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ɮ


ɮaɓajadj.leftgauche610Asyngʷɨla
This root is one of two well-attested roots for 'left'. There are very few changes that have taken place.
1Proto-Daba*ɮaɓajleftgauche1.1DabaLienhardɮàɓāj ; a̍ ɮāɓájà gauche2Proto-Sukur*ɮaɓajleftgauche2.1SukurDavidri ɮabajleft (hand)2.2SukurThomasɮaɓaileft:- on the left side3Proto-Mandara*ɮaɓaleftgauche3.1PodokoSwackhammerɮáɓa,-imain gauche, gaucher1PodokoSwackhammerharə́ ɮáɓamain gauche3.2MandaraFluckigernaaɮaɓagauche (f)1MandaraFluckigernaɮaɓagauche3.3MalgwaLöhrərva na dhlabaleft-hand1MalgwaLöhrnadhlabaleft-hand person2MalgwaLöhrnathlaɓaleft3.4GlavdaOwensÿaside, left1GlavdaOwensÿaside, left2GlavdaOwensdə́vá ÿéβaleft hand3GlavdaNghagyivadᵊvā ʝáɓaleft (direction)3.5DghwedeFrickdəvə ɮaʔaleft (hand)4Proto-Lamang*ɮaɓaleftgauche4.1HdiBramlettɮaɓaleftgauche5Proto-Higi*ɮeɓileftgauche5.1BanaLienhardɮèɓ(i)gauche6Proto-Gidar*ɮabajleftgauche6.1GidarHungerfordvaaɮabaj(à) gauche
ɮɨɗɨmnum.fivecinq725Bsynhʷɨtifɬensi
This root is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains and the Eastern Plains, though not in the Hurza or Daba groups. The initial *ɮ is devoiced in the Musgum and Gidar groups. In Gidar this is a regular change, but it is irregular in Proto-Musgum. *ɗ is reconstructed on the basis of evidence from the Mandara, Maroua, Musgum and Gidar groups. In Proto-Mandara there was a regular change *m→w word-final, but Podoko retains /m/ here. In Mandara, Malgwa, Glavda and Dghwede the *w has fused with *ɗ to form /ɓ/, which is a regular sporadic process. In the Maroua group, the Mbazla data includes /ⁿd/ as an irregular reflex of *ɗ. In the Musgum and Gidar groups, there is /ʔ/ as a reflex of *ɗ which is a common sporadic change. There is no language where *ɗ is retained as /ɗ/, but the evidence justifies the reconstruction of *ɗ. *i is reconstructed in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua. It is possible that *i should be reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic, but more data would be necessary to justify this.
1Proto-Mafa*ɮamfivecinq1.1MafaBarreteauɮámcinq1.2CuvokGravinaɮamfive (5)cinq (5)2Proto-Sukur*ɮamfivecinq2.1SukurDavidɮamfive2.2SukurThomasɮamɮamfive:- five for counting things.3Proto-Mandara*ɮiɗɨmfivecinq3.1MatalBrangerəɮu, əɮəwfivecinq3.2PodokoSwackhammerɮama,-əcinq3.3MandaraFluckigeríɮeɓecinq3.4MalgwaLöhriidhləbefive3.5GlavdaNghagyiva ɮᵊɓafive (5)3.6DghwedeFrickɮipʼefive4Proto-Mofu*ɮɨmfivecinq4.1OuldemeKinnairdɮàmfivecinq4.2MuyangSmithɮamfivecinq4.3MadaNkoumouzɮàm, ázɮàmácinq4.4MolokoFriesenɮomfivecinq4.5ZulgoHallerəɮəmcinq4.6GemzekSabataiɮəmfivecinq4.7MereyGravinaɮamfive (5)cinq (5)4.8DugworJubumnaɮamfive (5)cinq (5)4.9Mofu NorthBarreteauɮàm(num.) cinq4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́ɮamcinq5Proto-Maroua*ɮiⁿdamfivecinq5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɮùmcinq, 55.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɮomfive (5)cinq (5)5.3MbazlaSILSurveylǐdāmuʼfivecinq1MbazlaTourneuxɮiⁿdamcinq6Proto-Musgum*ʔɨɬɨm ʸfivecinq6.1VulumTourneuxɬimcinq6.2MbaraTourneuxʼiɬimfive7Proto-Gidar*ɬaʔ ʸfivecinq7.1GidarHungerfordɬeʼcinq
ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸnf.camelchameau1432Asynkaligimoᵑgʲaluba
This root has come into Central Chadic from the Berber *alɣʷəm. The *ɮ is realised as *l in Proto-Kotoko Island, Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Musgum, and is devoiced in Proto-Higi and Proto-Gidar. The change in Proto-Gidar is a regular change, but the change is irregular in the other groups. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is inconsistent. The prosody is present in Jimi in the Bata group, and in the Hurza and Mofu groups, but is absent in other groups where it would be expected. There is support from the *i in Proto-Tera and Proto-Higi, the *e in Proto-Kotoko Island and Proto-Kotoko North and from some languages in the Mandara group.
