Browse


h


hadajn.eyeœil1437Bsyntsɨ ʸ
The initial *h in this root is retained in Proto-Daba, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Gidar. In several groups, the presence of an initial vowel indicates that an initial consonant has been lost, giving support to the reconstruction of *h. There was a regular change *d→r in intervocalic position in the North sub-branch. There are two exceptions: Proto-Daba has *r although it is in the South sub-branch, and Proto-Mandara has *d where we would expect *r. There is a subsequent regular change *r→l in Proto-Margi, Moloko and Buduma, and an unestablished change *r→ɗ in Mbuko. There was also the unestablished change *d→t in Proto-Tera. In many cases the final *j has been vocalised, a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*dɨjeyeoeil1.1BataBoyddìtoeye1.2SharwaGravinadioeil, yeux1SharwaGravinadivisage1.3TsuvanJohnstonadəŋles yeux2Proto-Daba*hɨrɨjeyeoeil2.1DabaLienhardhə̀rāʼles yeux2.2MazagwayHidiNoussirijaoeil3Proto-Mafa*dajeyeoeil3.1MafaBarreteaudajoeil3.2CuvokGravinaⁿdejfacevisage1CuvokGravinaⁿdejeyeœil4Proto-Tera*jɨtɨeyeoeil4.1TeraNewmanjitəeye4.2NyimatliHarleyjitieye5Proto-Hurza*arajeyeoeil5.1MbukoGravinaiɗeeyeoeil, yeux1MbukoGravinaiɗefacevisage5.2VameKinnairdārájeyeoeil6Proto-Margi*lieyeoeil6.1MargiHoffmanlieye6.2Margi SouthHarleylieye6.3KilbaSchuhlieye7Proto-Mandara*dieyeoeil7.1MatalBrangerjawdi, jewdi, jewdəjeyeoeil7.2PodokoSwackhammerde,-ioeil7.3DghwedeFrickⁿdeeye8Proto-Mofu*harajeyeoeil8.1OuldemeKinnairdārājeyeoeil; oeil ; vision8.2MuyangSmitherieye ; face ; share ; miserlyœil; les yeux; visage; part8.3MadaNkoumouèrèoeil8.4MolokoFrieseneleeyeoeil8.5ZulgoHalleraréoeil m., yeux m.pl.1ZulgoHallerareoeil m., yeux m.pl.8.6GemzekSabataiereeyeœil8.7MereyGravinaɗəreeyeœil8.8DugworJubumnareeyeœil8.9Proto-Mofu Subgroup*daj ʸeyeoeil8.10Mofu NorthBarreteaudejeyeoeil8.11Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdejeyeoeil ; vue1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdejface, likenessfigure, visage9Proto-Maroua*arajeyeoeil9.1Giziga MarvaHamidoureeyeœil9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼarajyeux, œil1MbazlaSILSurveyàrájeyeoeil10Proto-Lamang*irieyeoeil10.1LamangWolffílíeye1LamangWolffíleyes10.2HdiBramlettirieyel'oeil11Proto-Kotoko Island*jɨleyeoeil11.1BudumaMcKonejəloeil, yeux.12Proto-Kotoko South*areeyeoeil12.1ZinaOddenìrìeyeœil12.2MazeraAllisonadeeyeœil13Proto-Musgum*arajeyeoeil13.1VulumTourneuxarajyeux13.2MbaraTourneuxreeeyesyeux1MbaraTourneuxreeface14Proto-Gidar*haraeyeoeil14.1GidarSchuhhara/aoeil14.2GidarHungerfordharaoeil
hadiknm.thornépine1031A
The initial *h in this root is retained in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Musgum, and the initial vowels in Proto-Hurza and Proto-Mandara support the reconstruction of an initial consonant, since Proto-Central Chadic did not permit initial vowels. In the Mafa group, the loss of *h has been compensated for by the addition of a prefix /v/ in Mafa and /m/ in Cuvok. This is a common process in these languages. *d has become *t in Proto-Mafa and Proto-Lamang, and in Proto-Higi, where this is a regular change. The reflex /dz/ in Sukur is unestablished. The *k is realised as *h in Proto-Bata, an unestablished change, and as /t/ in Muskum, a regular change. *i is reconstructed, rather than the palatalisation prosody, primarily on the evidence from the Bata and Higi groups, with support from the Tera, Sukur, Lamang and Musgum groups. In the Bata group, *i has the reflex /ə/ in both Gude and Sharwa. In Sharwa, *ɨ has the contrasting reflex /ɨ/. The Bata group data therefore supports the reconstruction of *i.
1Proto-Bata*dihɨthornépine1.1GudeHoskinsondəhá -əthorn, thorn tree.1.2SharwaGravinadəhəépine2Proto-Mafa*hɨtakthornépine2.1MafaBarreteauvataképine2.2CuvokGravinamətakthornépine3Proto-Tera*ⁿdekithornépine3.1TeraNewmanⁿdekithorn3.2NyimatliHarleyⁿdʒakhtithorn3.3HwanaHarleyⁿdáxáthorn4Proto-Sukur*dzɨk ʸthornépine4.1SukurThomasdʒikthorn; it is the genearl term for thorns.5Proto-Hurza*adakthornépine5.1MbukoGravinaadakthornépine5.2VameKinnairdàdə̀gàthorn ; prickleépine6Proto-Mandara*adakɨthornépine6.1MatalBrangerātàkthornépine6.2PodokoSwackhammertaka,-əépine6.3MandaraFluckigerdákéépine (f)6.4MalgwaLöhrdakethorn6.5GlavdaNghagyivatàkathorn7Proto-Mofu*hadakthornépine7.1OuldemeKinnairdādàkthornépines ; une épine7.2MuyangSmithɑdɑkthornépine (mot général)7.3MolokoFriesenhadakthornépine7.4ZulgoHalleradáképine f.7.5GemzekSabataiadakthornépine7.6MereyGravinadaképine (f)1MereyGravinaadakthornépine7.7DugworJubumnaadakthornépine7.8Mofu NorthBarreteauⁿdàképine7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhátaképine, épineux8Proto-Lamang*tikithornépine8.1LamangWolfftikithorn8.2HdiBramletttekithornl'épine9Proto-Higi*tikɨthornépine9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleytikəthorn9.2BanaLienhardt(ə́)kíépine10Proto-Musgum*hadak ʸthornépine10.1VulumTourneuxhedeképine10.2MbaraTourneuxtahathornépine10.3MuskumTourneuxhedetépine
haɗikʷnm.grasshoppersauterelle1132Bcfdzaraj
This root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *h is retained in most groups, but was lost in Proto-Mafa and many individual languages, which is a common sporadic process. The *ɗ is retained only in Gidar. In many groups it has fused with the *i to become *j, and this *j triggered the creation of the palatalisation prosody in several languages in the Mofu group. These are both sporadic processes. However, in Hdi *ɗ has the reflex /ʔ/ and in Kilba /ʔʲ/. These are unestablished changes. The final *kʷ has been lost in several groups. In Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara it has become *w, and this change also led to the creation of *o in Mpade. In Proto-Daba the labialisation component became *w and replaced the lost *h. In the Maroua group the labialisation component was reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. In the Higi group, *i and *k fused to create /gʲ/. In Bata, the *k fused with *ɗ to create /q/. All these processes are known sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*aɗikʷgrasshoppersauterelle1.1BataBoydqaawelocustcriquet1.2GudeHoskinsonájìwágrasshopper2Proto-Daba*wajakgrasshoppersauterelle2.1BuwalViljoenwɑjɑkgrasshoppersauterelle2.2GavarViljoenwɑjɑkgrasshoppersauterelle2.3MbudumNdokobaïwajakgrasshoppersauterelle2.4DabaLienhardwàjə̄pʼle criquet3Proto-Mafa*jakʷgrasshoppersauterelle3.1CuvokGravinajakʷgrasshoppersauterelle4Proto-Margi*haɗiwgrasshoppersauterelle4.1BuraBlenchhauwaLocust sp.4.2KilbaSchuhhaʼjilocustcriquet5Proto-Mandara*hɨjɨwɨgrasshoppersauterelle5.1MatalBrangerhajawlocustlocuste, criquet5.2PodokoSwackhammerhijawa,-əsauterelle5.3MandaraFluckigeríwacriquet (m)5.4MalgwaLöhriiwelocust gen.criquet6Proto-Mofu*hajakʷgrasshoppersauterelle6.1OuldemeKinnairdàwàjàkcricketcriquet6.2MuyangSmithejewgeneric term for grashoppercriquet (mot générique)6.3MadaNkoumouájàw màdàlácriquet (sp.)6.4MolokoFriesenhejewcricket, generic namecriquet; nom_geàneàral6.5ZulgoHallerhájawsauterelle f. sp.6.6GemzekSabataihejewgrasshoppersauterelle6.7MereyGravinahejewgrasshoppersauterelle, criquet1MereyGravinahejewgrasshoppersauterelle, criquet6.8DugworJubumnahʷejeklocustlocuste, criquet1DugworJubumnahʷejekgrasshoppersauterelle6.