnairdɣàrheadtête5.2MuyangSmithɑhɑ̀rhead ; toptête, le dessus de quelque chose ; la personne même5.3MolokoFriesendərajheadtête5.4ZulgoHallergərtête f.5.5GemzekSabataigərheadtête1GemzekSabataigarla tête5.6MereyGravinagərheadtête5.7DugworJubumnagarheadtête5.8Mofu NorthBarreteauʔártête1Mofu NorthBarreteauʼarla tête5.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthrajhead (of person, animal, etc.), the top part of somethingtête1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthrajsommet, dessus, cime6Proto-Marouahɨrɨŋ, jɨŋheadtête6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhirᵑga(Mt) hirᵑgaŋ(Mj)tête6.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhuruŋheadtête6.3MbazlaTourneuxjiŋtête7Proto-Lamang*ɣɨŋheadtête7.1LamangWolffɣàŋhead7.2HdiBramlettɣəŋheadla tête8Proto-Higi*ɣɨnheadtête8.1KiryaBlenchɣə̀nhead8.2BanaLienhardɣə̀ntête, sommet, cime
ɣɨwajnm.neckcou58Bsynwɨraj
This root has few attestations, but they are from a diverse set of languages. The *ɣ has been lost in most languages, though this change is not regular. It has merged with the *w in Lagwan and Ouldeme to create a labialised consonant. The *j has merged with *a in Proto-Kotoko North, and is lost in Proto-Kotoko Centre. These are all common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Mafa*ɨwajneckcou1.1CuvokGravinauwajneckcou2Proto-Mofu*hʷajneckcou2.1OuldemeKinnairdhʷàjneckcou3Proto-Kotoko Island*wɨjneckcou3.1BudumaMcKonewujcou.4Proto-Kotoko North*weneckcou4.1AfadeAllisonweneckcou4.2MpadeAllisonneckcou4.3MalgbeAllisonweneckcou5Proto-Kotoko Centre*ɣʷaneckcou5.1LagwanAllisonɣʷaeneckcou5.2MserAllisonwaneckcou
ɣʷadzinm.quivercarquois511B
This root is found in languages around the Nigerian Plains area, and reflects a technological innovation rather than an ancient Proto-Central Chadic root. The sound changes indicate that the root was introduced during the time of the group proto-languages. The *ɣʷ has become *gʷ in the Higi group, and has developed into *kʷ in the Bata and Margi groups, all of which are unestablished changes. In Sukur the fricative component was lost, leaving /w/, also an unestablished change. The *dz has been devoiced to *ts in the Higi group, which is also an unestablished change. The final *i is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Margi group.
1Proto-Bata*kʷadzaquivercarquois1.1GudeHoskinsonkʷàdzáquiver1GudeHoskinsonkʷàdzácollective term for bow, arrows, and quiver1.2JimiDjibikʷadzanCarquois1.3SharwaGravinakʷadzacarquois2Proto-Sukur*wadziquivercarquois2.1SukurDavidwadziquiver2.2SukurThomaswadzəiquiver;- is a case for carring arrows.3Proto-Margi*kʷadza ʸquivercarquois3.1BuraBlenchkʷadʒaQuiver for carrying arrows3.2Margi SouthHarleykʷadzaquiver3.3KilbaSchuhgʷadʒaquiver4Proto-Lamang*ɣʷadziquivercarquois4.1HdiBramlettɣʷadziquiverle carquois5Proto-Higi*gʷɨtsiquivercarquois5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygùtʃə́Quiver5.2KiryaBlenchgùtʃìlquiver. ordinary type used for hunting5.3BanaLienhardgùtʃìcarquois
ɣʷɨnf.headtête814Bsynɣɨn
This root is found in a diverse set of languages, and may reflect a primary Proto-Central Chadic root. Cognates are found in other branches of Chadic. The labialisation component of *ɣʷ is retained as vocalisation in Psikye, Buduma, Mser and the languages of the Kotoko North group. The velar component has reflexes /h/, /k/, /g/ and /ᵑg/. The final vowel becomes *a as a regular feature in many groups.
1Proto-Daba*haheadtête1.1BuwalViljoenheadtête1.2GavarViljoenheadtête2Proto-Sukur*kɨheadtête2.1SukurDavidhead2.2SukurThomashead; the part of the body on top of the neck containing the eyes, nose, mouth and brain.3Proto-Hurza*ᵑgaheadtête3.1MbukoGravinaᵑgaheadtête3.2VameKinnairdŋatête1VameKinnairdᵑgàheadtête4Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨheadtête4.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣə təməram head4.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣihead4.3PsikyeAngeloguhead5Proto-Kotoko Island*kʷɨheadtête5.1BudumaMcKonekuəheadtête5.2BudumaMcKonekutête.6Proto-Kotoko North*gʷaheadtête6.1AfadeAllisongoheadtête6.2MpadeAllisonheadtête1MpadeAllisonkoparticle, headparticule, tête7Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷaheadtête7.1LagwanAllisonkaaheadtête7.2MserAllisonkoheadtête8Proto-Gidar*kɨjheadtête8.1GidarHungerfordkitête8.2GidarSchuhkija/0tête
ɣʷɨɓisv.laughrire1229C
This is a difficult root to reconstruct. The three consonants of the reconstructed form are found only in the Mandara and Lamang groups. In all other groups the *ɣʷ and *ɓ have interacted or been lost. *ɣʷ has been lost in Proto-Daba and Proto-Sukur, which is an unestablished change. In Podoko the labialisation component was retained and vocalised, and in Proto-Higi the labialisation component transferred onto *ɓ. Within the Higi group, *ɓʷ→ʔʷ in several languages, which is an unestablished change. There has been an unestablished change *ɓ→ᵐb, giving the forms in Mbuko, Moloko and Lamang. The sporadic change *ᵐb→m took place subsequently, giving the forms in Daba, Proto-Tera, Ouldeme, Vame and Gidar. The labialisation component of *ɣʷ combined with this in Proto-Bata, Vame and Proto-Margi. In another path, the *m combined with *ɣʷ to create *ᵑgʷ, giving the forms in Mafa, Merey and Dugwor. These examples of fusion are common sporadic processes. There is evidence for reconstructing *i from the Sukur, Margi and Higi groups.
1Proto-Bata*mʷɨslaughrire1.1GudeHoskinsonnwusəlaugh, laugh at, mock1.2SharwaGravinauʃi amʷɨskəAmusant,ante1.3TsuvanJohnstona mʷeskənrire, sourire2Proto-Daba*ɓaslaughrire2.1BuwalViljoenɓɑslaughrire2.2GavarViljoenɓɑssmilesourire1GavarViljoenɓɑslaughrire2.3MbudumNdokobaïɓaslaughrire2.4DabaLienhardmīsrire ; se moquer de...3Proto-Mafa*ŋgʷaslaughrire3.1MafaBarreteaungʷásrire4Proto-Tera*mɨslaughrire4.1TeraNewmantʃi məsilaugh (do laughter)4.2NyimatliHarleymu̱slaugh5Proto-Sukur*ɓislaughrire5.1SukurDavidɓislaugh, to5.2SukurThomasɓislaugh; to make sounds and movements of your face that show you are happy or think something is funny.6Proto-Hurzaᵐbɨsɨjlaughrire6.1MbukoGravinaᵐbasajlaughrire6.2VameKinnairdmùʃlaughrire1VameKinnairdmùʃìjàlaugh ; laugh at ; mockmoquer_(se)7Proto-Margi*mʷisalaughrire7.1BuraBlenchkumʃiTo smile, to laugh1BuraBlenchmuʃa, miʃaTo smile; to begin to laugh8Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨɓasalaughrire8.1PodokoSwackhammeruɓasarire, sourire8.2GlavdaNghagyivaʁùɓásᵊgalaugh8.3DghwedeFrickgəpʼasato laugh9Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨᵐbasalaughrire9.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemmàsàjbe contented ; laughêtre content ; rire9.2MolokoFriesenᵐbassmilesourire1MolokoFriesenᵐbaslaughrire9.3MereyGravinaŋgʷasalaughrire9.4DugworJubumnaməngʷesejlaughrire10Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨɓaslaughrire10.1LamangWolffɣəᵐbosolaugh10.2HdiBramlettɣuɓasajto laugh, to mockrire, se moquer1HdiBramlettɣuɓasulaughle rire11Proto-Higi*ɓʷɨsilaughrire11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼuʃílaugh1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyùʃíLaugh2Kamwe-NkafaHarleyuʃilaugh11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyuʃilaugh11.3KiryaBlenchɓʷìʃíto laugh11.4PsikyeAngeloʼwuʃílaugh1PsikyeAngeloŋʼwuʃílaugh11.5BanaLienhardʼwə́ʃírire, sourire, vaincre12Proto-Gidarubd stem*ɨmasalaughrire12.1GidarHungerfordəmasarire
ɣʷɨlɨmn.cheekjoue711D
The forms from four of the groups cited are clearly cognate, but the Mbara and Gidar words lack the reflex of *m which would normally be expected, and the Glavda form lacks *l, thus making their status as cognates doubtful. *ɣʷ has become *hʷ in the Hurza and Mofu groups. In the Hurza group this is an unestablished change, but in these languages of the Mofu group, /gʷ/ is expected. The labialisation has then been reanalysed as a prosody in Mbuko and Proto-Mofu, which is a common sporadic change. A similar process has taken place in Sukur and Kirya.