1Proto-Bata*ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸcamelchameau1.1BataBoydlùkʷàptocamel1.2JimiDjibiligʷamənChameau1.3TsuvanJohnstonɮəᵑgumele chameau2Proto-Daba*ɮakama ʷcamelchameau2.1DabaLienhardɮòkòmòle chameau3Proto-Tera*ɮimoxcamelchameau3.1NyimatliHarleyɮimokhcamel4Proto-Sukur*ɮɨgʷamcamelchameau4.1SukurThomasɮəgʷamcamel: is an animal with a long neck and a hump on its back. it is used for carring goods and for ridding.5Proto-Hurza*ɮɨgʷama ʸcamelchameau5.1MbukoGravinaɮugʷemecamel (occasional visitor from Chad)chameau (vient rarement de Tchad)5.2VameKinnairdáɮə̀gʷèmècamelchameau6Proto-Margi*ɮɨgʷamcamelchameau6.1BuraBlenchlikamoCamel6.2Margi SouthHarleyɮugʷamcamel7Proto-Mandara*ɮɨgʷamɨcamelchameau7.1MatalBrangerɮəgʷməj, ɮəgʷmi, ɮugmicamelchameau7.2PodokoSwackhammerɮə́gʷama,-əchameau7.3MandaraFluckigeréɮegʷamechameau (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrədhlugʷamecamel7.5GlavdaNghagyivaáɮgʷàmacamel7.6DghwedeFrickɮugʷamacamel8Proto-Mofu*ɮɨgʷama ʸcamelchameau8.1OuldemeKinnairdáɮə̀gʷèmècamelchameau8.2MuyangSmitheɮiɡwemicamelchameau8.3MolokoFrieseneɮegʷemecamelchameau8.4ZulgoHallerɮìgʷìmèchameau m.8.5GemzekSabataiɮegumecamelchameau1GemzekSabataiɮugmechameau8.6MereyGravinaɮəgʷemecamelchameau8.7DugworJubumnaɮegʷemecamelchameau8.8Mofu NorthBarreteauɮèg[ivèmèdromadaire1Mofu NorthBarreteauɮèg[ivèmèchameau8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́ɬagʷamadromadaire, chameau 9Proto-Maroua*ɮɨgama ʷcamelchameau9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɮogomo (Mt), ɮogomoŋ (Mj), aɮogomoŋ (Mv)dromadaire9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼaɮgomochameau, dromadaire10Proto-Higi*ɬɨgʷamicamelchameau10.1Kamwe-FutuHarleythəgʷamicamel11Proto-Kotoko Island*logʷɨmecamelchameau11.1BudumaMcKoneloguəme; loguəmemacamelchameau11.2BudumaMcKonelogumechameau.12Proto-Kotoko North*logomecamelchameau12.1MalgbeAllisonlogomecamelchameau13Proto-Musgum*lukmacamelchameau13.1MbaraTourneuxlukmadromedarydromadaire, chameau14Proto-Gidar*ɬagama ʷcamelchameau14.1GidarHungerfordɬogomochameau
ɮɨwɨnn.fearpeur616
The reflexes of this root are largely regular. Word-final *n→r in Proto-Mofu as part of a regular process. There are several examples of the irregular loss of the *n, and an interesting instance of reduplication in Podoko. The *i in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Lamang, and the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Mofu may indicate that the palatalisation prosody should be reconstructed, though the Mafa, Hurza and Maroua data does not give support.