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷàjákʷsauterelle (nom g;-en.)6.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajakʷsauterelle, criquet (nom générique) ; (par ext.) insecte7Proto-Maroua*hajak ʷgrasshoppersauterelle7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjuk(u)sauterelle (générique), criquet1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjuk(u)grosse sauterelle2Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjuk(u)petite sauterelle noire7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhojokgrasshoppersauterelle1Giziga MarvaHamidouhojoklocustlocuste, criquet8Proto-Lamang*hiʔigrasshoppersauterelle8.1HdiBramletthiʼigrasshopperle criquet, la sauterelle9Proto-Higi*haɗikgrasshoppersauterelle9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhagjígrasshopper9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhagigrasshopper9.3KiryaBlenchhàjígrasshopper9.4BanaLienhardxàjsauterelle10Proto-Kotoko North*hajawgrasshoppersauterelle10.1MpadeAllisonhàjógrasshoppercriquet1MpadeAllisongajograsshoppersauterelle11Proto-Gidar*hajɗaŋ ʸgrasshoppersauterelle11.1GidarHungerfordheejɗeŋlocuste (migrateur), sauterelle, criquet11.2GidarHungerfordhejdeŋsauterelle11.3GidarHungerfordhejɗeŋcriquet, sauterelle
hajaɣn.ground squirrelécureuil820C
This root is primarily found in the languages of the North sub-branch, but is also found in the Hurza group. The initial *h is retained in Proto-Mofu, and implied by the abnormal initial vowels in Proto-Hurza, Proto-Mandara, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Kotoko South, and the (compensatory) reduplication in Proto-Musgum. The *ɣ is retained in Glavda and Lamang. It has the reflex /g/ in Mpade, /h/ in the Hurza group, Mazera and Moloko, which borrowed the root from Mbuko. *ŋ is the reflex of *ɣ in Proto-Mofu, which was borrowed by Matal. The reflex *w in the Giziga languages is less natural, and may imply that *ɣ was labialised. None of these changes are established regular changes. The *j has triggered the creation of the palatalisation in some Mofu group languages, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Hurza*ajahsquirrrelécureuil1.1MbukoGravinaajahsquirrelécureuil1MbukoGravinawananajahsquirrelécureuil1.2VameKinnairdājáhsquirrelécureuil2Proto-Mandara*ajaɣsquirrelécureuil2.1MatalBrangerhājàŋsquirrelécureuil2.2MandaraFluckigerjàjèécureuil (m)2.3MalgwaLöhrjejesquirrelécureuil2.4GlavdaNghagyivaájàʁájàʁasquirrelécureuil1GlavdaOwensajaγájasquirrelécureuil3Proto-Mofu*hajaŋsquirrelécureuil3.1OuldemeKinnairdàjèŋsquirrelécureuil3.2MuyangSmithejeŋStriped ground squirrelEcureuil fouisseur (écureuil de terre)3.3MolokoFriesenajahsquirrelécureuil3.4ZulgoHallerhíjéŋécureuil (m.) de terre3.5GemzekSabataihijeŋsquirrelécureuil3.6MereyGravinahijeŋpalm ratrat de palme1MereyGravinahijeŋécureuil3.7DugworJubumnahijaŋpalm ratrat de palme1DugworJubumnahijaŋsquirrelécureuil3.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajaŋsquirrelécureuil terrestre ou "Rat palmiste"1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajaŋ aŋgʷal'écureuil qui habite sur les rochers 2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajaŋ ᵑga palahl'écureuil qui habite sur la plaine4Proto-Maroua*ajawsquirrelécureuil4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjaw, ajawécureuil, scyurus1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjaw, ajawécureuil, scyurus, un enfant né très petit, ou nim donné par un devin, ou surnom donné à un enfant qui commence à marcher très petit - On tourne l'enfant autour de la termitière pour qu'il grassit, surnom d'un enfant maigre4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouajewpalm ratrat de palme1Giziga MarvaHamidouajewsquirrelécureuil5Proto-Lamang*jaɣesquirrelécureuil5.1LamangWolffjáɣsquirrel1LamangWolffjáɣèground squirrel6Proto-Kotoko North*jagasquirrelécureuil6.1MpadeAllisonjágàflying squirrelécureil volant7Proto-Kotoko South*ajahesquirrelécureuil7.1MazeraAllisonajahesquirrelécureuil8Proto-Musgum*jajasquirrelécureuil8.1MbaraTourneuxjajasquirrelécureuil
hakʷnf.firefeu1439B
This root is an established Chadic root, though the exact form of the Proto-Central Chadic root is harder to pin down. The *kʷ is present in six of the group proto-languages, and has the reflex *gʷ in the Bata and Kotoko South groups, *ɣʷ in the Higi group, *ʔʷ in the Margi group, and *w in the Maroua, Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Kotoko Centre groups, and in Mbara in the Musgum group. These are not established changes. There is strong evidence for an initial consonant, and an initial *h is reconstructed. The *h is present in the Daba, Margi, Kotoko North and Musgum groups. However, in many groups the *h has been lost completely. There are a few unusual reflexes. The Proto-Daba root is the result of metathesis. In the Mafa group, the *h has been lost, triggering compensatory prefixation in Mafa and compensatory reduplication in Cuvok.
1Proto-Bata*gʷɨfirefeu1.1GudeHoskinsongúnəfire, heat.1.2JimiDjibigunLe feu1.3SharwaGravinarugʷəfeu1.4TsuvanJohnstongulkʷele feu2Proto-Daba*kʷahʷɨfirefeu2.1BuwalViljoenkʷɑhʷɑwfirefeu2.2GavarViljoenkʷɑhufirefeu1GavarViljoenkʷɑhu(be) hot2.3MbudumNdokobaïkahawfirefeu2.4DabaLienhardkùhūle feu, la lampe3Proto-Mafa*hakʷafirefeu3.1MafaBarreteauvogʷafeu3.2CuvokGravinakʷakʷawfirefeu4Proto-Sukur*kʷɨfirefeu4.1SukurDavidkufire4.2SukurThomaskufire; is the general term for fire.5Proto-Hurza*akʷafirefeu5.1MbukoGravinaukofire, light, electricityfeu, lumière, electricité5.2VameKinnairdákʷāfirefeu6Proto-Margi*hɨʔʷɨfirefeu6.1BuraBlenchuʼuFire6.2MargiHoffmanuʼufire6.3Margi SouthHarleyuʼufire6.4KilbaSchuhhuʼufire7Proto-Mofu*akʷɨfirefeu7.1OuldemeKinnairdàkùfirefeu7.2MuyangSmithɑkufirele feu, le courant électrique7.3MolokoFriesenokofirefeu7.4ZulgoHallerakʷáfeu m.7.5GemzekSabataiakofirefeu7.6MereyGravinaakofeu7.7DugworJubumnaakʷafirefeu7.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthawawfirefeu, chaleur torride8Proto-Maroua*awɨfirefeu8.1MbazlaTourneuxawufeu1MbazlaSILSurveyàwúfirefeu9Proto-Higi*ɣʷifirefeu9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣʷi1.fire.2.flower9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣʷifire9.3KiryaBlenchɣùfire9.4PsikyeAngelogʷufire9.5BanaLienhardɣʷə̀feu10Proto-Kotoko Island*awfirefeu10.1BudumaMcKoneaəwfirefeu10.2BudumaMcKoneâwfeu.11Proto-Kotoko North*hɨwfirefeu11.1AfadeAllisonhɨwfirefeu11.2MalgbeAllisonufirefeu11.3MaltamAllisonjaufirefeu12Proto-Kotoko Centre*awɨfirefeu12.1MserAllisonawufirefeu13Proto-Kotoko South*agʷafirefeu13.1MazeraAllisonagofirefeu14Proto-Musgum*huu, akʷɨfirefeu14.1MbaraTourneuxhuufirefeu14.2MuskumTourneuxakufeu, chaud
haᵐbɨrnm.skinpeau513A
*h is retained only in Moloko, but the presence of an initial vowel in the other Mofu group languages, along with Proto-Hurza and Vulum, supports its presence. No Proto-Central Chadic words begin with a vowel. The *ᵐb is found in all reflexes, except for Vulum where it has become /m/. *r has become *l as a result of a regular change in all the languages of the North major group, and also in Cuvok from a separate regular change. /r/ in Moloko is also the result of regular change.