1Proto-Sukur*ɣʷɨlɨmcheekjoue1.1SukurDavidɣulumcheek2Proto-Hurza*mɨhʷɨlamcheekjoue2.1MbukoGravinaməhulomcheekjoue2.2VameKinnairdmúlácheekjoue3Proto-Mandara*wɨmcheekjoue3.1GlavdaOwensúumcheek4Proto-Mofu*mahalɨm ʷcheekjoue4.1ZulgoHallermáhalúmjoue f.4.2GemzekSabataimaholomcheekjoue4.3MereyGravinamaholomjoue1MereyGravinamahololomcheekjoue5Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨlɨmcheekjoue5.1KiryaBlenchɣulumcheek5.2BanaLienhardɣʷə̀lmə̀joue6Proto-Musgum*galajcheekjoue6.1MbaraTourneuxgalajcheek7Proto-Gidar*galiincheekjoue7.1GidarHungerfordgaliinjoue
ɣʷɨlɨs ʸnf.kidneyrein1018B
This root is widespread amongst the languages of the North sub-branch, but is only attested in Buwal, Gavar and Sukur of the South sub-branch. *l did not exist in Proto-Central Chadic, but was an innovation in the North sub-branch following *r→l. This indicates that this root originated in Proto-Central Chadic North. *ɣʷ has the expected wide range of reflexes, some regular and some irregular. The palatalisation prosody is well supported by the data. The presence of *ɗ in the Kotoko Centre and North languages could be due to *l→r→ɗ, though this process has not been established as regular. The Mpade form is the result of metathesis.
1Proto-Daba*wɨlɨs ʸkidneyrein1.1BuwalViljoenuleskidneyrein1.2GavarViljoenwəliʃkidneyrein2Proto-Sukur*ɣʷɨlɨsisikidneyrein2.1SukurDavidɣuləʃiʃikidney2.2SukurThomasɣuləʃiʃikidney; the two organs in the body that remove waste products from the blood and produce urine.3Proto-Hurza*hʷɨlasasekidneyrein3.1VameKinnairdhùlásásékidneyrein4Proto-Margi*kʷɨlsi ʸkidneyrein4.1BuraBlenchkulʃiKidneys4.2MargiHoffmanhulʃikidney5Proto-Mandara*kʷɨlɨsɨ ʸkidneyrein5.1PodokoSwackhammerhulə́ʃe,-ərein5.2MalgwaLöhrŋursasakidney5.3GlavdaNghagyivazɾá kʷʃᵊlakidney6Proto-Mofu*wɨlas ʸkidneyrein6.1DugworJubumnawures dəbakidneyrein6.2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwules-dəɓárein7Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨlɨsisikidneyrein7.1LamangWolffɣʷələsisikidney7.2HdiBramletthulisisikidneyle rein8Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨlɨsʲikidneyrein8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygoliʃikidney8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣulətʃikidney8.3BanaLienhardwə̀lìsàrein9Proto-Kotoko Centre*hʷɨɗɨskidneyrein9.1LagwanAllisonxuɗusɨkidneyrein9.2MserAllisonhɨdɨskidneyrein10Proto-Kotoko North*ɗɨgʷɨsekidneyrein10.1MpadeAllisonɗùgùsékidneyrein
ɣʷɨmɨɗ ʸn.beardbarbe914B
The final *ɗ under palatalisation is realised as *j in almost all cases, which is a regular change. This has then been vocalised in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. The palatalisation prosody is retained only in Gidar. *ɣʷ has a wide range of reflexes, as expected.
1Proto-Sukur*ɣɨmajbeardbarbe1.1SukurDavidɣəmajbeard1.2SukurThomasɣəmaibeard:-is a hait that grown on the chin of a man;s mouth.2Proto-Hurza*hɨmajbeardbarbe2.1MbukoGravinahəmajbeardbarbe (f) (homme, bouc)3Proto-Margi*kʷɨmibeardbarbe3.1BuraBlenchkùmíBeard1BuraBlenchʃíʃí kùmíBeard (on chin)4Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨmibeardbarbe4.1MatalBrangeragʷaj, agojbeardbarbe4.2PodokoSwackhammermume,-ibarbe4.3MandaraFluckigerumabarbe (f)4.4MalgwaLöhrkuuma, uumabeard5Proto-Mofu*hɨmajbeardbarbe5.1OuldemeKinnairdmàmájbeardbarbe5.2GemzekSabataihəmabeardbarbe6Proto-Maroua*hɨmɨŋ ʷbeardbarbe6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhummuŋbarbe touffue7Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨmajbeardbarbe7.1HdiBramlettɣumajchin, goateele menton, la barbe8Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨmiɗbeardbarbe8.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣuɓebeard8.2KiryaBlenchɣùmíbeard9Proto-Gidar*aᵑgama ʸbeardbarbe9.1GidarHungerfordeᵑgemebarbe9.2GidarSchuhaᵑgemebarbe
ɣʷɨpanf.flourfarine1236B
In Proto-Central Chadic, *p had the allophone [p] in word-medial position. However, in Proto-Daba and Proto-Mafa we find *f, which is unestablished. *p has become /ᵐb/ in Vame and the Tokombere subgroup of the Mofu group, which is also an unestablished change. *ɣʷ has the usual wide range of reflexes, and in some cases has been lost. In Sukur and Proto-Margi the labialisation component has transferred onto *p, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*hʷɨpɨflourfarine1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀mpúnəflour (from any grain)1.2JimiDjibipunFarine1.3SharwaGravinapʷəfarine1.4TsuvanJohnstonahpʷela farine2Proto-Daba*ŋfaflourfarine2.1BuwalViljoenŋfɑflourfarine2.2GavarViljoenŋfɑflourfarine2.3MbudumNdokobaïn̩faflourfarine3Proto-Mafa*gʷɨfaflourfarine3.1MafaBarreteaugúfáfarine3.2CuvokGravinakəfaflourfarine4Proto-Sukur*pʷaflourfarine4.1SukurDavidpowaflour, millet4.2SukurThomaspʷaflour; a fine white or brown powder made from grain, especially guineacorn, maize, etc.5Proto-Hurza*hɨᵐbɨgaflourfarine5.1VameKinnairdhə̀ᵐbə̀gàflourfarine6Proto-Margi*ɨpʷɨflourfarine6.1BuraBlenchmpʷaFlour, meal6.2MargiHoffmanəmpuflour6.3Margi SouthHoffmanupauflour6.4KilbaHoffmanupʷaflour1KilbaSchuhupʷa/upflour7Proto-Mandara*kʷɨpɨflourfarine7.1MatalBrangerphawflourfarine7.2PodokoSwackhammerpəhʷa,-ufarine7.3MandaraFluckigerúkpéfarine (f)7.4MalgwaLöhrukpaflour7.5GlavdaOwensaxguinea corn flour1GlavdaNghagyivaàxʷpíjaflour8Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨpaflourfarine8.1OuldemeKinnairdhūᵐbòflourfarine8.2MuyangSmithhuᵐbuflourfarine8.3MolokoFriesenhoᵐbofarine1MolokoFriesenhəᵐboflourfarine8.4Proto-Meri*gʷɨfaflourfarine8.5ZulgoHallergùfáfarine f.8.6GemzekSabataigufaflourfarine8.7MereyGravinagufoflourfarine8.8DugworJubumnagufoflourfarine8.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhápàfarine8.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhapaflourfarine9Proto-Maroua*hapaflourfarine9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhapafarine9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhapaflourfarine10Proto-Lamang*hʷɨpawflourfarine10.1LamangWolffhʷpoflour10.2HdiBramletthupuflourla farine11Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨpɨflourfarine11.1KiryaBlenchɣùpə́flour11.2BanaLienhardɣʷə̀pə̀farine12Proto-Gidar*gɨpaflourfarine12.1GidarHungerfordgɨɨpafarine
ɣʷɨrn.fieldchamp55Csyngʷɨvɨhrajsɨka
This root is found in a small but diverse group of languages. It is possible that the root is cognate with *raj, though there is insufficient evidence to establish this with confidence. There is a regular change *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch, with the irregular exception of Mbara. *ɣʷ has a wide range of reflexes, not all of which are regular.