1Proto-Mafa*ɮawfearpeur1.1MafaBarreteauɮáwpeur2Proto-Hurza*ɮɨwanfearpeur2.1MbukoGravinaɮawanfearpeur2.2VameKinnairdɮùŋgʷàtsfear ; be frightenedcraindre1VameKinnairdɮə̀ᵑgùtsàfrighteneffrayer3Proto-Mandara*ɮɨɮɨwifearpeur3.1PodokoSwackhammerɮɨ́ɮəwe,-ipeur4Proto-Mofu*ɮɨwɨr ʸfearpeur4.1OuldemeKinnairdphrɮə̀ŋàtsbe afraidcraindre4.2MadaNkoumoumáɮàwàlcraindre1MadaNkoumoumaɮawacraindre4.3MolokoFriesenɮawfearcraindre4.4MereyGravinaɮuwerfear (n)crainte4.5DugworJubumnaɮuwer(be) afraid(avoir) peur4.6Mofu NorthBarreteauméɮùrèjcraindre1Mofu NorthBarreteauméɮùrèjavoir peur4.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɮúrcraindre, avoir peur, effrayer5Proto-Maroua*ɮɨwɨnfearpeur5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɮuwun tiavoir peur, craindre, être angoissé5.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɮuwanfear (n)craindre1Giziga MarvaHamidouɮuwan(be) afraid(avoir) peur5.3MbazlaTourneuxɮawcraindre6Proto-Lamang*ɮɨwiŋfearpeur6.1LamangWolffɮuwiŋfear6.2HdiBramlettɮəŋfearla peur1HdiBramlettɮəŋajto fearcraindre


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ɮ


ɮaɓajadj.leftgauche610Asyngʷɨla
This root is one of two well-attested roots for 'left'. There are very few changes that have taken place.
1Proto-Daba*ɮaɓajleftgauche1.1DabaLienhardɮàɓāj ; a̍ ɮāɓájà gauche2Proto-Sukur*ɮaɓajleftgauche2.1SukurDavidri ɮabajleft (hand)2.2SukurThomasɮaɓaileft:- on the left side3Proto-Mandara*ɮaɓaleftgauche3.1PodokoSwackhammerɮáɓa,-imain gauche, gaucher1PodokoSwackhammerharə́ ɮáɓamain gauche3.2MandaraFluckigernaaɮaɓagauche (f)1MandaraFluckigernaɮaɓagauche3.3MalgwaLöhrərva na dhlabaleft-hand1MalgwaLöhrnadhlabaleft-hand person2MalgwaLöhrnathlaɓaleft3.4GlavdaOwensÿaside, left1GlavdaOwensÿaside, left2GlavdaOwensdə́vá ÿéβaleft hand3GlavdaNghagyivadᵊvā ʝáɓaleft (direction)3.5DghwedeFrickdəvə ɮaʔaleft (hand)4Proto-Lamang*ɮaɓaleftgauche4.1HdiBramlettɮaɓaleftgauche5Proto-Higi*ɮeɓileftgauche5.1BanaLienhardɮèɓ(i)gauche6Proto-Gidar*ɮabajleftgauche6.1GidarHungerfordvaaɮabaj(à) gauche
ɮɨɗɨmnum.fivecinq725Bsynhʷɨtifɬensi
This root is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains and the Eastern Plains, though not in the Hurza or Daba groups. The initial *ɮ is devoiced in the Musgum and Gidar groups. In Gidar this is a regular change, but it is irregular in Proto-Musgum. *ɗ is reconstructed on the basis of evidence from the Mandara, Maroua, Musgum and Gidar groups. In Proto-Mandara there was a regular change *m→w word-final, but Podoko retains /m/ here. In Mandara, Malgwa, Glavda and Dghwede the *w has fused with *ɗ to form /ɓ/, which is a regular sporadic process. In the Maroua group, the Mbazla data includes /ⁿd/ as an irregular reflex of *ɗ. In the Musgum and Gidar groups, there is /ʔ/ as a reflex of *ɗ which is a common sporadic change. There is no language where *ɗ is retained as /ɗ/, but the evidence justifies the reconstruction of *ɗ. *i is reconstructed in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua. It is possible that *i should be reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic, but more data would be necessary to justify this.