1Proto-Mafa*ᵐbarskinpeau1.1CuvokGravinaᵐbalskin (of man)peau (d'homme)1CuvokGravinaᵐbalskin (animal) (v)peau (d'animal)2CuvokGravinaᵐbalhide (of animal)peau (d'animal)2Proto-Hurza*aᵐbarskinpeau2.1MbukoGravinaaᵐbaranimal skinpeau d'un animal2.2VameKinnairdàᵐbàrskin ; hidepeau3Proto-Mofu*haᵐbɨlskinpeau3.1OuldemeKinnairdāᵐbə̀lskin, part of bodypeau, partie du corps3.2MuyangSmithɑᵐbəlskin ; leatherpeau; cuir3.3MadaNkoumouaᵐbalpeau, cuir1MadaNkoumouaᵐbalpeau3.4MolokoFriesenhaᵐbarskinpeau3.5GemzekSabataiaᵐbəlhide (of animal); skin (animal) (v)peau (d'animal)3.6MereyGravinaᵐbalhide (of animal)peau (d'animal)3.7DugworJubumnaaᵐbalhide (of animal); skin (of man)peau (d'animal); peau (d'homme)3.8Mofu-GudurHollingswortháᵐbalpeau (humaine ou animale)4Proto-Higi*ᵐbɨlskinpeau4.1BanaLienhardᵐbə́lsac en peau5Proto-Musgum*amɨrskinpeau5.1VulumTourneuxamɨrpeau
haᵐbɨz ʸn.bloodsang1028A
The initial *h is lost in almost all languages, only being present in Mbazla. It is reconstructed largely due to the frequent reduplication, which is strongly indicative of a lost consonant. This compensatory reduplication has taken place in the Daba, Mafa, Sukur, Mofu, Maroua and Higi groups. The *ᵐb is not reduplicated in its entirety except in Buwal. In other languages, either the /b/ or the /m/ component is used to replace the lost *h. In the Hurza, Margi, Mandara and Higi groups, and the Tokombere subgroup of the Mofu group, *ᵐb has become *m, which is an unestablished change. In Mandara and Malgwa there was a regular change *m→w. The *z is devoiced in Proto-Margi as part of a regular change, and it is deleted in Proto-Higi, which is a common but not fully regular process for final consonants. There was metathesis of *ᵐb and *z in Proto-Bata. There is good support for the presence of the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Bata*zaᵐbebloodsang1.1BataBoydzààᵐbeblood1.2BachamaSkinnerzaᵐbeblood2Proto-Daba*haᵐbɨzbloodsang2.1BuwalViljoenᵐbɑᵐbɑzbloodsang2.2GavarViljoenʼɑmpəsbloodsang2.3MbudumNdokobaïmuᵐbəzbloodsang3Proto-Mafa*baᵐbaz ʸbloodsang3.1MafaNdokobaipaᵐbazsang3.2CuvokGravinabeᵐbezbloodsang1CuvokGravinabeᵐbezbloodsang4Proto-Sukur*muᵐbusbloodsang4.1SukurDavidmuᵐbussblood5Proto-Hurza*mɨza ʸbloodsang5.1MbukoGravinamezbloodsang5.2VameKinnairdmùnʒèbloodsang6Proto-Margi*masi ʸbloodsang6.1KilbaSchuhmaʃiblood7Proto-Mandara*mɨzɨ ʸbloodsang7.1MatalBrangeraŋiz, aŋiʒbloodsang7.2PodokoSwackhammermuzá,-əsang7.3MandaraFluckigerúʒesang (m)7.4MalgwaLöhruuʒeblood8Proto-Mofu*haᵐbɨz ʸbloodsang8.1Proto-Tokombere*amɨz ʸbloodsang8.2OuldemeKinnairdámìzbloodsang8.3MadaNkoumouemeʒsang8.4ZulgoHallermə́ᵐbə̀zsang m.8.5GemzekSabataibaᵐbazbloodsang8.6MereyGravinabaᵐbazbloodsang8.7Mofu NorthBarreteaumáᵐbàzsang8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaᵐbazsang9Proto-Maroua*hɨᵐbɨs ʷbloodsang9.1Giziga MarvaHamidoupuᵐbusbloodsang9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼaᵐbus, haᵐbussang1MbazlaSILSurveyǎᵐbūsbloodsang10Proto-Higi*mimibloodsang10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymimjiblood1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymímíblood10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymjimjiblood10.3KiryaBlenchmímíblood10.4BanaLienhardmímísang
hɨdzɨn ʸnf.mortarmortier1234C
There are two different cognate roots which are mixed here. In the presentation the Daba, Hurza and Mofu entries are divided according to which root is being used. The main difference between the roots is the choice of *n or *r as the final consonant. There is a regular change of final *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, but this does not account for *r in the Proto-Bata, Proto-Sukur and Proto-Higi roots, along with Daba and Vame. Nor does it account for the /ŋ/ (from *n) in several Mofu group languages. A possible explanation is that the root existed before the sound change in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, but that the different forms developed different uses, e.g. one was a large mortar for pounding millet and the other was a small mortar for pounding other items, and the two roots spread independently. *h is proposed to account for the frequent reduplication of the *n root. The *dz is frequently prenasalised, which is a sporadic process. The changes *dz→d in Proto-Musgum and *dz→z in Proto-Kotoko Centre are regular.
1Proto-Bata*ⁿdzɨrɨ ʸmortarmortier1.1JimiDjibiaⁿdzərənPetit mortier qui sert à piler le tabac pour priser.1.2SharwaGravinaⁿdʒirəmortier2Proto-Daba*ⁿdzar ʸmortarmortier2.1DabaLienhardⁿdʒērmortier3Proto-Daba*dzɨdzaŋ ʸmortarmortier3.1MbudumNdokobaïdʒidʒeŋmortarmortier4Proto-Sukur*dzɨmdzɨr ʸmortarmortier4.1SukurDavidjim zərmortar, wooden4.2SukurThomasjimdzər, jimnzər, jimzərmortar;- is wooden mortar used for grinding source for soup.5Proto-Hurza*dzɨra ʸmortarmortier5.1VameKinnairddzə́rémortarmortier6Proto-Hurza*dzɨⁿdzan ʸmortarmortier6.1MbukoGravinadzəⁿdzenmortarmortier7Proto-Margi*ⁿdzɨr ʸmortarmortier7.1BuraBlenchⁿdʒirGrain mortar8Proto-Mandara*dzɨrɨmortarmortier8.1MatalBrangerdzərəw // dzərumortarmortier8.2PodokoSwackhammerdzə́ra,-əmortier8.3MandaraFluckigerdzerámortier (m)8.4MalgwaLöhrdzəramortar8.5GlavdaNghagyivad͡zᵊɾamortar, pounding pot1GlavdaOwensdzimortar9Proto-Mofu*dzɨramortarmortier9.1OuldemeKinnairddzə́rómortarmortier9.2MuyangSmithdʒərɑmortarmortier9.3MadaNkoumouadʒramortier9.4ZulgoHallerdzəramortier m.10Proto-Mofu*dzɨdzaŋ ʸmortarmortier10.1MuyangSmithdʒidʒiŋmortarmortier10.2MolokoFriesentʃədʒenmortarmortier10.3GemzekSabataidzeŋdzeŋmortarmortier10.4MereyGravinadzəⁿdzeŋmortarmortier10.5DugworJubumnadʒədʒeŋmortarmortier10.6Mofu NorthBarreteaudʒə̀ŋdʒèŋmortier10.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdʒédʒeŋmortier11Proto-Maroua*dzɨdzɨŋ ʸmortarmortier11.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielandʒidʒiŋmortier à mil1Giziga MoutourwaMichielandʒidʒiŋpilon à mil11.2Giziga MarvaHamidoudʒidʒeŋmortarmortier12Proto-Higi*ⁿdzirmortarmortier12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyⁿdzíríMortar12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyⁿdzirmortar; pounding pot13Proto-Kotoko Island*adzinmortarmortier13.1BudumaMcKoneaedʒinmortarmortier13.2BudumaMcKoneâdʒinmortier.14Proto-Kotoko Centre*zɨnmortarmortier14.1LagwanAllisonzɨnhamortarmortier14.2MserAllisonazɨnmortarmortier15Proto-Musgum*dɨŋmortarmortier15.1VulumTourneuxadɨŋmortier15.2MbaraTourneuxdinajmortar15.3MuskumTourneuxtɨŋCeiba pentandra (Bombacaceae)1MuskumTourneuxtɨŋmortier
hɨjɨn.milletmil814Asyndawvɨjaw
This is one of three or more well-attested roots for millet, the staple crop in the region. The forms of the root are very consistent, with the primary differences being in the quality of the vowels. The root is found in languages from a wide area, and so may be reasonably old. However the existence of four different roots for the staple crop suggests that agriculture was not practiced by the earliest Central Chadic peoples.
1Proto-Bata*hajmilletmil1.1SharwaGravinahajəngraine1.2TsuvanJohnstonhele mil2Proto-Sukur*hɨjmilletmil2.1SukurThomashəiguineacorn; general term for guineacorn3Proto-Hurza*ahajmilletmil3.1VameKinnairdāhájmilletmil4Proto-Mandara*hɨjɨmilletmil4.1MatalBrangerhi, həjmilletmil4.2PodokoSwackhammerhijá,-ə 1grain1PodokoSwackhammerhijá,-ə 2mil4.3MandaraFluckigerhiámil (m)5Proto-Mofu*hajmilletmil5.1OuldemeKinnairdhājmilletmil5.2MolokoFriesenhajmilletmil6Proto-Lamang*hɨjamilletmil6.1LamangWolffxíjámillet6.2HdiBramletthijasorghum, guinea cornle sorgho, le mil7Proto-Higi*hamilletmil7.1PsikyeAngelomillet, corn7.2BanaLienhardmil (nom générique)8Proto-Gidar*hajɨmilletmil8.1GidarHungerfordhajjamil de saison de pluie, sorgho8.2GidarSchuhhaja/0mil8.3GidarSchuhhaja/0sorgho
hɨkannum.tendix36Asynkɨrɨwkʷɨm
This is one of three widespread roots for 'ten'. This root is found in three of the four Kotoko groups. *h is lost in Proto-Kotoko North.