1Proto-Tera*garfieldchamp1.1NyimatliHarleygarbush1NyimatliHarleygarfarm2Proto-Sukur*ɣʷɨrfieldchamp2.1SukurDavidɣurfield, plot2.2SukurDavidɣərfarm3Proto-Mofu*gɨlɨ ʸfieldchamp3.1MuyangSmithɡilifields, cultivated bushbrousse cultivé1MuyangSmithɡilifields, cultivated bushbrousse cultivé4Proto-Musgum*wɨrfieldchamp4.1MbaraTourneuxwurfieldchamp5Proto-Gidar*gʷɨlɨjofieldchamp5.1GidarHungerfordgulijochamp, ferme5.2GidarSchuhgulijochamps
ɣʷɨrɨpv.blindaveugle1135A
This root is attested as a noun, adjective or verb. The basic sense was the verb 'to be blind'. The
*ɣʷ has the usual wide range of regular and irregular reflexes. The labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua, which is a common sporadic process. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch, and also in Proto-Daba. In Proto-Central Chadic, *p was realised as [f] in word-final position, but has the reflex /p/ in Hdi, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Bata*wɨrɨfɨblindaveugle1.1GudeHoskinsonmúurə́fá -əblind person1GudeHoskinsonuurəfəbecome blind, be blind, make blind1.2JimiDjibiwərəfənDevenir aveugle ;1.3TsuvanJohnstonawəlfel'aveugle2Proto-Daba*wɨlɨfblindaveugle2.1BuwalViljoenulɑfblind person(un) aveugle1BuwalViljoenulɑfmake blindaveugler2.2GavarViljoenwələfblind person(un) aveugle2.3MbudumNdokobaïwuləfblind person(un) aveugle2.4DabaLienhardwə̀lə̀fl'aveugle ; aveugler3Proto-Hurza*ɣʷɨrafblindaveugle3.1MbukoGravinahurofbe_blindêtre aveugle1MbukoGravinahurofblindaveugle3.2VameKinnairdɣùlàf 1blind personaveugle1VameKinnairdɣùlàf 2blindaveugle4Proto-Margi*wɨlɨfublindaveugle4.1MargiHoffmanləfəblind person4.2KilbaSchuhwulfu/ublind5Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨlɨfɨblindaveugle5.1MatalBrangergʷələf, guləfblind personaveugle5.2PodokoSwackhammerləfaaveugler1PodokoSwackhammerləfaha ləfadevenir aveugle2PodokoSwackhammerᵑgúləfa,-əaveugle5.3MandaraFluckigerwelfeaveugle5.4MalgwaLöhrŋulfe, wulfeblind5.5GlavdaNghagyivagùlfa(be) blind1GlavdaNghagyivadàdá gùlfablind person6Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨlɨfblindaveugle6.1OuldemeKinnairdwùlə̀fblindaveugle6.2MadaNkoumoumuwlofa(un) aveugle6.3MolokoFriesenhəlofblindaveugler1MolokoFriesenhəlofun être aveugle2MolokoFriesenhəlofəgablind animalanimal_aveugle6.4ZulgoHallergùluf (ŋá)aveugle, privé de la vue1ZulgoHallermalá gùlufaveugle m.6.5GemzekSabataigulofblind person(un) aveugle1GemzekSabataimegulfe di ᵐburoaveugler6.6MereyGravinagulufblind person(un) aveugle6.7DugworJubumnaⁿdaw gulof arajblind person(un) aveugle6.8Mofu NorthBarreteauwùlàfaveugle1Mofu NorthBarreteauméwùlfʼejaveugler, être aveugle6.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhúlfaveugler, rendre aveugle1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwúlfaveugler, rendre aveugle2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwulafaveugle, illettré7Proto-Maroua*hɨlɨf ʷblindaveugle7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhulufêtre aveugle, devenir aveugle7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhulofblind person(un) aveugle8Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨlpablindaveugle8.1HdiBramlettɣulpakublindaveugle9Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨlɨfiblindaveugle9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣuliblind1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣʷèlìBlind.9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣuləpi(be) blind1Kamwe-FutuHarleymdiɣuləblind person9.3KiryaBlenchmə́ɣùɽìpàə̀blind9.4BanaLienhardɣʷə̀lf(ə́), ɣʷə̀lə̀faveugle10Proto-Kotoko Centre*nɣʷɨfblindaveugle10.1LagwanAllisonnxufiblind person(un) aveugle10.2MserAllisonngʷafɨblind person(un) aveugle11Proto-Kotoko South*ɣʷajrablindaveugle11.1ZinaOddenɣʷàjràblind person(un) aveugle
ɣʷɨtsn., v.dancedanser815C
This root is not well attested, and has a fairly diverse collection of attestations. It is not clear of the original root was a noun or a verb.
1Proto-Bata*wɨdzɨdancedanser1.1GudeHoskinsonudzədance1.2JimiDjibiudzənDanser ;1.3SharwaGravinaudzDanser1.4TsuvanJohnstona wədzekəndanser2Proto-Mafa*gatsdancedanser2.1MafaNdokobain getʃedanser3Proto-Sukur*dzɨwdancedanser3.1SukurDavidkʷatsakʷatsatassel, dance3.2SukurDaviddzúdance3.3SukurThomasdzudance:- to dance when celebrating something.4Proto-Margi*wɨtsɨdancedanser4.1KilbaSchuhutsa/ədance5Proto-Mofu*kasawdancedanser5.1Mofu NorthBarreteaumékèsèwèjdanser doucement pendant le deuil6Proto-Lamang*dzagʷadancedanser6.1LamangWolffdzàgʷàdzàgʷàdance/song (spec.)7Proto-Higi*wɨtsɨdancedanser7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleytswədance7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleytsodance1Kamwe-FutuHarleytsodance7.3KiryaBlenchtswə̀to dance7.4PsikyeAngelokawutsə́dance7.5BanaLienhardtsə́danser8Proto-Kotoko Island*watsadancedanser8.1BudumaMcKonewatʃajouer, danser.
ɣʷɨvanf.bodycorps829B
This is the general term for the human body. In the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group there was a regular change *v→b. *ɣʷ has been lost in many groups, though in most cases this change is not regular. The labialisation component has been retained in some languages either as *w or as the labialisation prosody.
1Proto-Mafa*vawbodycorps1.1MafaBarreteauvacorps1.2CuvokGravinavawbodycorps2Proto-Tera*vabodycorps2.1TeraNewmanvabody2.2NyimatliHarleyku̱zu̱mdi vabody1NyimatliHarleyku̱zu̱mdi vaskin (of man)3Proto-Sukur*vɨbodycorps3.1SukurDavidbody3.2SukurThomasbody:the hole physical structure of human and an animal.4Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨvɨbodycorps4.1MatalBrangervəkbodycorps4.2PodokoSwackhammerkavacorps1PodokoSwackhammernava,-əcorps4.3MandaraFluckigervuacorps (m)4.4MalgwaLöhrvuwebody4.5GlavdaOwensvbody4.6DghwedeFrickvəgabody5Proto-Mofu*vawbodycorps5.1OuldemeKinnairdbodycorps5.2OuldemeKinnairdselfsoi5.3MuyangSmithvubody, selfcorps, soi-même5.4MadaNkoumouva, mla ava vácorps5.5MolokoFriesenvabodycorps5.6ZulgoHallerbacorps m.1ZulgoHallerbá, də̀rvàse2ZulgoHallerbá, də̀rvàcorps m.5.7GemzekSabataibabodycorps5.8MereyGravinababodycorps5.9DugworJubumnababodycorps5.10Mofu NorthBarreteauváwle corps6Proto-Maroua*va ʷbodycorps6.1Giziga MarvaHamidouvobodycorps7Proto-Lamang*ɣɨvabodycorps7.1LamangWolffɣvàbody7.2HdiBramlettvəɣabodyle corps8Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨvabodycorps8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygʷabody8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleygʷobody8.3KiryaBlenchvə̀body8.4PsikyeAngelogəvabody8.5BanaLienhardvɣàcorps
ɣʷɨvin.faecesselles715Asynᵑgʷɨzaj
The initial *ɣʷ is retained only in the Lamang group, and its loss is irregular in almost all cases. In Proto-Daba it has been lost, and in Proto-Bata, Proto-Sukur and Proto-Higi the labialisation component has transferred to the *v, which is a common sporadic process. There is support for *i in all groups where this vowel has been retained.
1Proto-Bata*vʷifaecesselles1.1JimiDjibivʷinSelles, matières fécales1.2SharwaGravinavʷajselles, excrement2Proto-Daba*ŋvafaecesselles2.1BuwalViljoenŋvɑexcrement, faecesexcrément2.2GavarViljoenŋvɑexcrement, faecesexcrément2.3MbudumNdokobaïŋvaexcrementexcrément3Proto-Sukur*vʷɨfaecesselles3.1SukurDavidvufaeces3.2SukurThomasvufaeces4Proto-Margi*kivifaecesselles4.1BuraBlenchkiviExcrement, dung, faeces1BuraBlenchtʃiviRefuse, faeces. (See kivi)4.2KilbaSchuhibifaeces5Proto-Mandara*gʷɨvɨfaecesselles5.1MandaraFluckigerugveselles (f. pl.)5.2MalgwaLöhrugvedung, faeces5.3GlavdaNghagyivagùvaexcrement, faeces5.4DghwedeFrickgəveexcrement6Proto-Lamang*ɣuvifaecesselles6.1LamangWolffɣuviexcrement6.2HdiBramlettɣuvifeces, stooll'excrément7Proto-Higi*vʷifaecesselles7.1KiryaBlenchvʷífaeces
ɣʷɨvɨn ʸnm.charcoalcharbon de bois1430B
This root is well attested across the Cental Chadic languages. The final *n has the reflex *r in the Mandara and Mofu groups, as part of a regular change. However this change should have affected the Margi group, but has not. The change *n to *ŋ in several other groups is also regular, as is the change *v to *f in Proto-Kotoko North. The initial *ɣʷ has the unestablished reflexes *hʷ in Proto-Hurza and *ᵑgʷ in Proto-Daba. There is also a glottal reflex, probably from the unestablished sequence *ɣ→*g→*ʔ. In Moloko this is realised as /ɗ/. In Proto-Kotoko North the glottal has then fused with the *f to create the ejective *fʼ, which is a common sporadic process. In some groups the fricative component of *ɣʷ has been lost, leaving the labialisation component. This has the reflex *w in Mser, and is reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Daba and Proto-Maroua, another common sporadic process. The labialisation has attached to another consonant in Proto-Margi. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi, Proto-Mofu, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Higi and Proto-Musgum. In some cases the prosody has been vocalised.
