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b


banav.to washlaver1334A
This root is unusual in that it contains *b. There was a general change from Proto-Chadic *b to *v in Proto-Central Chadic, but this root appears as an exception to this change. The change of the medial *n to /r/ in the Mandara and Mofu groups is a regular change in the Mandara group, but in the Mofu group the data from other roots is less consistent and the change is unestablished.
1Proto-Bata*binɨwashlaver1.1JimiDjibibinənSe laver ;2Proto-Daba*banwashlaver2.1BuwalViljoenbɑnbathe, wash oneselfse laver, laver1BuwalViljoenbɑnwash utensilslaver la vaiselle2.2GavarViljoenbɑnbathe, wash oneselfse laver2.3MbudumNdokobaïbaŋwash (tr)laver1MbudumNdokobaïbaŋbathe (intr)se laver2.4DabaLienhardpānse laver ; soulever3Proto-Mafa*panawashlaver3.1MafaBarreteaupánse laver3.2CuvokGravinapanawash clotheslaver (habits)1CuvokGravinapanabathe (intr)se laver2CuvokGravinapanawash (tr)laver4Proto-Sukur*banvɨwashlaver4.1SukurThomasbanvəbathe:- to wash a body with water.5Proto-Hurza*banawashlaver5.1MbukoGravinabanajwashlaver1MbukoGravinabanajwash clothesfaire le linge2MbukoGravinabanajwash oneselfse laver5.2VameKinnairdbùnìjà 1washlaver_(se)1VameKinnairdbùnìjà 2washlaver2VameKinnairdbùnìjà 3bathebaigner6Proto-Mandara*barawashlaver6.1MatalBrangermàpàlàjwashlaver6.2PodokoSwackhammerpará 1laver6.3GlavdaNghagyivabárgabathe, wash oneself1GlavdaNghagyivabáɾgawash (clothes, utensils)7Proto-Mofu*barawashlaver7.1OuldemeKinnairdbereŋlaver qqch1OuldemeKinnairdbēréŋwash sthglaver2OuldemeKinnairdbereŋ anaŋlaver qqch3OuldemeKinnairdbarakálaver; laver la saleté de...4OuldemeKinnairdbārākálaver de; laver la saleté de...5OuldemeKinnairdbāríjàwash(os)se laver6OuldemeKinnairdbēríjàse laver7OuldemeKinnairdbarahalaver; laver (vaisselle, habit)8OuldemeKinnairdbāráhálaver ; s´éclairer7.2MuyangSmithbɑrɑbɑwash_outlaver quelque chose à l'intérieur1MuyangSmithbɑrɑfəŋwash out a recpientlaver les saletés d'un récipient2MuyangSmithbɑrɑjwash ; baptiselaver; se laver; baptiser7.3MadaNkoumoumabalafaŋalaver (habits, vaisselle)1MadaNkoumoumábàláse laver (baptiser)7.4MolokoFriesenbalajwash in generalmot général pour laver7.5ZulgoHallerbara bara bolaver, nettoyer avec un liquide1ZulgoHallerbaralaver, nettoyer avec un liquide7.6GemzekSabataimeberelaver1GemzekSabataimebere babathe (intr)se laver2GemzekSabataimebere petekewash clotheslaver (habits)3GemzekSabataibara bara bowash (tr)laver4GemzekSabataibarawash (tr)laver7.7MereyGravinabara bobathe (intr)se laver1MereyGravinabarawash clotheslaver (habits)7.8DugworJubumnaməberej babathe (intr)se laver1DugworJubumnaməberej (zana)wash clotheslaver (habits)2DugworJubumnaməberej (tasahaj)wash utensilslaver (vaisselle, ustensiles)3DugworJubumnaməberejwash (tr)laver7.9Mofu NorthBarreteaumépə́réjlaver7.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpər(se) laver, (se) baigner, 8Proto-Maroua*bunawashlaver8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanbunlaver, se laver, se baigner; laver le vêtement (bruit de lavage); laver1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanbunse purifier - grâce au rite de purification la femme a fait des rites pour avoir des enfants8.2Giziga MarvaHamidoubunwash (tr)laver1Giziga MarvaHamidoubunbathe (intr)se laver2Giziga MarvaHamidoubunawash clotheslaver (habits)8.3MbazlaTourneuxbanlaver9Proto-Higi*piwashlaver9.1PsikyeAngelopewash9.2BanaLienhardse laver, se baigner10Proto-Kotoko Island*benuwashlaver10.1BudumaMcKonebenuə; bəanbathe (intr)se laver10.2BudumaMcKonebenulaver.10.3BudumaMcKonebenuəwash (tr)laver11Proto-Kotoko North*ᵐbanwashlaver11.1MpadeAllisonᵐbanbathe (intr)se laver11.2MalgbeAllisonᵐbaribathe (intr)se laver12Proto-Kotoko Centre*banwashlaver12.1LagwanAllisonbɨ̀nìbathe (intr)se laver12.2MserAllisonbanbathe (intr)se laver13Proto-Kotoko South*banawashlaver13.1ZinaOddenbànàbathe (intr)se laver