1Proto-Kotoko Island*hɨkantendix1.1BudumaMcKonehəkanten (10)dix (10)2Proto-Kotoko North*kantendix2.1AfadeAllisonkanten (10)dix (10)2.2MpadeAllisonkánten (10)dix (10)2.3MalgbeAllisonkanten (10)dix (10)3Proto-Kotoko Centre*hɨkantendix3.1LagwanAllisonxkanten (10)dix (10)3.2MserAllisonkanten (10)dix (10)
hɨkinnum.threetrois1242A
This root is attested across all groups except for Gidar, Musgum and the Kotoko groups. The final *n has become *r in the Margi, Mandara and Mofu groups as part of a regular change. However *r is also found in the Mafa group and in the Giziga languages, and the /ɗ/ in the Daba group is also a reflex of *r. These forms are the result of borrowing. The unestablished *r→ɗ change also took place in Mandara, Malgwa and Glavda. In Mandara the *i and *ɗ fused to create /j/. In Malgwa, there was an intermediate /ɗʲ/, which moved to a velar position as part of a regular process of velarisation of palatalised alveolars. All groups except for the Mandara and Lamang groups have *ma- prefixed to the root. In several groups, the *h has been lost, triggering compensatory lengthening of the *a from the prefix. The *i vowel is reconstructed on the basis of evidence from the Margi, Mandara and Maroua groups. The evidence is not conclusive as there is no support for *i from the Bata or Higi groups.
1Proto-Bata*mahɨkɨnthreetrois1.1BataBoydmʷààkɨ́nthree1.2GudeHoskinsonmákəthree1.3JimiDjibimahəkənTrois1JimiDjibimahəkən32Proto-Daba*mahkaɗthreetrois2.1BuwalViljoenmɑhkɑɗthree (3)trois (3)2.2GavarViljoenmɑhkɑɗthree (3)trois (3)2.3MbudumNdokobaïmakaɗthree (3)trois (3)2.4DabaLienhardmàkāɗtrois3Proto-Mafa*mahkarthreetrois3.1MafaBarreteaumakártrois3.2CuvokGravinamahkarthree (3)trois (3)4Proto-Tera*mahkanthreetrois4.1GaʼandaGwajimahkanthree5Proto-Sukur*maakɨnthreetrois5.1SukurDavidmaakənthree6Proto-Hurza*maakanthreetrois6.1MbukoGravinamaakanthreetrois6.2VameKinnairdmáᵑgānthreetrois7Proto-Margi*maakirthreetrois7.1BuraBlenchmakirThree7.2Margi SouthHarleymaakərthree7.3KilbaSchuhmaakəru//three8Proto-Mandara*hɨkirɨthreetrois8.1MatalBrangermākᵊ̀rthreetrois8.2PodokoSwackhammermakə́ra,-ətrois8.3MandaraFluckigerkéjétrois8.4MalgwaLöhrkəɠjethree8.5GlavdaNghagyivaxkr̩̀ɗathree (3)8.6DghwedeFrickxkrethree9Proto-Mofu*mahkɨrthreetrois9.1OuldemeKinnairdmàkàrthreetrois9.2MuyangSmithmɑhkərthreetrois9.3MolokoFriesenmakarthreetrois9.4GemzekSabataimakarthree (3)trois (3)1GemzekSabataimakərthreetrois9.5MereyGravinamahkartrois9.6DugworJubumnamakarthree (3)trois (3)9.7Mofu NorthBarreteaumàkàrtrois9.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaakarthreetrois10Proto-Maroua*maakaŋthreetrois10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmakirtrois1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmakirtrente10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumakirthree (3)trois (3)10.3MbazlaSILSurveymàkāŋthreetrois1MbazlaTourneuxmaakaŋtrois11Proto-Lamang*hɨkɨnathreetrois11.1LamangWolffxkə́náthree11.2HdiBramletthəkənthreetrois12Proto-Higi*maxkɨnthreetrois12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymakənəthree1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymɑ̀kə̀nə́Three12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymakəothree12.3KiryaBlenchmakənthree12.4PsikyeAngelomaxkə́nthree1PsikyeAngelomaxkə́nə́three12.5BanaLienhardmàxkàntrois
hɨᵐbɨwn.armpitaisselle719B
This root is attested across a good range of groups. The initial *h has been lost in Bachama and Mbuko. In Bachama this has triggered compensatory reduplication. The final *w has been reanalysed as labialisation in Bachama and Proto-Margi. In Bachama the *w has fused with the *ᵐb to form /mʷ/, and in Proto-Margi it fused with *h to form *hʷ. All of these are common sporadic processes. In the Mofu group and in Mbuko the attested roots have extra material added, i.e. /jɨk/ or /ɗ/, possibly reflecting an underlying compound. The Proto-Mafa form comes from metathesis of the first two consonants, a sporadic change.
1Proto-Bata*mʷamʷaarmpitaisselle1.1BachamaSkinnermʷamʷatœarmpit2Proto-Daba*haᵐbɨwaarmpitaisselle2.1BuwalViljoensɑᵐbuwɑarmpitaisselle2.2GavarViljoenskɑ pɑpɑarmpitaisselle2.3MbudumNdokobaïpumpaarmpitaisselle3Proto-Mafa*ᵐbɨhawarmpitaisselle3.1MafaNdokobaihʷaɗ ᵐbəhawaisselle1MafaBarreteauᵐbəhawaisselle3.2CuvokGravinaᵐbuwaarmpitaisselle4Proto-Hurza*aᵐbajakʷ ʸarmpitaisselle4.1MbukoGravinaaᵐbijœkarmpitaisselle5Proto-Margi*hʷɨᵐbɨarmpitaisselle5.1MargiHoffmanhuᵐbuarmpit5.2KilbaSchuhuᵐbuarmpit6Proto-Mofu*hɨᵐbɨɗ ʸ, hʷɨᵐbajak ʸ, ᵐbɨwaarmpitaisselle6.1OuldemeKinnairdhùᵐbùwájarmpitaisselle6.2MolokoFriesenᵐbejewkarmpitaisselle6.3ZulgoHallerhìᵐbiɗaisselle f.6.4GemzekSabataihəᵐbeɗarmpitaisselle6.5MereyGravinahuᵐbejəkarmpitaisselle1MereyGravinahuᵐbejəkarmpitaisselle6.6DugworJubumnahuᵐbajekʷarmpitaisselle6.7Mofu NorthBarreteauᵐbúwāaisselle6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthᵐbəwáaisselle1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthsí-ᵐbəwáaisselle7Proto-Higi*haᵐbɨwɨarmpitaisselle7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhaᵐbuwəarmpit7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhaⁿduwaarmpit
hɨmɨɗ ʸnm.windvent1437Acftaɬ
This root is attested across the Central Chadic languages. The basic meaning is 'wind', but is extended to cover the concept 'cold' in many languages. The initial *h is realised as *s in several groups. This does not correspond with any known regular change, but it may be due to spreading of a cognate form from another branch of Chadic. The root *kʷɨhɨm 'mouse' shows similar distribution of *s and *h. The initial /h/ in Buduma is probably the result of a regular change *s→h in that language, rather than a reflex of Proto-Central Chadic *h. The *h has been sporadically lost in many languages, and has resulted in compensatory reduplication in Cuvok and the two Mofu languages. *m is sporadically realised as *ᵐb in a few languages. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups where it is expected. In Gidar the /j/ is the regular result of the palatalisation of *ɗ.