1Proto-Bata*ivɨnɨ ʸcharcoalcharbon1.1GudeHoskinsonìvə̀njínəcharcoal.1.2SharwaGravinaavihicharbon2Proto-Daba*ᵑgʷɨvan ʷcharcoalcharbon2.1MbudumNdokobaïŋɡuvoŋcharcoalcharbon de bois2.2DabaLienhardᵑgə̀vānʼle charbon de bois3Proto-Mafa*vaŋcharcoalcharbon3.1MafaNdokobaivaŋcharbon4Proto-Sukur*vincharcoalcharbon de bois4.1SukurDavidvincharcoalcharbon5Proto-Hurza*hʷɨvancharcoalcharbon5.1MbukoGravinauvoncharcoalcharbon5.2VameKinnairdhùvàncoalcharbon6Proto-Margi*vʷɨnicharcoalcharbon6.1BuraBlenchvinaCharcoalcharbon6.2MargiHoffmanvunjicharcoalcharbon6.3Margi SouthHarleyuvʷiᵑgicharcoal1Margi SouthHarleyuvʷunjicharcoal7Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨvɨrɨcharcoalcharbon7.1MatalBrangeravalcharcoalcharbon7.2PodokoSwackhammeruvara,-əcharbon7.3GlavdaNghagyivaʁùvɾacharcoalcharbon8Proto-Mofu*ɣʷavar ʸcharcoalcharbon8.1MolokoFriesenɗevercarboncharbon8.2ZulgoHalleravercharbon (m.) de bois1ZulgoHalleravércharbon (m.) de bois8.3GemzekSabataiavercharcoalcharbon de bois8.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthávaŋʷcharbon de bois9Proto-Maroua*avɨn ʷcharcoalcharbon9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvù Mj, Mt), avoŋ, avu (Mv) (j)charbons éteints10Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨvanicharcoalcharbon10.1LamangWolffɣuvinicharcoal10.2HdiBramlettvwanicharcoalle charbon de bois11Proto-Higi*vɨʔʲɨncharcoalcharbon11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvjəcharcoalcharbon11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvənocharcoalcharbon11.3BanaLienhardvə̀ʼìcharbon12Proto-Kotoko North*fʼanfʼancharcoalcharbon12.1AfadeAllisonfʼanfaʔncharcoalcharbon de bois12.2MpadeAllisonfònfòncharcoalcharbon de bois12.3MalgbeAllisonfanfancharcoalcharbon de bois13Proto-Kotoko Centre*wɨvancharcoalcharbon13.1MserAllisonuvancharcoalcharbon de bois14Proto-Musgum*avaŋ ʸcharcoalcharbon14.1VulumTourneuxaveŋcharbon de bois1VulumTourneuxaŋveŋcharbon de bois14.2MuskumTourneuxvetcharbon de bois
ɣʷɨzɨmn.beerbière516Asynᵐbaɮavɨhʷ
This root is found in a broad area around the Northern Mandara Mountains. There are three well-attested roots for 'beer', which indicates that the practice of brewing beer was an innovation amongst the Central Chadic peoples, probably around the time of the group proto-languages. The *ɣʷ has the expected variety of regular and irregular reflexes. The fricative component has been lost in many groups, and the labialisation component has been reanalysed as *w, *u or the labialisation prosody. In the Giziga languages, the loss has been compensated for by the prefixation of /m/. The regular word-final change *m→w has taken place in the Mandara group, and also in the Lamang group where this change occurs sporadically.
1Proto-Mafa*wɨzambeerbière1.1MafaBarreteauzómbière de mil1.2CuvokGravinawuzambeerbière1CuvokGravinawuzamalcohol (general)alcool (général)2CuvokGravinawuzammillet beerbière de mil2Proto-Mandara*gʷɨzɨwbeerbière2.1MatalBrangergʷəzəw // guzubeerbière3Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨzambeerbière3.1OuldemeKinnairdwùzàmbeerbière3.2MuyangSmithzumwinevin3.3MadaNkoumouwzombiere3.4ZulgoHallergùzumbière (f.) de mil3.5GemzekSabataigozombeerbière1GemzekSabataiguzomvin3.6MereyGravinaguzomvin1MereyGravinaguzomalcohol (general)bière, vin, alcool (général)3.7DugworJubumnaGuzombeerbière3.8Mofu NorthBarreteauzàmbièré de mil3.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́wuzam ᵑga dawbière de mil4Proto-Lamang*ɣuzɨwbeerbière4.1LamangWolffɣùzòbeerbière4.2HdiBramlettɣuzusorghum beer, guinea corn winela bière de mil5Proto-Maroua*mɨzam ʷbeerbière5.1Giziga MarvaHamidoumuzombeerbière1Giziga MarvaHamidoumuzommillet beerbière de mil5.2MbazlaTourneuxzambière


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ɣ


ɣajnm.compoundconcession1228Arel. tovɨn ʸ
The basic meaning of this root is the entire compound, whilst *vɨn ʸ denotes a single building. The initial *ɣ also has the reflexes /g/ and /h/. The reflex /h/ is regular in Mandara, Malgwa, Muyang, Moloko and Proto-Kotoko North. The reflex /g/ is regular in the Meri sub-group of the Mofu group. In the Mofu subgroup the *ɣ is regularly lost. The *j is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Daba, and is vocalised in Sukur, which are common sporadic processes. It combines with *a in Proto-Kotoko South, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Bata*hajɨhutcase1.1SharwaGravinahajəMaison2Proto-Daba*ga ʸhutcase2.1BuwalViljoengehousemaison2.2MbudumNdokobaïɡehousemaison3Proto-Mafa*gajhutcase3.1MafaBarreteaugájcase, consession4Proto-Sukur*ɣihutcase4.1SukurDavidɣíhouse4.2SukurThomasɣəihome; the house that you live in, especially with your family.5Proto-Hurza*agahutcase5.1MbukoGravinaàgaat_house_ofchez6Proto-Mandara*ɣajhutcase6.1MatalBrangergàjhutcase6.2PodokoSwackhammerkaja,-ə 1concession, case, maison1PodokoSwackhammerkaja,-ə 2conteneur6.3MandaraFluckigerconcession (f), maison (f)6.4GlavdaNghagyivaxàːwaentrance hut7Proto-Mofu*ɣajhutcase7.1OuldemeKinnairdɣàjhousemaison7.2MuyangSmithɑhɑjhousemaison, concession ; toute construction1MuyangSmithɑhɑjclassclasse7.3MolokoFriesenhájhouse, compoundmaison; concession7.4GemzekSabataigahousemaison7.5MereyGravinagajhutcase, maison1MereyGravinamaison7.6DugworJubumnagajhousemaison1DugworJubumnagajhutcase7.7Mofu NorthBarreteauʔájmaison (ensemble de case)7.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwajhomemaison, concession 8Proto-Maroua*gajhutcase8.1MbazlaSILSurveygáihousemaison9Proto-Higi*ɣajhutcase9.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣʷohouse9.2KiryaBlenchɣàjhouse9.3PsikyeAngelogehouse9.4BanaLienhardɣjìmaison10Proto-Kotoko North*hohutcase10.1AfadeAllisonhohousemaison10.2MpadeAllisonhohousemaison10.3MalgbeAllisonhahousemaison11Proto-Kotoko Centre*ɣaahutcase11.1LagwanAllisonɣaahousemaison12Proto-Kotoko South*ɣehutcase12.1MazeraAllisonɣehutcase1MazeraAllisonɣehousemaison
ɣanaɗ ʸnf.tonguelangue720synɗɨrɨnɨh ʸnaɬɨj
This root is found mostly in the South sub-branch of Central Chadic, but is also found in the Lamang and Higi groups. The *ɣ is realised as *g in Proto-Bata, Proto-Daba and Proto-Margi, which are unestablished changes. The *ɗ is only retained in the Daba group. In the Sukur, Lamang and Higi groups it is affected by the palatalisation prosody and is realised as *j, which is a regular process. The palatalisation prosody itself is only retained in Proto-Bata. In Proto-Tera it is vocalised, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Bata*gana ʸtonguelangue1.1JimiDjibigiananLa langue comme organe.1.2SharwaGravinaganalangue1.3TsuvanJohnstonaganala langue2Proto-Daba*ganaɗtonguelangue2.1BuwalViljoengɑnɑnɑtonguelangue2.2GavarViljoengɑɗɑɗɑŋtonguelangue2.3MbudumNdokobaïɡanaɗtonguelangue1MbudumNdokobaïɡanaɗlanguagelangue, langage2.4DabaLienhardgànàla langue, le langage3Proto-Tera*ɣinatonguelangue3.1TeraNewmanɣenatongue3.2NyimatliHarleyɣintongue4Proto-Sukur*ɣanajtonguelangue4.1SukurDavidɣanajtongue4.2SukurThomasɣanaitongue:- is the part in the mouth that moves around the mouth when talking or eating.5Proto-Margigar ʸtonguelangue5.1BuraBlenchkeᵑgjarTongue5.2MargiHoffmankjartongue5.3Margi SouthHarleykjartongue5.4KilbaSchuhkjartongue6Proto-Lamang*ɣanɨjtonguelangue6.1LamangWolffɣènètongue6.2HdiBramlettɣaniktonguela langue7Proto-Higi*ɣanɨjtonguelangue7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyannjətongue1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyaniətongue7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣanitongue7.3KiryaBlenchnɣànə́tongue7.4BanaLienhardɣànìlangue
ɣɨnnm.headtête831Asynɣʷɨ
The final *n has undergone the regular change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. The Mafa /gəɗ/ has come from *gɨr, which implies that this reflex was borrowed from that major group. *ɣ has the reflex /g/ in several languages, which is a regular change in Dghwede and the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. It developed into *k in Proto-Margi, probably via *h, though this change is unestablished. It has the regular reflex /h/ in Muyang, and has been lost in several languages, including the two Mofu subgroup languages where this change is regular. There are also instances of the reflex /j/ in Jimi, Cuvok, Mandara, Malgwa and Mbazla, but this change is unestablished. The Moloko and Giziga forms may represent compounds including the reflex of the proto-form.