1Proto-Mafa*ɮamfivecinq1.1MafaBarreteauɮámcinq1.2CuvokGravinaɮamfive (5)cinq (5)2Proto-Sukur*ɮamfivecinq2.1SukurDavidɮamfive2.2SukurThomasɮamɮamfive:- five for counting things.3Proto-Mandara*ɮiɗɨmfivecinq3.1MatalBrangerəɮu, əɮəwfivecinq3.2PodokoSwackhammerɮama,-əcinq3.3MandaraFluckigeríɮeɓecinq3.4MalgwaLöhriidhləbefive3.5GlavdaNghagyiva ɮᵊɓafive (5)3.6DghwedeFrickɮipʼefive4Proto-Mofu*ɮɨmfivecinq4.1OuldemeKinnairdɮàmfivecinq4.2MuyangSmithɮamfivecinq4.3MadaNkoumouzɮàm, ázɮàmácinq4.4MolokoFriesenɮomfivecinq4.5ZulgoHallerəɮəmcinq4.6GemzekSabataiɮəmfivecinq4.7MereyGravinaɮamfive (5)cinq (5)4.8DugworJubumnaɮamfive (5)cinq (5)4.9Mofu NorthBarreteauɮàm(num.) cinq4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́ɮamcinq5Proto-Maroua*ɮiⁿdamfivecinq5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɮùmcinq, 55.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɮomfive (5)cinq (5)5.3MbazlaSILSurveylǐdāmuʼfivecinq1MbazlaTourneuxɮiⁿdamcinq6Proto-Musgum*ʔɨɬɨm ʸfivecinq6.1VulumTourneuxɬimcinq6.2MbaraTourneuxʼiɬimfive7Proto-Gidar*ɬaʔ ʸfivecinq7.1GidarHungerfordɬeʼcinq
ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸnf.camelchameau1432Asynkaligimoᵑgʲaluba
This root has come into Central Chadic from the Berber *alɣʷəm. The *ɮ is realised as *l in Proto-Kotoko Island, Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Musgum, and is devoiced in Proto-Higi and Proto-Gidar. The change in Proto-Gidar is a regular change, but the change is irregular in the other groups. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is inconsistent. The prosody is present in Jimi in the Bata group, and in the Hurza and Mofu groups, but is absent in other groups where it would be expected. There is support from the *i in Proto-Tera and Proto-Higi, the *e in Proto-Kotoko Island and Proto-Kotoko North and from some languages in the Mandara group.