1Proto-Bata*miɗɨwindvent1.1GudeHoskinsonmə̀ɗá -əair, wind1.2JimiDjibiᵐbiɗənVent, souffle2Proto-Daba*mɨɗ ʸwindvent2.1BuwalViljoenmɑɗ(be) cold (objects)(être) froid2.2GavarViljoenmiɗwind (n)vent1GavarViljoenmiɗairair2.3MbudumNdokobaïmaɗ(be) cold (objects)(être) froid2.4DabaLienhardmīɗle vent, le souffle, la vie3Proto-Mafa*mamaɗ ʸwindvent3.1CuvokGravinamemeɗwindvent1CuvokGravinamemeɗcoldfroid4Proto-Sukur*mɨɗ ʸwindvent4.1SukurDavidmíɗwind4.2SukurThomasmiɗwind5Proto-Hurza*hɨmaɗewindvent5.1MbukoGravinamaɗwind; coldvent, froid5.2NdremeKinnairdhùmàɗɛ̀5.3VameKinnairdhə̀màɗèvent6Proto-Margi*samaɗ ʸwindvent6.1BuraBlenchʃaᵐbarCold1BuraBlenchʃaᵐbarWind6.2MargiHoffmanjamaɗəwind, cold6.3Margi SouthHarleyjəᵐbaɗuwind7Proto-Mofu*hɨmɨɗ ʸwindvent7.1OuldemeKinnairdàmàɗwindvent7.2MuyangSmithɑməɗair ; wind ; cold ; breathvent; froid7.3MadaNkoumouamaɗvent7.4MolokoFriesenhəmaɗwind, coldvent; froid7.5ZulgoHallerhíᵐbíɗvent m.7.6GemzekSabataihəᵐbeɗle vent7.7DugworJubumnahəmeɗwindvent7.8Mofu NorthBarreteaumèmə̀ɗvent1Mofu NorthBarreteaumèmə̀ɗfroid7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmemeɗvent, froid8Proto-Maroua*hɨmɨɗ ʸwindvent8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhimiɗ(i)vent, froid1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhimiɗ(i)se dégonfler8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhimeɗwindvent8.3MbazlaTourneuxsimeɗvent1MbazlaTourneuxtʃimeɗvent9Proto-Kotoko Island*haᵐbaɗɨwindvent9.1BudumaMcKonehəaᵐbaɗə; lienicold weathertemps froid9.2BudumaMcKonehâᵐbaɗəle froid.9.3BudumaMcKonehâᵐbəɗafroid.10Proto-Kotoko North*samaɗewindvent10.1AfadeAllisonsemaɗecold weathertemps froid10.2MpadeAllisonsɨ́máɗɨ̀cold weathertemps froid10.3MalgbeAllisontʃʼamarecold weathertemps froid11Proto-Kotoko Centre*sɨmaɗɨwindvent11.1LagwanAllisonʃimacold weathertemps froid1LagwanAllisonsɨmaɗɨ; ɣʷavawindvent11.2MserAllisonsɨmaɗicold weathertemps froid12Proto-Kotoko South*sɨmaɗewindvent12.1ZinaOddenasmaɗə; màgàwàwindvent12.2MazeraAllisonsɨmɗewindvent13Proto-Musgum*sɨmaɗ ʸwindvent13.1VulumTourneuxsɨmervent1VulumTourneuxsimervent13.2MbaraTourneuxsumʼdajcold1MbaraTourneuxsumʼdajwind13.3MuskumTourneuxsimetvent14Proto-Gidar*sɨmjawindvent14.1GidarHungerfordsəmjavent, froid14.2GidarSchuhsəmjafroid14.3GidarSchuhsəmjavent14.4GidarHungerfordsɨmjafroid
hɨnav.lie downse coucher821A
The basic sense is 'to lie down in order to sleep', but is extended to include 'give birth' in some languages. It is also used to denote the period of time when someone is asleep or extended periods in general, and in at least one language the nominalised form has the sense of a 'day', i.e. a period of twenty-four hours. The root is not found in any languages of the South sub-branch, except for Cuvok where this may be one of many borrowings from Mofu-Gudur. The *h has been lost in several Mofu group languages, and there has been metathesis of the *h and *n in Cuvok and Mbuko.
1Proto-Mafa*nahalie downse coucher1.1CuvokGravinanahalie downse coucher2Proto-Hurza*hɨnalie downse coucher2.1MbukoGravinanahajlie_downcoucher2.2VameKinnairdhə̀nákádèlie downcoucher3Proto-Mandara*hɨnalie downse coucher3.1MatalBrangermahən hiŋ, mahin ~lie downcoucher3.2PodokoSwackhammerhəna 1coucher1PodokoSwackhammerhəna 2passer la nuit2PodokoSwackhammerhəna 3rester longtemps3.3GlavdaNghagyivaxɨ́ᵑgànalie down4Proto-Mofu*hɨnalie downse coucher4.1ZulgoHallerhə́náse coucher4.2ZulgoHallerhə́nápasser la nuit4.3GemzekSabataimehənelie downse coucher4.4MereyGravinahənalie downse coucher4.5DugworJubumnamanajlie downse coucher4.6Mofu NorthBarreteauménējse coucher1Mofu NorthBarreteauménējpasser la nuit2Mofu NorthBarreteauménējdurer4.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́nsleepdormir, se coucher ; passer la nuit ; durer5Proto-Maroua*hɨnlie downse coucher5.1Giziga MarvaHamidouhənlie downse coucher5.2MbazlaTourneuxhənaccoucher6Proto-Lamang*hinilie downse coucher6.1LamangWolffhinisleep, lie down6.2HdiBramletthanadatalie down to sleepse coucher7Proto-Higi*hɨnilie downse coucher7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhinigʷəlie down.7.2KiryaBlenchhàànə́to lie down7.3BanaLienhardxə̀níse coucher8Proto-Kotoko Island*hɨnajlie downse coucher8.1BudumaMcKonehənajlie downse coucher
hɨpaɬ ʸnf.shoulderépaule819Brel. topaɮa
This root is probably related to the root *paɮa 'upper arm', though the lack of regularity in the reflexes of the lateral fricatives in the two roots indicates that these should not be considered as a single root, but as two related forms deriving from one root. The initial *h is lost in many languages, and this loss has triggered compensatory reduplication in many cases. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups. There was metathesis of *p and *ɬ in the Mandara group, a sporadic process.
1Proto-Mafa*paɬpaɬ ʸshoulderépaule1.1MafaNdokobaipeɬpeɬepaule2Proto-Sukur*tapaɬshoulderépaule2.1SukurThomastapaɬshoulder; either of the two parts of the body between the top of each arm and the neck.3Proto-Hurza*paɬpaɬ ʸshoulderépaule3.1VameKinnairdpéɬpēɬshoulderépaule4Proto-Margi*apaɬashoulderépaule4.1BuraBlenchpáɬáhàShoulder Also pátláhù4.2Margi SouthHarleypapaɮashoulder4.3KilbaSchuhpaɬəkashoulder5Proto-Mandara*aɬapɨ ʸshoulderépaule5.1MatalBrangerdzàbàɬa᷆shoulderépaule5.2MandaraFluckigernáhjápéhjápéépaule (f)5.3MalgwaLöhrnahjepeshoulder1MalgwaLöhrlahjepeshoulder5.4GlavdaOwensaçáshoulder1GlavdaNghagyivaāçápashoulder6Proto-Mofu*hɨpaɬ ʸshoulderépaule6.1OuldemeKinnairdmə̄pépéɬshoulderépaule6.2MuyangSmithhəpɑɬboth the shoulders, the part of the body that can be movedles épaules (qu'on peut hausser)6.3MadaNkoumouahpaɬepaule6.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpepéɬomoplate, épaule7Proto-Maroua*papaɮ ʸshoulderépaule7.1Giziga MarvaHamidoupepeɮshoulderépaule8Proto-Higi*baɮashoulderépaule8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleybáɮashoulder8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyᵐbaɮashoulder8.3KiryaBlenchbàbàɮàshoulder8.4BanaLienhardbáɮíépaule
hɨran.arm, handbras, main825Csyndzɨvɨ ʸpaɮa
This is the most widely attested of the three roots for 'arm'. We expect to find *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch, but the data from Podoko and much of the Mofu group contradicts this. Proto-Maroua *n word-final corresponds with *r word-final in these two groups, so it may be that the North sub-branch languages are reflexes of a different root *(a)han.
1Proto-Daba*raarmbras1.1BuwalViljoenarmbras1BuwalViljoenhandmain1.2GavarViljoenhandmain1GavarViljoenarmbras2Proto-Mafa*rajarmbras2.1MafaBarreteaurájmain, bras2.2CuvokGravinahahand, handmain, bras3Proto-Tera*xararmbras3.1TeraNewmanxarhand (arm)3.2NyimatliHarleykharhand3.3GaʼandaGwajiᵐbǝraheraarm4Proto-Sukur*riarm, handbras, main4.1SukurDavidriarm, hand4.2SukurThomasrəihand:- is the part of the body at the end of the arm.5Proto-Hurza*alajarmbras5.1MbukoGravinaalajhandbras, main5.2VameKinnairdālájarm|uc{main, bras} - de l'épaule jusqu'au bout des doigts6Proto-Mandara*harɨarmbras6.1MatalBrangerahalarmbras6.2PodokoSwackhammerhará,-əmain; bras7Proto-Mofu*ahɨr, hɨlajarmbras7.1OuldemeKinnairdāhárarm - from the shoulder to the tips of the fingers|uc{main, bras} - de l'épaule jusqu'au bout des doigts7.2MuyangSmithɑhɑrhand ; arm ; handle ; branchmain; bras; manche; branche7.3MadaNkoumouaharbras supérieur7.4MolokoFriesenahararm; handbras; main7.5ZulgoHallerahə́rmain f.7.6GemzekSabataiahərarmbras7.7MereyGravinahəlajarmbras, main7.8DugworJubumnalajarmbras1DugworJubumnalajhandmain7.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhārbras, main7.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthharhand, armla main, bras1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhar(sens figuré) temps, occasion8Proto-Maroua*hanarmbras8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhaŋmain, bras8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhan, haŋhand; armmain; bras8.3MbazlaTourneuxhaŋbras1MbazlaSILSurveyhāŋarm / handbras / main
hɨrɨdz ʸnf.scorpionscorpion1235B
This root is found across almost all the Central Chadic groups, but is not found in any of the Kotoko groups. The initial *h is lost in several languages, a common sporadic change. In Mafa this has been compensated for by the addition of a prefixed /v/, a common process. The *r is expected to have the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, but this is not the case. The implication is that the root did not come into the languages from Proto-Central Chadic. The breadth of the attestations, and the changes found in the reflexes imply that the root is old. It may have existed in the South sub-branch, and spread from there into the North sub-branch. The *dz has the reflexes *ts, *d and *z. The *d in Proto-Musgum and *z in Proto-Gidar are regular, but there are no consistent patterns to the reflexes of *dz in other groups. The palatalisation prosody is retained in almost all groups where it is expected.