1Proto-Bata*ɣɨnɨheadtête1.1GudeHoskinsonná -ə(inher. poss., body part) head, top1.2JimiDjibijinənTête1.3SharwaGravinaᵑgɨnətête1.4TsuvanJohnstonənela tête2Proto-Mafa*jaŋ, gɨɗheadtête2.1MafaNdokobaigəɗ kədatête de chien2.2CuvokGravinajaŋheadtête3Proto-Margi*kirheadtête3.1BuraBlenchkirHead; the top3.2MargiHoffmankərhead3.3Margi SouthHoffmankərhead1Margi SouthHarleykərhead3.4KilbaHoffmankərhead1KilbaSchuhkərhead4Proto-Mandara*ɣɨraheadtête4.1MatalBrangergəlheadtête4.2MandaraFluckigeriratête (f)4.3MalgwaLöhriirehead4.4GlavdaNghagyivaʁɾahead1GlavdaNghagyivaʁɾahead2GlavdaOwensγrhead, mind, intellect4.5DghwedeFrickgrehead5Proto-Mofu*ɣɨrheadtête5.1OuldemeKinnairdɣàrheadtête5.2MuyangSmithɑhɑ̀rhead ; toptête, le dessus de quelque chose ; la personne même5.3MolokoFriesendərajheadtête5.4ZulgoHallergərtête f.5.5GemzekSabataigərheadtête1GemzekSabataigarla tête5.6MereyGravinagərheadtête5.7DugworJubumnagarheadtête5.8Mofu NorthBarreteauʔártête1Mofu NorthBarreteauʼarla tête5.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthrajhead (of person, animal, etc.), the top part of somethingtête1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthrajsommet, dessus, cime6Proto-Marouahɨrɨŋ, jɨŋheadtête6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhirᵑga(Mt) hirᵑgaŋ(Mj)tête6.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhuruŋheadtête6.3MbazlaTourneuxjiŋtête7Proto-Lamang*ɣɨŋheadtête7.1LamangWolffɣàŋhead7.2HdiBramlettɣəŋheadla tête8Proto-Higi*ɣɨnheadtête8.1KiryaBlenchɣə̀nhead8.2BanaLienhardɣə̀ntête, sommet, cime
ɣɨwajnm.neckcou58Bsynwɨraj
This root has few attestations, but they are from a diverse set of languages. The *ɣ has been lost in most languages, though this change is not regular. It has merged with the *w in Lagwan and Ouldeme to create a labialised consonant. The *j has merged with *a in Proto-Kotoko North, and is lost in Proto-Kotoko Centre. These are all common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Mafa*ɨwajneckcou1.1CuvokGravinauwajneckcou2Proto-Mofu*hʷajneckcou2.1OuldemeKinnairdhʷàjneckcou3Proto-Kotoko Island*wɨjneckcou3.1BudumaMcKonewujcou.4Proto-Kotoko North*weneckcou4.1AfadeAllisonweneckcou4.2MpadeAllisonneckcou4.3MalgbeAllisonweneckcou5Proto-Kotoko Centre*ɣʷaneckcou5.1LagwanAllisonɣʷaeneckcou5.2MserAllisonwaneckcou
ɣʷadzinm.quivercarquois511B
This root is found in languages around the Nigerian Plains area, and reflects a technological innovation rather than an ancient Proto-Central Chadic root. The sound changes indicate that the root was introduced during the time of the group proto-languages. The *ɣʷ has become *gʷ in the Higi group, and has developed into *kʷ in the Bata and Margi groups, all of which are unestablished changes. In Sukur the fricative component was lost, leaving /w/, also an unestablished change. The *dz has been devoiced to *ts in the Higi group, which is also an unestablished change. The final *i is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Margi group.
1Proto-Bata*kʷadzaquivercarquois1.1GudeHoskinsonkʷàdzáquiver1GudeHoskinsonkʷàdzácollective term for bow, arrows, and quiver1.2JimiDjibikʷadzanCarquois1.3SharwaGravinakʷadzacarquois2Proto-Sukur*wadziquivercarquois2.1SukurDavidwadziquiver2.2SukurThomaswadzəiquiver;- is a case for carring arrows.3Proto-Margi*kʷadza ʸquivercarquois3.1BuraBlenchkʷadʒaQuiver for carrying arrows3.2Margi SouthHarleykʷadzaquiver3.3KilbaSchuhgʷadʒaquiver4Proto-Lamang*ɣʷadziquivercarquois4.1HdiBramlettɣʷadziquiverle carquois5Proto-Higi*gʷɨtsiquivercarquois5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygùtʃə́Quiver5.2KiryaBlenchgùtʃìlquiver. ordinary type used for hunting5.3BanaLienhardgùtʃìcarquois
ɣʷɨnf.headtête814Bsynɣɨn
This root is found in a diverse set of languages, and may reflect a primary Proto-Central Chadic root. Cognates are found in other branches of Chadic. The labialisation component of *ɣʷ is retained as vocalisation in Psikye, Buduma, Mser and the languages of the Kotoko North group. The velar component has reflexes /h/, /k/, /g/ and /ᵑg/. The final vowel becomes *a as a regular feature in many groups.
1Proto-Daba*haheadtête1.1BuwalViljoenheadtête1.2GavarViljoenheadtête2Proto-Sukur*kɨheadtête2.1SukurDavidhead2.2SukurThomashead; the part of the body on top of the neck containing the eyes, nose, mouth and brain.3Proto-Hurza*ᵑgaheadtête3.1MbukoGravinaᵑgaheadtête3.2VameKinnairdŋatête1VameKinnairdᵑgàheadtête4Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨheadtête4.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣə təməram head4.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣihead4.3PsikyeAngeloguhead5Proto-Kotoko Island*kʷɨheadtête5.1BudumaMcKonekuəheadtête5.2BudumaMcKonekutête.6Proto-Kotoko North*gʷaheadtête6.1AfadeAllisongoheadtête6.2MpadeAllisonheadtête1MpadeAllisonkoparticle, headparticule, tête7Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷaheadtête7.1LagwanAllisonkaaheadtête7.2MserAllisonkoheadtête8Proto-Gidar*kɨjheadtête8.1GidarHungerfordkitête8.2GidarSchuhkija/0tête
ɣʷɨɓisv.laughrire1229C
This is a difficult root to reconstruct. The three consonants of the reconstructed form are found only in the Mandara and Lamang groups. In all other groups the *ɣʷ and *ɓ have interacted or been lost. *ɣʷ has been lost in Proto-Daba and Proto-Sukur, which is an unestablished change. In Podoko the labialisation component was retained and vocalised, and in Proto-Higi the labialisation component transferred onto *ɓ. Within the Higi group, *ɓʷ→ʔʷ in several languages, which is an unestablished change. There has been an unestablished change *ɓ→ᵐb, giving the forms in Mbuko, Moloko and Lamang. The sporadic change *ᵐb→m took place subsequently, giving the forms in Daba, Proto-Tera, Ouldeme, Vame and Gidar. The labialisation component of *ɣʷ combined with this in Proto-Bata, Vame and Proto-Margi. In another path, the *m combined with *ɣʷ to create *ᵑgʷ, giving the forms in Mafa, Merey and Dugwor. These examples of fusion are common sporadic processes. There is evidence for reconstructing *i from the Sukur, Margi and Higi groups.