1Proto-Bata*ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸcamelchameau1.1BataBoydlùkʷàptocamel1.2JimiDjibiligʷamənChameau1.3TsuvanJohnstonɮəᵑgumele chameau2Proto-Daba*ɮakama ʷcamelchameau2.1DabaLienhardɮòkòmòle chameau3Proto-Tera*ɮimoxcamelchameau3.1NyimatliHarleyɮimokhcamel4Proto-Sukur*ɮɨgʷamcamelchameau4.1SukurThomasɮəgʷamcamel: is an animal with a long neck and a hump on its back. it is used for carring goods and for ridding.5Proto-Hurza*ɮɨgʷama ʸcamelchameau5.1MbukoGravinaɮugʷemecamel (occasional visitor from Chad)chameau (vient rarement de Tchad)5.2VameKinnairdáɮə̀gʷèmècamelchameau6Proto-Margi*ɮɨgʷamcamelchameau6.1BuraBlenchlikamoCamel6.2Margi SouthHarleyɮugʷamcamel7Proto-Mandara*ɮɨgʷamɨcamelchameau7.1MatalBrangerɮəgʷməj, ɮəgʷmi, ɮugmicamelchameau7.2PodokoSwackhammerɮə́gʷama,-əchameau7.3MandaraFluckigeréɮegʷamechameau (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrədhlugʷamecamel7.5GlavdaNghagyivaáɮgʷàmacamel7.6DghwedeFrickɮugʷamacamel8Proto-Mofu*ɮɨgʷama ʸcamelchameau8.1OuldemeKinnairdáɮə̀gʷèmècamelchameau8.2MuyangSmitheɮiɡwemicamelchameau8.3MolokoFrieseneɮegʷemecamelchameau8.4ZulgoHallerɮìgʷìmèchameau m.8.5GemzekSabataiɮegumecamelchameau1GemzekSabataiɮugmechameau8.6MereyGravinaɮəgʷemecamelchameau8.7DugworJubumnaɮegʷemecamelchameau8.8Mofu NorthBarreteauɮèg[ivèmèdromadaire1Mofu NorthBarreteauɮèg[ivèmèchameau8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́ɬagʷamadromadaire, chameau 9Proto-Maroua*ɮɨgama ʷcamelchameau9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɮogomo (Mt), ɮogomoŋ (Mj), aɮogomoŋ (Mv)dromadaire9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼaɮgomochameau, dromadaire10Proto-Higi*ɬɨgʷamicamelchameau10.1Kamwe-FutuHarleythəgʷamicamel11Proto-Kotoko Island*logʷɨmecamelchameau11.1BudumaMcKoneloguəme; loguəmemacamelchameau11.2BudumaMcKonelogumechameau.12Proto-Kotoko North*logomecamelchameau12.1MalgbeAllisonlogomecamelchameau13Proto-Musgum*lukmacamelchameau13.1MbaraTourneuxlukmadromedarydromadaire, chameau14Proto-Gidar*ɬagama ʷcamelchameau14.1GidarHungerfordɬogomochameau
ɮɨwɨnn.fearpeur616
The reflexes of this root are largely regular. Word-final *n→r in Proto-Mofu as part of a regular process. There are several examples of the irregular loss of the *n, and an interesting instance of reduplication in Podoko. The *i in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Lamang, and the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Mofu may indicate that the palatalisation prosody should be reconstructed, though the Mafa, Hurza and Maroua data does not give support.
1Proto-Mafa*ɮawfearpeur1.1MafaBarreteauɮáwpeur2Proto-Hurza*ɮɨwanfearpeur2.1MbukoGravinaɮawanfearpeur2.2VameKinnairdɮùŋgʷàtsfear ; be frightenedcraindre1VameKinnairdɮə̀ᵑgùtsàfrighteneffrayer3Proto-Mandara*ɮɨɮɨwifearpeur3.1PodokoSwackhammerɮɨ́ɮəwe,-ipeur4Proto-Mofu*ɮɨwɨr ʸfearpeur4.1OuldemeKinnairdphrɮə̀ŋàtsbe afraidcraindre4.2MadaNkoumoumáɮàwàlcraindre1MadaNkoumoumaɮawacraindre4.3MolokoFriesenɮawfearcraindre4.4MereyGravinaɮuwerfear (n)crainte4.5DugworJubumnaɮuwer(be) afraid(avoir) peur4.6Mofu NorthBarreteauméɮùrèjcraindre1Mofu NorthBarreteauméɮùrèjavoir peur4.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɮúrcraindre, avoir peur, effrayer5Proto-Maroua*ɮɨwɨnfearpeur5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanɮuwun tiavoir peur, craindre, être angoissé5.2Giziga MarvaHamidouɮuwanfear (n)craindre1Giziga MarvaHamidouɮuwan(be) afraid(avoir) peur5.3MbazlaTourneuxɮawcraindre6Proto-Lamang*ɮɨwiŋfearpeur6.1LamangWolffɮuwiŋfear6.2HdiBramlettɮəŋfearla peur1HdiBramlettɮəŋajto fearcraindre