1Proto-Bata*hɨradzɨ ʸscorpionscorpion1.1GudeHoskinsonàrə̀də̀də́nəscorpion.1.2JimiDjibiredzən1 - Varan; 2 - Scorpion1.3SharwaGravinaardəscorpion1.4TsuvanJohnstonhərdekənle scorpion2Proto-Daba*rɨdzɨ ʸscorpionscorpion2.1BuwalViljoenredʒescorpionscorpion2.2GavarViljoenrədʒiscorpionscorpion2.3DabaLienhardīrdìle scorpion3Proto-Mafa*haradzscorpionscorpion3.1MafaNdokobaivaradzascorpion3.2CuvokGravinaratsscorpionscorpion4Proto-Sukur*ᵐbɨrdajscorpionscorpion4.1SukurThomasᵐbərdaiscorpion; a small creature like an insects with sex legs, two front claws and a long tail that curves over it's back and can a poisonous sting.5Proto-Hurza*rɨdza ʸscorpionscorpion5.1MbukoGravinarədʒescorpionscorpion6Proto-Margi*hɨda ʸscorpionscorpion6.1BuraBlenchhidiScorpion6.2KilbaSchuhida/ascorpion7Proto-Mandara*radzɨ ʸscorpionscorpion7.1MatalBrangerālìʒscorpionscorpion7.2PodokoSwackhammerraⁿdzá,-əscorpion7.3MandaraFluckigerérdzescorpion (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrərdzascorpion7.5GlavdaOwensardscorpion1GlavdaNghagyivaárd͡zascorpion8Proto-Mofu*hɨrɨda ʸscorpionscorpion8.1OuldemeKinnairdárdàscorpionscorpion8.2MuyangSmithɑⁿdrɑ(small yellow) scorpionsorte de petit scorpion jaune8.3MolokoFriesenharatsscorpionscorpion8.4ZulgoHallerhìrdescorpion m.8.5GemzekSabataihərdedescorpionscorpion8.6MereyGravinahərdədescorpionscorpion8.7DugworJubumnaarədescorpionscorpion8.8Mofu-GudurHollingswortharátsscorpionscorpion9Proto-Maroua*arats ʸscorpionscorpion9.1Giziga MarvaHamidouaratʃescorpionscorpion9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼaretʃscorpion1MbazlaTourneuxʼariʃscorpion10Proto-Lamang*rɨdascorpionscorpion10.1LamangWolffə́rdàscorpion10.2HdiBramlettrədascorpionle scorpion11Proto-Musgum*hɨrɨdɨwscorpionscorpion11.1VulumTourneuxhɨrduuscorpion11.2MulwiTourneuxhirduuscorpion11.3MbaraTourneuxhurtuwajscorpion11.4MuskumTourneuxhurutscorpion12Proto-Gidar*hɨrzɨjascorpionscorpion12.1GidarHungerfordhərzijascorpion
hɨrɨgʷɨvn.baboonbabouin616B
This root is quite difficult to reconstruct. The initial *h is retained only in Mbuko and Moloko, which are neighbours. The *r has changed to *l as expected in the languages of the North sub-branch and the Daba group. The *gʷ has the unestablished reflexes *kʷ in Proto-Mandara and Ouldeme, *ʔʷ in an intermediate form leading to Proto-Maroua, and *hʷ in Proto-Daba, Proto-Mofu and the forms leading to Proto-Tera and Proto-Gidar. In these last two groups, the resulting *h component has been lost and the labialisation reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, resulting in back vowels. This is a common sporadic process. In some Mofu group languages, there has been metathesis of the *l and *hʷ (from *gʷ). The labialisation component of the original *gʷ has also become the labialisation prosody in Proto-Daba, Proto-Hurza and Proto-Maroua. The final *v has become *f in Mbudum and Proto-Maroua, which is an unestablished change. There is no reflex of *v in Malgwa, which would be unusual, implying that the Malgwa word is a chance similarity.
1Proto-Daba*lahav ʷbaboonbabouin1.1MbudumNdokobaïlahafbaboonbabouin1.2DabaLienhardlòhòvle cynoc[ephale, le babouin2Proto-Tera*rufbaboonbabouin2.1TeraNewmanrufbaboon3Proto-Hurza*hɨrgav ʷbaboonbabouin3.1MbukoGravinahərgovbaboonbabouin4Proto-Mandara*lɨkʷɨvababoonbabouin4.1MalgwaLöhrnagula, lagulababoon4.2GlavdaNghagyivalúkùvababoon5Proto-Mofu*hɨlɨgʷɨvbaboonbabouin5.1OuldemeKinnairdālkùvbaboonbabouin ; cynocéphale5.2MuyangSmithɑluɡuvbaboonbabouin5.3MolokoFriesenhərgovmonkeysinge(noir, gros)5.4ZulgoHalleràlùvbabouin m.5.5GemzekSabataihulovbaboonbabouin5.6MereyGravinawuluvbaboonbabouin5.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlagʷavBabouin 6Proto-Maroua*ləʔɨf ʷbaboonbabouin6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanluʼufsinge noir de la montagne, babouin6.2Giziga MarvaHamidoualʼofmonkeysinge7Proto-Gidar*lava ʷbaboonbabouin7.1GidarSchuhlovo, obabouin
hɨwɨjv.to runcourir1021B
This root is found in many different groups. In Mbuko and Sukur the *h and *w are two separate consonants, rather than the single labialised consonant found in almost all the other languages. The process of fusion of *w with another consonant to form a labialised consonant is very common, and there are no clear cases of the separation of the labialisation from the consonant in this way, so the reconstruction with separate *h and *w is preferred.
1Proto-Bata*hʷɨjruncourir1.1JimiDjibihujənCourir ;2Proto-Daba*hɨjruncourir2.1BuwalViljoenhejruncourir1BuwalViljoenhejflees'enfuir2BuwalViljoenhejspread (disease, fire)se répandre, s'étendre2.2MbudumNdokobaïhiruncourir3Proto-Mafa*hʷajruncourir3.1MafaBarreteauhacourir3.2CuvokGravinahʷajruncourir4Proto-Sukur*hɨwiruncourir4.1SukurDavidhuwirun, to4.2SukurThomashuirun5Proto-Hurza*hawruncourir5.1MbukoGravinahawrun; fleecourir; fuir1MbukoGravinahawse précipiter sur6Proto-Margi*hʷiruncourir6.1BuraBlenchhʷiTo run1BuraBlenchhuhʷiTo run (Sustained action)6.2MargiHoffmanwito run6.3Margi SouthHoffmanhʷito run6.4KilbaHoffmanhʷito run1KilbaSchuhhʷi/ihandle (hoe etc.)2KilbaSchuhhʷi/irun7Proto-Mandara*hʷajruncourir7.1MatalBrangermàhʷɔ̄jājruncourir8Proto-Mofu*hʷajruncourir8.1MereyGravinahʷajruncourir, s'enfuir8.2DugworJubumnamahʷajruncourir8.3Mofu NorthBarreteaumáhʷājcourir8.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷ(á)courir, fuir, s'enfuir 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷ(á)rouler vite (voiture, mobylette)2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷ(á)dérouler une botte de paille (un sekko)9Proto-Lamang*hʷajruncourir9.1HdiBramletthʷajajto runcourir10Proto-Higi*hʷiruncourir10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhʷehʷərun10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhohorun10.3KiryaBlenchhʷjito run10.4PsikyeAngeloxʷerun
hʷaɗikn.earthterre1224C
The basic meaning of this root is the soil or earth that the ground is made from. The evidence for *hʷ rather than *h comes from Cuvok, Mbuko and Lamang. In Cuvok the *h component has been lost, resulting in /w/. In Mbuko the labialisation is reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, and in Lamang it has resulted in /o/. These are common sporadic processes. In several languages the *ɗ and *i have fused, resulting in *j. In the Kilba the result is /ʔʲ/. In Kamwe-Futu and Bana the *i has caused the palatalisation of the *h. *k has been lost in all groups except for the Daba, Mafa and Hurza, which is not a regular process. The final /k/ in Hdi is a frozen suffix, and not a reflex of *k. The *i has direct support from the Margi, Lamang and Higi groups.