1Proto-Bata*mʷɨslaughrire1.1GudeHoskinsonnwusəlaugh, laugh at, mock1.2SharwaGravinauʃi amʷɨskəAmusant,ante1.3TsuvanJohnstona mʷeskənrire, sourire2Proto-Daba*ɓaslaughrire2.1BuwalViljoenɓɑslaughrire2.2GavarViljoenɓɑssmilesourire1GavarViljoenɓɑslaughrire2.3MbudumNdokobaïɓaslaughrire2.4DabaLienhardmīsrire ; se moquer de...3Proto-Mafa*ŋgʷaslaughrire3.1MafaBarreteaungʷásrire4Proto-Tera*mɨslaughrire4.1TeraNewmantʃi məsilaugh (do laughter)4.2NyimatliHarleymu̱slaugh5Proto-Sukur*ɓislaughrire5.1SukurDavidɓislaugh, to5.2SukurThomasɓislaugh; to make sounds and movements of your face that show you are happy or think something is funny.6Proto-Hurzaᵐbɨsɨjlaughrire6.1MbukoGravinaᵐbasajlaughrire6.2VameKinnairdmùʃlaughrire1VameKinnairdmùʃìjàlaugh ; laugh at ; mockmoquer_(se)7Proto-Margi*mʷisalaughrire7.1BuraBlenchkumʃiTo smile, to laugh1BuraBlenchmuʃa, miʃaTo smile; to begin to laugh8Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨɓasalaughrire8.1PodokoSwackhammeruɓasarire, sourire8.2GlavdaNghagyivaʁùɓásᵊgalaugh8.3DghwedeFrickgəpʼasato laugh9Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨᵐbasalaughrire9.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemmàsàjbe contented ; laughêtre content ; rire9.2MolokoFriesenᵐbassmilesourire1MolokoFriesenᵐbaslaughrire9.3MereyGravinaŋgʷasalaughrire9.4DugworJubumnaməngʷesejlaughrire10Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨɓaslaughrire10.1LamangWolffɣəᵐbosolaugh10.2HdiBramlettɣuɓasajto laugh, to mockrire, se moquer1HdiBramlettɣuɓasulaughle rire11Proto-Higi*ɓʷɨsilaughrire11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼuʃílaugh1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyùʃíLaugh2Kamwe-NkafaHarleyuʃilaugh11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyuʃilaugh11.3KiryaBlenchɓʷìʃíto laugh11.4PsikyeAngeloʼwuʃílaugh1PsikyeAngeloŋʼwuʃílaugh11.5BanaLienhardʼwə́ʃírire, sourire, vaincre12Proto-Gidarubd stem*ɨmasalaughrire12.1GidarHungerfordəmasarire
ɣʷɨlɨmn.cheekjoue711D
The forms from four of the groups cited are clearly cognate, but the Mbara and Gidar words lack the reflex of *m which would normally be expected, and the Glavda form lacks *l, thus making their status as cognates doubtful. *ɣʷ has become *hʷ in the Hurza and Mofu groups. In the Hurza group this is an unestablished change, but in these languages of the Mofu group, /gʷ/ is expected. The labialisation has then been reanalysed as a prosody in Mbuko and Proto-Mofu, which is a common sporadic change. A similar process has taken place in Sukur and Kirya.
1Proto-Sukur*ɣʷɨlɨmcheekjoue1.1SukurDavidɣulumcheek2Proto-Hurza*mɨhʷɨlamcheekjoue2.1MbukoGravinaməhulomcheekjoue2.2VameKinnairdmúlácheekjoue3Proto-Mandara*wɨmcheekjoue3.1GlavdaOwensúumcheek4Proto-Mofu*mahalɨm ʷcheekjoue4.1ZulgoHallermáhalúmjoue f.4.2GemzekSabataimaholomcheekjoue4.3MereyGravinamaholomjoue1MereyGravinamahololomcheekjoue5Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨlɨmcheekjoue5.1KiryaBlenchɣulumcheek5.2BanaLienhardɣʷə̀lmə̀joue6Proto-Musgum*galajcheekjoue6.1MbaraTourneuxgalajcheek7Proto-Gidar*galiincheekjoue7.1GidarHungerfordgaliinjoue
ɣʷɨlɨs ʸnf.kidneyrein1018B
This root is widespread amongst the languages of the North sub-branch, but is only attested in Buwal, Gavar and Sukur of the South sub-branch. *l did not exist in Proto-Central Chadic, but was an innovation in the North sub-branch following *r→l. This indicates that this root originated in Proto-Central Chadic North. *ɣʷ has the expected wide range of reflexes, some regular and some irregular. The palatalisation prosody is well supported by the data. The presence of *ɗ in the Kotoko Centre and North languages could be due to *l→r→ɗ, though this process has not been established as regular. The Mpade form is the result of metathesis.
1Proto-Daba*wɨlɨs ʸkidneyrein1.1BuwalViljoenuleskidneyrein1.2GavarViljoenwəliʃkidneyrein2Proto-Sukur*ɣʷɨlɨsisikidneyrein2.1SukurDavidɣuləʃiʃikidney2.2SukurThomasɣuləʃiʃikidney; the two organs in the body that remove waste products from the blood and produce urine.3Proto-Hurza*hʷɨlasasekidneyrein3.1VameKinnairdhùlásásékidneyrein4Proto-Margi*kʷɨlsi ʸkidneyrein4.1BuraBlenchkulʃiKidneys4.2MargiHoffmanhulʃikidney5Proto-Mandara*kʷɨlɨsɨ ʸkidneyrein5.1PodokoSwackhammerhulə́ʃe,-ərein5.2MalgwaLöhrŋursasakidney5.3GlavdaNghagyivazɾá kʷʃᵊlakidney6Proto-Mofu*wɨlas ʸkidneyrein6.1DugworJubumnawures dəbakidneyrein6.2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwules-dəɓárein7Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨlɨsisikidneyrein7.1LamangWolffɣʷələsisikidney7.2HdiBramletthulisisikidneyle rein8Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨlɨsʲikidneyrein8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygoliʃikidney8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣulətʃikidney8.3BanaLienhardwə̀lìsàrein9Proto-Kotoko Centre*hʷɨɗɨskidneyrein9.1LagwanAllisonxuɗusɨkidneyrein9.2MserAllisonhɨdɨskidneyrein10Proto-Kotoko North*ɗɨgʷɨsekidneyrein10.1MpadeAllisonɗùgùsékidneyrein
ɣʷɨmɨɗ ʸn.beardbarbe914B
The final *ɗ under palatalisation is realised as *j in almost all cases, which is a regular change. This has then been vocalised in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. The palatalisation prosody is retained only in Gidar. *ɣʷ has a wide range of reflexes, as expected.