belinm.razorrasoir612Loancfpɨɗakʷ ʸ
This root is borrowed from Kanuri, in some cases via Fulfulde, and is found in languages covering a wide spread of the north and east of the Central Chadic area. The *l is not a native Central Chadic phoneme. It was introduced in the North sub-branch of Central Chadic by a general change from *r to *l. All the languages using this root are from this sub-branch, so no adaptation of the *l was necessary. The vowel *e is also absent from Proto-Central Chadic and many of the languages cited. In the case of Mbara, this has been re-analysed as the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Margi*belrazorrasoir1.1BuraBlenchbelRazor2Proto-Mandara*bilarazorrasoir2.1MandaraFluckigerbilàtondeuse à cheveux (f), le rasoir (m)3Proto-Mofu*bilarazorrasoir3.1OuldemeKinnairdbīlácanif ; rasoir ; couteau3.2ZulgoHallerbijilárasoir (m.) à grande lame3.3Mofu NorthBarreteaubilarasoir?3.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthbílá(empr. ful.) rasoir, couteau très tranchant 4Proto-Kotoko North*bilarazorrasoir4.1AfadeAllisonbilrazorrasoir4.2MpadeAllisonbìlrazorrasoir4.3MalgbeAllisonbilarazorrasoir5Proto-Kotoko Centre*belrazorrasoir5.1LagwanAllisonbelrazorrasoir5.2MserAllisonbelrazorrasoir6Proto-Musgum*bala ʸrazorrasoir6.1MbaraTourneuxbelerazorcouteau à raser7Kanuribéli /// bélìrazorrasoir8FulfuldeNoyebeliihirazorrasoir


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b


banav.to washlaver1334A
This root is unusual in that it contains *b. There was a general change from Proto-Chadic *b to *v in Proto-Central Chadic, but this root appears as an exception to this change. The change of the medial *n to /r/ in the Mandara and Mofu groups is a regular change in the Mandara group, but in the Mofu group the data from other roots is less consistent and the change is unestablished.
1Proto-Bata*binɨwashlaver1.1JimiDjibibinənSe laver ;2Proto-Daba*banwashlaver2.1BuwalViljoenbɑnbathe, wash oneselfse laver, laver1BuwalViljoenbɑnwash utensilslaver la vaiselle2.2GavarViljoenbɑnbathe, wash oneselfse laver2.3MbudumNdokobaïbaŋwash (tr)laver1MbudumNdokobaïbaŋbathe (intr)se laver2.4DabaLienhardpānse laver ; soulever3Proto-Mafa*panawashlaver3.1MafaBarreteaupánse laver3.2CuvokGravinapanawash clotheslaver (habits)1CuvokGravinapanabathe (intr)se laver2CuvokGravinapanawash (tr)laver4Proto-Sukur*banvɨwashlaver4.1SukurThomasbanvəbathe:- to wash a body with water.5Proto-Hurza*banawashlaver5.1MbukoGravinabanajwashlaver1MbukoGravinabanajwash clothesfaire le linge2MbukoGravinabanajwash oneselfse laver5.2VameKinnairdbùnìjà 1washlaver_(se)1VameKinnairdbùnìjà 2washlaver2VameKinnairdbùnìjà 3bathebaigner6Proto-Mandara*barawashlaver6.1MatalBrangermàpàlàjwashlaver6.2PodokoSwackhammerpará 1laver6.3GlavdaNghagyivabárgabathe, wash oneself1GlavdaNghagyivabáɾgawash (clothes, utensils)7Proto-Mofu*barawashlaver7.1OuldemeKinnairdbereŋlaver qqch1OuldemeKinnairdbēréŋwash sthglaver2OuldemeKinnairdbereŋ anaŋlaver qqch3OuldemeKinnairdbarakálaver; laver la saleté de...4OuldemeKinnairdbārākálaver de; laver la saleté de...5OuldemeKinnairdbāríjàwash(os)se laver6OuldemeKinnairdbēríjàse