1Proto-Daba*hajakearthterre1.1BuwalViljoenhɑjɑkground, landsol1BuwalViljoenhɑjɑkdirt, soilsol2BuwalViljoenhɑjɑkcountry, ethnic areapays1.2GavarViljoenhɑjɑkdirt, soilterre1GavarViljoenhɑjɑkground, landsol2GavarViljoenhɑjɑkcountry, ethnic areapays1.3MbudumNdokobaïhajakdirt, soilterre, sol1MbudumNdokobaïhajakground, landterre1.4DabaLienhardhàjə̄k ʼla terre, le pays2Proto-Mafa*wɨjakearthterre2.1CuvokGravinaujakterre3Proto-Tera*ɣajearthterre3.1TeraNewmanɣajearth1TeraNewmanɣajground2TeraNewmanɣajtown3.2NyimatliHarleyɣaidirt, soil4Proto-Sukur*haɗearthterre4.1SukurThomashaɗground5Proto-Hurza*hʷigajearthterre5.1MbukoGravinajugoearthla terre5.2VameKinnairdhígàjground ; earthsol ; terre6Proto-Margi*hɨɗiearthterre6.1BuraBlenchhiEarth, soil, dirt6.2KilbaSchuhhəʼiearth1KilbaSchuhhəʼiland7Proto-Mandara*hajaearthterre7.1MandaraFluckigerháháterre (f)7.2MalgwaLöhrhahaearth, soil, ground7.3DghwedeFrickxajaearth8Proto-Mofu*ahɨɗearthterre8.1ZulgoHalleràhə̀ɗterre f., sol m.9Proto-Maroua*hajearthterre9.1MbazlaTourneuxhajterre10Proto-Lamang*hʷaɗiearthterre10.1LamangWolffhoɗoground, earth10.2HdiBramletthaɗiksoil, earthla terre11Proto-Higi*hɨɗiearthterre11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyhjiɗiground; land; earth11.2KiryaBlenchhàhàjsoil11.3PsikyeAngeloxeɗídirt, earth, ground11.4BanaLienhardxjìɗìterre, pays12Proto-Musgum*jahajearthterre12.1MbaraTourneuxjahajearthterre
hʷaⁿdavn.harelièvre716Asynvida
There are two widespread roots for 'hare', with the other being *vidɨ. These roots are possibly cognate, though it is not clear how these two forms could have come about. The *hʷ has been lost in many languages, leaving /w/ in Mafa and several Mofu group languages, and a back vowel in Ouldeme and Mbara. In many cases /m/ has been prefixed to the root to compensate. This is one of only three roots where *ⁿd has been reconstructed. In Musgum the *ⁿd has the reflex /d/. *v has the reflex *f in Proto-Maroua. These are unestablished changes.
1Proto-Daba*maⁿdavanharelièvre1.1BuwalViljoenmɑⁿdəvɑnharelièvre1.2GavarViljoenmɑⁿdəvɑnharelièvre1.3MbudumNdokobaïməⁿdeveŋharelièvre1.4DabaLienhardmāⁿdàvə̄nle lapin, le lièvre2Proto-Mafa*waⁿdavharelièvre2.1MafaBarreteauwáⁿdávlièvre3Proto-Hurza*ⁿdɨvan ʸharelièvre3.1VameKinnairdⁿdìvèŋrabbit ; harelapin ; lièvre4Proto-Mofu*hʷaⁿdavharelièvre4.1OuldemeKinnairdādāvòharelièvre4.2ZulgoHallerhə́ⁿdávlièvre m.4.3MereyGravinawaⁿdavharelièvre4.4DugworJubumnawaⁿdavharelièvre4.5Mofu NorthBarreteauwáⁿdávlapin4.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaⁿdav-ŋgʷaLapin d'Afrique1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaⁿdav ᵑga palahLièvre à oreilles de lapin 2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaⁿdavlapin (nom gén.)5Proto-Maroua*maⁿdafharelièvre5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmaⁿdaflapin, lièvre (567,577,578)5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumaⁿdafharelièvre6Proto-Musgum*mudivajharelièvre6.1MbaraTourneuxmudivajharelièvre7Proto-Gidar*maⁿdavaharelièvre7.1GidarSchuhmaⁿdava/alapin7.2GidarHungerfordmaⁿdavalièvre, lapin
hʷarajn.shamehonte611Bsynzɨrwa ʸ
This root is one of two roots for 'shame', the best attested concept that relates solely to an emotional state. The attestations are limited, which is to be expected as this concept is only found in the better developed word lists and dictionaries, but they come from a range of groups and show the changes that are expected in a long-standing Central Chadic root. The *hʷ is retained in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Lamang. In the other three groups it is realised as *w, which is a common sporadic process. In Gemzek the labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. The *r has undergone the regular change to *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba, except that *r is found in Proto-Mofu. This indicates a certain degree of borrowing within Central Chadic. The *j is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Daba, as /i/ in Gidar, and is lost in Hdi. These are all common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Daba*walɨ ʸshamehonte1.1DabaLienhardwèlīla honte, la gêne2Proto-Mafa*hʷarajshamehonte2.1MafaBarreteauhʷarajhonte2.2CuvokGravinahʷaraj(be) ashamed(avoir) honte1CuvokGravinahʷarajshame (n)honte3Proto-Hurza*warajshamehonte3.1MbukoGravinawarajshamehonte4Proto-Mofu*hʷarajshamehonte4.1ZulgoHallerhʷarwáhonte f.4.2GemzekSabataihoroshame (n)honte4.3MereyGravinahʷarajshame (n)honte4.4DugworJubumnahʷorajshame (n)honte4.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷarajhonte, déshonneur5Proto-Lamang*hʷɨlashamehonte5.1HdiBramletthulashamela honte6Proto-Gidar*wɨlishamehonte6.1GidarHungerfordwɨlihonte
hʷiɗn.stomachventre929B
The basic sense of this root is the interior of the belly, i.e. the lower part of the abdomen, and in particular the stomach. In some languages the word is used in prepositional constructions to mean 'inside something'. The *hʷ is retained in most groups, but has the reflex *w in Proto-Maroua, Proto-Musgum and Dugwor, which is a common sporadic change. The *ɗ has the reflex *r in Ga'anda, Mbazla and Proto-Musgum, which is an unestablished change. This is also a regular change word-finally for several Higi group languages, as is the loss of final consonants.The *i is reconstructed from the evidence from Proto-Tera, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi.
1Proto-Mafa*hʷaɗbellyventre1.1MafaNdokobaihʷaɗventre1.2CuvokGravinahʷaɗabdomen (external)estomac, abdomen (externe)1CuvokGravinaɬam da hʷaɗstomach (internal)ventre (interne)2Proto-Tera*hʷirabellyventre2.1GaʼandaGwajihʷirastomach3Proto-Sukur*hʷɨɗbellyventre3.1SukurDavidɣuɗbelly3.2SukurThomashuɗstomach; belly:- some body with a big stomack either man or woman.4Proto-Mandara*hʷɨɗɨbellyventre4.1MatalBrangerhʷəɗbellyventre4.2PodokoSwackhammerhuɗa,-ə 1ventre1PodokoSwackhammerhuɗa,-ə 2intérieur4.3MandaraFluckigerhuɗeventre (m), intérieur (m), entrailles (f. pl.)4.4MalgwaLöhrhuɗestomach4.5GlavdaNghagyivaxùɗastomach (internal)1GlavdaOwensxʷə́dbelly4.6DghwedeFrickxʷtʼebelly5Proto-Mofu*hʷɨɗbellyventre5.1OuldemeKinnairdhuraɗstomachventre5.2MuyangSmithhuɗbelly ; interior ; underideventre; dessous5.3MadaNkoumouhoɗventre (interne)1MadaNkoumouhoɗventre (interne)5.4MolokoFriesenhoɗstomachventre5.5ZulgoHallerhuɗventre m.1ZulgoHallerhúɗventre m.5.6GemzekSabataihuɗsein1GemzekSabataihoɗle sein5.7MereyGravinahuɗventre5.8DugworJubumnawaɗstomach (internal)ventre (interne)1DugworJubumnawaɗ (təseve)abdomen (external)estomac, abdomen (externe)5.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷāɗventre1Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷaɗventre5.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaɗstomachventre 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaɗintérieur, centre6Proto-Maroua*wurubellyventre6.1MbazlaTourneuxwuruventre1MbazlaSILSurveyàwúrùbellyventre7Proto-Lamang*huɗibellyventre7.1LamangWolffxúɗíbelly, inside7.2HdiBramletthuɗiabdomenle ventre8Proto-Higi*hʷiɗbellyventre8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhʷístomach8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhʷistomach (internal)8.3KiryaBlenchhʷúrstomach8.4BanaLienhardxʷə́rventre, grossesse9Proto-Musgum*warbellyventre9.1VulumTourneuxwarventre9.2MbaraTourneuxwarbelly
hʷɨɗɨɬ ʸnm., v.coughtousser1433Brel. togʷɨɗɨɮ
This root may represent the noun or the verb. It is related to the root for 'belch', with belching being a voiced version of coughing. The root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *hʷ is retained in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Musgum, has the reflex *w in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Gidar., and in Proto-Maroua the reflex is *h. These are all common sporadic changes. In Proto-Tera it has the reflex *kʷ, which is an unestablished change. In Mbuko, the *hʷ is lost, and triggers the compensatory reduplication of /ɮ/. The *ɗ is lost in many groups, also triggering compensatory reduplication in languages of the Meri sub-group. Loss of these consonants and the resulting compensatory reduplication is a common sporadic process. In Proto-Sukur, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Gidar
has the reflex *r, which is an unestablished change. In other groups the glottal component has fused with the reflex of *hʷ. In Bura *w and *ɗ have fused to give *ɓ→b. The same process of *w+*ɗ→ɓ has taken place in Muyang and Moloko. In Kilba the process is *w+*ɗ→ʔʷ. These are common sporadic processes. In Zina the *ɗ was affected by the palatalisation prosody at some earlier time, resulting in the regular *ɗʲ→j. In the Higi group, the change is *ɗʲ→ʔʲ. In Mpade *hʷ has become *kʷ (an unestablished change), and this has fused with *ɗ to form the ejective /kʼʷ/. *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-group, though Mafa has the irregular reflex /ɬ/. There are also regular changes in Mpade *ɬ→ʃ, in Mser and Zina *ɬ→s, and in Mandara, Malgwa and Glavda *ɬʲ→hʲ. The palatalisation prosody is retained in several groups. There are also several instances where sporadic metathesis has taken place.