1Proto-Sukur*ɣɨmajbeardbarbe1.1SukurDavidɣəmajbeard1.2SukurThomasɣəmaibeard:-is a hait that grown on the chin of a man;s mouth.2Proto-Hurza*hɨmajbeardbarbe2.1MbukoGravinahəmajbeardbarbe (f) (homme, bouc)3Proto-Margi*kʷɨmibeardbarbe3.1BuraBlenchkùmíBeard1BuraBlenchʃíʃí kùmíBeard (on chin)4Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨmibeardbarbe4.1MatalBrangeragʷaj, agojbeardbarbe4.2PodokoSwackhammermume,-ibarbe4.3MandaraFluckigerumabarbe (f)4.4MalgwaLöhrkuuma, uumabeard5Proto-Mofu*hɨmajbeardbarbe5.1OuldemeKinnairdmàmájbeardbarbe5.2GemzekSabataihəmabeardbarbe6Proto-Maroua*hɨmɨŋ ʷbeardbarbe6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhummuŋbarbe touffue7Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨmajbeardbarbe7.1HdiBramlettɣumajchin, goateele menton, la barbe8Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨmiɗbeardbarbe8.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣuɓebeard8.2KiryaBlenchɣùmíbeard9Proto-Gidar*aᵑgama ʸbeardbarbe9.1GidarHungerfordeᵑgemebarbe9.2GidarSchuhaᵑgemebarbe
ɣʷɨpanf.flourfarine1236B
In Proto-Central Chadic, *p had the allophone [p] in word-medial position. However, in Proto-Daba and Proto-Mafa we find *f, which is unestablished. *p has become /ᵐb/ in Vame and the Tokombere subgroup of the Mofu group, which is also an unestablished change. *ɣʷ has the usual wide range of reflexes, and in some cases has been lost. In Sukur and Proto-Margi the labialisation component has transferred onto *p, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*hʷɨpɨflourfarine1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀mpúnəflour (from any grain)1.2JimiDjibipunFarine1.3SharwaGravinapʷəfarine1.4TsuvanJohnstonahpʷela farine2Proto-Daba*ŋfaflourfarine2.1BuwalViljoenŋfɑflourfarine2.2GavarViljoenŋfɑflourfarine2.3MbudumNdokobaïn̩faflourfarine3Proto-Mafa*gʷɨfaflourfarine3.1MafaBarreteaugúfáfarine3.2CuvokGravinakəfaflourfarine4Proto-Sukur*pʷaflourfarine4.1SukurDavidpowaflour, millet4.2SukurThomaspʷaflour; a fine white or brown powder made from grain, especially guineacorn, maize, etc.5Proto-Hurza*hɨᵐbɨgaflourfarine5.1VameKinnairdhə̀ᵐbə̀gàflourfarine6Proto-Margi*ɨpʷɨflourfarine6.1BuraBlenchmpʷaFlour, meal6.2MargiHoffmanəmpuflour6.3Margi SouthHoffmanupauflour6.4KilbaHoffmanupʷaflour1KilbaSchuhupʷa/upflour7Proto-Mandara*kʷɨpɨflourfarine7.1MatalBrangerphawflourfarine7.2PodokoSwackhammerpəhʷa,-ufarine7.3MandaraFluckigerúkpéfarine (f)7.4MalgwaLöhrukpaflour7.5GlavdaOwensaxguinea corn flour1GlavdaNghagyivaàxʷpíjaflour8Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨpaflourfarine8.1OuldemeKinnairdhūᵐbòflourfarine8.2MuyangSmithhuᵐbuflourfarine8.3MolokoFriesenhoᵐbofarine1MolokoFriesenhəᵐboflourfarine8.4Proto-Meri*gʷɨfaflourfarine8.5ZulgoHallergùfáfarine f.8.6GemzekSabataigufaflourfarine8.7MereyGravinagufoflourfarine8.8DugworJubumnagufoflourfarine8.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhápàfarine8.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhapaflourfarine9Proto-Maroua*hapaflourfarine9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhapafarine9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhapaflourfarine10Proto-Lamang*hʷɨpawflourfarine10.1LamangWolffhʷpoflour10.2HdiBramletthupuflourla farine11Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨpɨflourfarine11.1KiryaBlenchɣùpə́flour11.2BanaLienhardɣʷə̀pə̀farine12Proto-Gidar*gɨpaflourfarine12.1GidarHungerfordgɨɨpafarine
ɣʷɨrn.fieldchamp55Csyngʷɨvɨhrajsɨka
This root is found in a small but diverse group of languages. It is possible that the root is cognate with *raj, though there is insufficient evidence to establish this with confidence. There is a regular change *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch, with the irregular exception of Mbara. *ɣʷ has a wide range of reflexes, not all of which are regular.
1Proto-Tera*garfieldchamp1.1NyimatliHarleygarbush1NyimatliHarleygarfarm2Proto-Sukur*ɣʷɨrfieldchamp2.1SukurDavidɣurfield, plot2.2SukurDavidɣərfarm3Proto-Mofu*gɨlɨ ʸfieldchamp3.1MuyangSmithɡilifields, cultivated bushbrousse cultivé1MuyangSmithɡilifields, cultivated bushbrousse cultivé4Proto-Musgum*wɨrfieldchamp4.1MbaraTourneuxwurfieldchamp5Proto-Gidar*gʷɨlɨjofieldchamp5.1GidarHungerfordgulijochamp, ferme5.2GidarSchuhgulijochamps
ɣʷɨrɨpv.blindaveugle1135A
This root is attested as a noun, adjective or verb. The basic sense was the verb 'to be blind'. The
*ɣʷ has the usual wide range of regular and irregular reflexes. The labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua, which is a common sporadic process. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch, and also in Proto-Daba. In Proto-Central Chadic, *p was realised as [f] in word-final position, but has the reflex /p/ in Hdi, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Bata*wɨrɨfɨblindaveugle1.1GudeHoskinsonmúurə́fá -əblind person1GudeHoskinsonuurəfəbecome blind, be blind, make blind1.2JimiDjibiwərəfənDevenir aveugle ;1.3TsuvanJohnstonawəlfel'aveugle2Proto-Daba*wɨlɨfblindaveugle2.1BuwalViljoenulɑfblind person(un) aveugle1BuwalViljoenulɑfmake blindaveugler2.2GavarViljoenwələfblind person(un) aveugle2.3MbudumNdokobaïwuləfblind person(un) aveugle2.4DabaLienhardwə̀lə̀fl'aveugle ; aveugler3Proto-Hurza*ɣʷɨrafblindaveugle3.1MbukoGravinahurofbe_blindêtre aveugle1MbukoGravinahurofblindaveugle3.2VameKinnairdɣùlàf 1blind personaveugle1VameKinnairdɣùlàf 2blindaveugle4Proto-Margi*wɨlɨfublindaveugle4.1MargiHoffmanləfəblind person4.2KilbaSchuhwulfu/ublind5Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨlɨfɨblindaveugle5.1MatalBrangergʷələf, guləfblind personaveugle5.2PodokoSwackhammerləfaaveugler1PodokoSwackhammerləfaha ləfadevenir aveugle2PodokoSwackhammerᵑgúləfa,-əaveugle5.3MandaraFluckigerwelfeaveugle5.4MalgwaLöhrŋulfe, wulfeblind5.5GlavdaNghagyivagùlfa(be) blind1GlavdaNghagyivadàdá gùlfablind person6Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨlɨfblindaveugle6.1OuldemeKinnairdwùlə̀fblindaveugle6.2MadaNkoumoumuwlofa(un) aveugle6.3MolokoFriesenhəlofblindaveugler1MolokoFriesenhəlofun être aveugle2MolokoFriesenhəlofəgablind animalanimal_aveugle6.4ZulgoHallergùluf (ŋá)aveugle, privé de la vue1ZulgoHallermalá gùlufaveugle m.6.5GemzekSabataigulofblind person(un) aveugle1GemzekSabataimegulfe di ᵐburoaveugler6.6MereyGravinagulufblind person(un) aveugle6.7DugworJubumnaⁿdaw gulof arajblind person(un) aveugle6.8Mofu NorthBarreteauwùlàfaveugle1Mofu NorthBarreteauméwùlfʼejaveugler, être aveugle6.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhúlfaveugler, rendre aveugle1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwúlfaveugler, rendre aveugle2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthwulafaveugle, illettré7Proto-Maroua*hɨlɨf ʷblindaveugle7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhulufêtre aveugle, devenir aveugle7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhulofblind person(un) aveugle8Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨlpablindaveugle8.1HdiBramlettɣulpakublindaveugle9Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨlɨfiblindaveugle9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣuliblind1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣʷèlìBlind.9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣuləpi(be) blind1Kamwe-FutuHarleymdiɣuləblind person9.3KiryaBlenchmə́ɣùɽìpàə̀blind9.4BanaLienhardɣʷə̀lf(ə́), ɣʷə̀lə̀faveugle10Proto-Kotoko Centre*nɣʷɨfblindaveugle10.1LagwanAllisonnxufiblind person(un) aveugle10.2MserAllisonngʷafɨblind person(un) aveugle11Proto-Kotoko South*ɣʷajrablindaveugle11.1ZinaOddenɣʷàjràblind person(un) aveugle
ɣʷɨtsn., v.dancedanser815C
This root is not well attested, and has a fairly diverse collection of attestations. It is not clear of the original root was a noun or a verb.
1Proto-Bata*wɨdzɨdancedanser1.1GudeHoskinsonudzədance1.2JimiDjibiudzənDanser ;1.3SharwaGravinaudzDanser1.4TsuvanJohnstona wədzekəndanser2Proto-Mafa*gatsdancedanser2.1MafaNdokobain getʃedanser3Proto-Sukur*dzɨwdancedanser3.1SukurDavidkʷatsakʷatsatassel, dance3.2SukurDaviddzúdance3.3SukurThomasdzudance:- to dance when celebrating something.4Proto-Margi*wɨtsɨdancedanser4.1KilbaSchuhutsa/ədance5Proto-Mofu*kasawdancedanser5.1Mofu NorthBarreteaumékèsèwèjdanser doucement pendant le deuil6Proto-Lamang*dzagʷadancedanser6.1LamangWolffdzàgʷàdzàgʷàdance/song (spec.)7Proto-Higi*wɨtsɨdancedanser7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleytswədance7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleytsodance1Kamwe-FutuHarleytsodance7.3KiryaBlenchtswə̀to dance7.4PsikyeAngelokawutsə́dance7.5BanaLienhardtsə́danser8Proto-Kotoko Island*watsadancedanser8.1BudumaMcKonewatʃajouer, danser.
ɣʷɨvanf.bodycorps829B
This is the general term for the human body. In the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group there was a regular change *v→b. *ɣʷ has been lost in many groups, though in most cases this change is not regular. The labialisation component has been retained in some languages either as *w or as the labialisation prosody.