laver7OuldemeKinnairdbarahalaver; laver (vaisselle, habit)8OuldemeKinnairdbāráhálaver ; s´éclairer7.2MuyangSmithbɑrɑbɑwash_outlaver quelque chose à l'intérieur1MuyangSmithbɑrɑfəŋwash out a recpientlaver les saletés d'un récipient2MuyangSmithbɑrɑjwash ; baptiselaver; se laver; baptiser7.3MadaNkoumoumabalafaŋalaver (habits, vaisselle)1MadaNkoumoumábàláse laver (baptiser)7.4MolokoFriesenbalajwash in generalmot général pour laver7.5ZulgoHallerbara bara bolaver, nettoyer avec un liquide1ZulgoHallerbaralaver, nettoyer avec un liquide7.6GemzekSabataimeberelaver1GemzekSabataimebere babathe (intr)se laver2GemzekSabataimebere petekewash clotheslaver (habits)3GemzekSabataibara bara bowash (tr)laver4GemzekSabataibarawash (tr)laver7.7MereyGravinabara bobathe (intr)se laver1MereyGravinabarawash clotheslaver (habits)7.8DugworJubumnaməberej babathe (intr)se laver1DugworJubumnaməberej (zana)wash clotheslaver (habits)2DugworJubumnaməberej (tasahaj)wash utensilslaver (vaisselle, ustensiles)3DugworJubumnaməberejwash (tr)laver7.9Mofu NorthBarreteaumépə́réjlaver7.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpər(se) laver, (se) baigner, 8Proto-Maroua*bunawashlaver8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanbunlaver, se laver, se baigner; laver le vêtement (bruit de lavage); laver1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanbunse purifier - grâce au rite de purification la femme a fait des rites pour avoir des enfants8.2Giziga MarvaHamidoubunwash (tr)laver1Giziga MarvaHamidoubunbathe (intr)se laver2Giziga MarvaHamidoubunawash clotheslaver (habits)8.3MbazlaTourneuxbanlaver9Proto-Higi*piwashlaver9.1PsikyeAngelopewash9.2BanaLienhardse laver, se baigner10Proto-Kotoko Island*benuwashlaver10.1BudumaMcKonebenuə; bəanbathe (intr)se laver10.2BudumaMcKonebenulaver.10.3BudumaMcKonebenuəwash (tr)laver11Proto-Kotoko North*ᵐbanwashlaver11.1MpadeAllisonᵐbanbathe (intr)se laver11.2MalgbeAllisonᵐbaribathe (intr)se laver12Proto-Kotoko Centre*banwashlaver12.1LagwanAllisonbɨ̀nìbathe (intr)se laver12.2MserAllisonbanbathe (intr)se laver13Proto-Kotoko South*banawashlaver13.1ZinaOddenbànàbathe (intr)se laver
belinm.razorrasoir612Loancfpɨɗakʷ ʸ
This root is borrowed from Kanuri, in some cases via Fulfulde, and is found in languages covering a wide spread of the north and east of the Central Chadic area. The *l is not a native Central Chadic phoneme. It was introduced in the North sub-branch of Central Chadic by a general change from *r to *l. All the languages using this root are from this sub-branch, so no adaptation of the *l was necessary. The vowel *e is also absent from Proto-Central Chadic and many of the languages cited. In the case of Mbara, this has been re-analysed as the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Margi*belrazorrasoir1.1BuraBlenchbelRazor2Proto-Mandara*bilarazorrasoir2.1MandaraFluckigerbilàtondeuse à cheveux (f), le rasoir (m)3Proto-Mofu*bilarazorrasoir3.1OuldemeKinnairdbīlácanif ; rasoir ; couteau3.2ZulgoHallerbijilárasoir (m.) à grande lame3.3Mofu NorthBarreteaubilarasoir?3.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthbílá(empr. ful.) rasoir, couteau très tranchant 4Proto-Kotoko North*bilarazorrasoir4.1AfadeAllisonbilrazorrasoir4.2MpadeAllisonbìlrazorrasoir4.3MalgbeAllisonbilarazorrasoir5Proto-Kotoko Centre*belrazorrasoir5.1LagwanAllisonbelrazorrasoir5.2MserAllisonbelrazorrasoir6Proto-Musgum*bala ʸrazorrasoir6.1MbaraTourneuxbelerazorcouteau à raser7Kanuribéli /// bélìrazorrasoir8FulfuldeNoyebeliihirazorrasoir