1Proto-Mafa*vawbodycorps1.1MafaBarreteauvacorps1.2CuvokGravinavawbodycorps2Proto-Tera*vabodycorps2.1TeraNewmanvabody2.2NyimatliHarleyku̱zu̱mdi vabody1NyimatliHarleyku̱zu̱mdi vaskin (of man)3Proto-Sukur*vɨbodycorps3.1SukurDavidbody3.2SukurThomasbody:the hole physical structure of human and an animal.4Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨvɨbodycorps4.1MatalBrangervəkbodycorps4.2PodokoSwackhammerkavacorps1PodokoSwackhammernava,-əcorps4.3MandaraFluckigervuacorps (m)4.4MalgwaLöhrvuwebody4.5GlavdaOwensvbody4.6DghwedeFrickvəgabody5Proto-Mofu*vawbodycorps5.1OuldemeKinnairdbodycorps5.2OuldemeKinnairdselfsoi5.3MuyangSmithvubody, selfcorps, soi-même5.4MadaNkoumouva, mla ava vácorps5.5MolokoFriesenvabodycorps5.6ZulgoHallerbacorps m.1ZulgoHallerbá, də̀rvàse2ZulgoHallerbá, də̀rvàcorps m.5.7GemzekSabataibabodycorps5.8MereyGravinababodycorps5.9DugworJubumnababodycorps5.10Mofu NorthBarreteauváwle corps6Proto-Maroua*va ʷbodycorps6.1Giziga MarvaHamidouvobodycorps7Proto-Lamang*ɣɨvabodycorps7.1LamangWolffɣvàbody7.2HdiBramlettvəɣabodyle corps8Proto-Higi*ɣʷɨvabodycorps8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygʷabody8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleygʷobody8.3KiryaBlenchvə̀body8.4PsikyeAngelogəvabody8.5BanaLienhardvɣàcorps
ɣʷɨvin.faecesselles715Asynᵑgʷɨzaj
The initial *ɣʷ is retained only in the Lamang group, and its loss is irregular in almost all cases. In Proto-Daba it has been lost, and in Proto-Bata, Proto-Sukur and Proto-Higi the labialisation component has transferred to the *v, which is a common sporadic process. There is support for *i in all groups where this vowel has been retained.
1Proto-Bata*vʷifaecesselles1.1JimiDjibivʷinSelles, matières fécales1.2SharwaGravinavʷajselles, excrement2Proto-Daba*ŋvafaecesselles2.1BuwalViljoenŋvɑexcrement, faecesexcrément2.2GavarViljoenŋvɑexcrement, faecesexcrément2.3MbudumNdokobaïŋvaexcrementexcrément3Proto-Sukur*vʷɨfaecesselles3.1SukurDavidvufaeces3.2SukurThomasvufaeces4Proto-Margi*kivifaecesselles4.1BuraBlenchkiviExcrement, dung, faeces1BuraBlenchtʃiviRefuse, faeces. (See kivi)4.2KilbaSchuhibifaeces5Proto-Mandara*gʷɨvɨfaecesselles5.1MandaraFluckigerugveselles (f. pl.)5.2MalgwaLöhrugvedung, faeces5.3GlavdaNghagyivagùvaexcrement, faeces5.4DghwedeFrickgəveexcrement6Proto-Lamang*ɣuvifaecesselles6.1LamangWolffɣuviexcrement6.2HdiBramlettɣuvifeces, stooll'excrément7Proto-Higi*vʷifaecesselles7.1KiryaBlenchvʷífaeces
ɣʷɨvɨn ʸnm.charcoalcharbon de bois1430B
This root is well attested across the Cental Chadic languages. The final *n has the reflex *r in the Mandara and Mofu groups, as part of a regular change. However this change should have affected the Margi group, but has not. The change *n to *ŋ in several other groups is also regular, as is the change *v to *f in Proto-Kotoko North. The initial *ɣʷ has the unestablished reflexes *hʷ in Proto-Hurza and *ᵑgʷ in Proto-Daba. There is also a glottal reflex, probably from the unestablished sequence *ɣ→*g→*ʔ. In Moloko this is realised as /ɗ/. In Proto-Kotoko North the glottal has then fused with the *f to create the ejective *fʼ, which is a common sporadic process. In some groups the fricative component of *ɣʷ has been lost, leaving the labialisation component. This has the reflex *w in Mser, and is reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Daba and Proto-Maroua, another common sporadic process. The labialisation has attached to another consonant in Proto-Margi. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi, Proto-Mofu, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Higi and Proto-Musgum. In some cases the prosody has been vocalised.
1Proto-Bata*ivɨnɨ ʸcharcoalcharbon1.1GudeHoskinsonìvə̀njínəcharcoal.1.2SharwaGravinaavihicharbon2Proto-Daba*ᵑgʷɨvan ʷcharcoalcharbon2.1MbudumNdokobaïŋɡuvoŋcharcoalcharbon de bois2.2DabaLienhardᵑgə̀vānʼle charbon de bois3Proto-Mafa*vaŋcharcoalcharbon3.1MafaNdokobaivaŋcharbon4Proto-Sukur*vincharcoalcharbon de bois4.1SukurDavidvincharcoalcharbon5Proto-Hurza*hʷɨvancharcoalcharbon5.1MbukoGravinauvoncharcoalcharbon5.2VameKinnairdhùvàncoalcharbon6Proto-Margi*vʷɨnicharcoalcharbon6.1BuraBlenchvinaCharcoalcharbon6.2MargiHoffmanvunjicharcoalcharbon6.3Margi SouthHarleyuvʷiᵑgicharcoal1Margi SouthHarleyuvʷunjicharcoal7Proto-Mandara*ɣʷɨvɨrɨcharcoalcharbon7.1MatalBrangeravalcharcoalcharbon7.2PodokoSwackhammeruvara,-əcharbon7.3GlavdaNghagyivaʁùvɾacharcoalcharbon8Proto-Mofu*ɣʷavar ʸcharcoalcharbon8.1MolokoFriesenɗevercarboncharbon8.2ZulgoHalleravercharbon (m.) de bois1ZulgoHalleravércharbon (m.) de bois8.3GemzekSabataiavercharcoalcharbon de bois8.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthávaŋʷcharbon de bois9Proto-Maroua*avɨn ʷcharcoalcharbon9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvù Mj, Mt), avoŋ, avu (Mv) (j)charbons éteints10Proto-Lamang*ɣʷɨvanicharcoalcharbon10.1LamangWolffɣuvinicharcoal10.2HdiBramlettvwanicharcoalle charbon de bois11Proto-Higi*vɨʔʲɨncharcoalcharbon11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvjəcharcoalcharbon11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvənocharcoalcharbon11.3BanaLienhardvə̀ʼìcharbon12Proto-Kotoko North*fʼanfʼancharcoalcharbon12.1AfadeAllisonfʼanfaʔncharcoalcharbon de bois12.2MpadeAllisonfònfòncharcoalcharbon de bois12.3MalgbeAllisonfanfancharcoalcharbon de bois13Proto-Kotoko Centre*wɨvancharcoalcharbon13.1MserAllisonuvancharcoalcharbon de bois14Proto-Musgum*avaŋ ʸcharcoalcharbon14.1VulumTourneuxaveŋcharbon de bois1VulumTourneuxaŋveŋcharbon de bois14.2MuskumTourneuxvetcharbon de bois
ɣʷɨzɨmn.beerbière516Asynᵐbaɮavɨhʷ
This root is found in a broad area around the Northern Mandara Mountains. There are three well-attested roots for 'beer', which indicates that the practice of brewing beer was an innovation amongst the Central Chadic peoples, probably around the time of the group proto-languages. The *ɣʷ has the expected variety of regular and irregular reflexes. The fricative component has been lost in many groups, and the labialisation component has been reanalysed as *w, *u or the labialisation prosody. In the Giziga languages, the loss has been compensated for by the prefixation of /m/. The regular word-final change *m→w has taken place in the Mandara group, and also in the Lamang group where this change occurs sporadically.
1Proto-Mafa*wɨzambeerbière1.1MafaBarreteauzómbière de mil1.2CuvokGravinawuzambeerbière1CuvokGravinawuzamalcohol (general)alcool (général)2CuvokGravinawuzammillet beerbière de mil2Proto-Mandara*gʷɨzɨwbeerbière2.1MatalBrangergʷəzəw // guzubeerbière3Proto-Mofu*ɣʷɨzambeerbière3.1OuldemeKinnairdwùzàmbeerbière3.2MuyangSmithzumwinevin3.3MadaNkoumouwzombiere3.4ZulgoHallergùzumbière (f.) de mil3.5GemzekSabataigozombeerbière1GemzekSabataiguzomvin3.6MereyGravinaguzomvin1MereyGravinaguzomalcohol (general)bière, vin, alcool (général)3.7DugworJubumnaGuzombeerbière3.8Mofu NorthBarreteauzàmbièré de mil3.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́wuzam ᵑga dawbière de mil4Proto-Lamang*ɣuzɨwbeerbière4.1LamangWolffɣùzòbeerbière4.2HdiBramlettɣuzusorghum beer, guinea corn winela bière de mil5Proto-Maroua*mɨzam ʷbeerbière5.1Giziga MarvaHamidoumuzombeerbière1Giziga MarvaHamidoumuzommillet beerbière de mil5.2MbazlaTourneuxzambière