1Proto-Mafa*wɨɬacoughtoux1.1MafaNdokobaiwuɬatoux2Proto-Tera*kʷɨɮacoughtoux2.1TeraNewmankuɮacough2.2NyimatliHarleykuɮacough (v)3Proto-Sukur*ɮar ʸcoughtousser3.1SukurThomasɮjarcough; to force out air suddenly and noicely through your throat, for when you have a cold.4Proto-Hurza*ɮɨɮah ʸcoughtoux4.1MbukoGravinaɮəɮe(h)coughtoux5Proto-Margi*wɨɗɨɬacoughtoux5.1BuraBlenchbuɬaCough1BuraBlenchbuɬaTo cough5.2KilbaSchuhʼuɬa/acough(ing)6Proto-Mandara*hʷɨɬah ʸcoughtoux6.1MatalBrangermabəɮəhʷajcoughtousser6.2PodokoSwackhammerkuɬáhatousser6.3MandaraFluckigerúhjátousser6.4MalgwaLöhrŋʷihjacough6.5GlavdaNghagyivawúçᵊgacough (v)6.6DghwedeFrickwuɮaxato cough7Proto-Mofu*hʷɨɗɨɬ ʸcoughtoux7.1Proto-Tokombere*wɨɗɨɬajcoughtoux7.2OuldemeKinnairdubd stemɗə̄ɬájcoughtousser7.3MuyangSmithɓəɬɑjcoughtousser7.4MolokoFriesenɓəɬajcoughtousser7.5Proto-Meri*ɗɨɮah ʸcoughtoux7.6ZulgoHalleràɮàhtoux f.7.7GemzekSabataimege ɮəɮahcough (v)tousser7.8MereyGravinaɮəɮehcough (v)tousser7.9DugworJubumnamegej ɮəlɮecough (v)tousser8Proto-Maroua*hɨrɬa ʸcoughtoux8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhirɬetoux, tuberculose8.2Giziga MarvaHamidougi irɬecough (v)tousser9Proto-Higi*ʔʲɨɬacoughtoux9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼjáɬáCough1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼjathlacough9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleytsaiɬacough9.3PsikyeAngeloʼjiɬácough9.4BanaLienhardʼjiɬála toux, la grippe, le catarrhe10Proto-Kotoko North*hʷɨɗɨɬacoughtoux10.1AfadeAllisonɗɨɬa; ɗɨɬauncough (v)tousser10.2MpadeAllisonlà kʼʷàʃáncough (v)tousser1MpadeAllisonkʼʷàʃáncoughtoux10.3MalgbeAllisonɗaɬawun; ɗaɬacough (v)tousser11Proto-Kotoko Centre*wɨɗɨɬacoughtoux11.1LagwanAllisonuɬawuncough (v)tousser11.2MserAllisonɗasacough (v)tousser12Proto-Kotoko South*wasjacoughtoux12.1ZinaOddenwàsjàcough (v)tousser13Proto-Musgum*hʷaɬcoughtoux13.1MulwiTourneuxhuɬitousser1MulwiTourneuxhoɬtoux13.2MbaraTourneuxʼoɬcough14Proto-Gidar*wɨrɬacoughtousser14.1GidarHungerfordɨdiwərɬatousser, toux
hʷɨpnf.treearbre924A
The initial *hʷ has been retained in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Mofu. In Proto-Mafa, Proto-Sukur, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Higi and Proto-Kotoko South it has the reflex *w. In Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and some of the Higi group languages, the *hʷ has been lost and the labialisation has transferred onto *p. These are common sporadic processes. The /n/ prefix in Podoko and Mandara and the /ma/ prefix in Zina are compensation for the lost *hʷ. Proto-Central Chadic *p was realised as [f] in word-final position, and this has led to the phonemicization of *f in the group proto-languages.
1Proto-Bata*fʷɨgɨtreearbre1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀nfʷá - ətree1GudeHoskinsonuf1.2JimiDjibifʷənNom général de l'arbre.1.3SharwaGravinafʷəgəArbre1.4TsuvanJohnstonfʷegel'arbre2Proto-Mafa*waftreearbre2.1MafaBarreteauwáfarbre3Proto-Sukur*fwajtreearbre3.1SukurDavidfwojtree3.2SukurThomasfwaitree; is the general term for tree.4Proto-Margi*fʷɨtreearbre4.1BuraBlenchnfʷaTree4.2MargiHoffmanwutree4.3KilbaSchuhwatree5Proto-Mandara*hʷɨfatreearbre5.1MatalBrangerāhàftreearbre5.2PodokoSwackhammernafá,-ə 1arbre1PodokoSwackhammernafá,-ə 2bois2PodokoSwackhammernafá,-ə 3médicament indigène5.3MandaraFluckigernáfáarbre (m)5.4GlavdaOwensutree1GlavdaNghagyivaùːfatree5.5DghwedeFrickʔufatree6Proto-Mofu*hʷaftreearbre6.1MuyangSmithhɑfmedicineremède1MuyangSmithhɑftreearbre6.2DugworJubumnahʷaftreearbre7Proto-Lamang*fwɨtreearbre7.1LamangWolffufutree7.2HdiBramlettfutreel'arbre8Proto-Higi*wɨfɨtreearbre8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷətree1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷətree2Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷə́Plant8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyfʷotree8.3KiryaBlenchfʷə̀tree in general8.4PsikyeAngelowufə́tree8.5BanaLienhardfə́arbre9Proto-Kotoko South*mafwɨtreearbre9.1ZinaOddenmàfùtreearbre

  • Page 1 of 2
  • 1
  • 2
  • >

Browse

h


hadajn.eyeœil1437Bsyntsɨ ʸ
The initial *h in this root is retained in Proto-Daba, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Gidar. In several groups, the presence of an initial vowel indicates that an initial consonant has been lost, giving support to the reconstruction of *h. There was a regular change *d→r in intervocalic position in the North sub-branch. There are two exceptions: Proto-Daba has *r although it is in the South sub-branch, and Proto-Mandara has *d where we would expect *r. There is a subsequent regular change *r→l in Proto-Margi, Moloko and Buduma, and an unestablished change *r→ɗ in Mbuko. There was also the unestablished change *d→t in Proto-Tera. In many cases the final *j has been vocalised, a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*dɨjeyeoeil1.1BataBoyddìtoeye1.2SharwaGravinadioeil, yeux1SharwaGravinadivisage1.3TsuvanJohnstonadəŋles yeux2Proto-Daba*hɨrɨjeyeoeil2.1DabaLienhardhə̀rāʼles yeux2.2MazagwayHidiNoussirijaoeil3Proto-Mafa*dajeyeoeil3.1MafaBarreteaudajoeil3.2CuvokGravinaⁿdejfacevisage1CuvokGravinaⁿdejeyeœil4Proto-Tera*jɨtɨeyeoeil4.1TeraNewmanjitəeye4.2NyimatliHarleyjitieye5Proto-Hurza*arajeyeoeil5.1MbukoGravinaiɗeeyeoeil, yeux1MbukoGravinaiɗefacevisage5.2VameKinnairdārájeyeoeil6Proto-Margi*lieyeoeil6.1MargiHoffmanlieye6.2Margi SouthHarleylieye6.3KilbaSchuhlieye7Proto-Mandara*dieyeoeil7.1MatalBrangerjawdi, jewdi, jewdəjeyeoeil7.2PodokoSwackhammerde,-ioeil7.3DghwedeFrickⁿdeeye8Proto-Mofu*harajeyeoeil8.1OuldemeKinnairdārājeyeoeil; oeil ; vision8.2MuyangSmitherieye ; face ; share ; miserlyœil; les yeux; visage; part8.3MadaNkoumouèrèoeil8.4MolokoFrieseneleeyeoeil8.5ZulgoHalleraréoeil m., yeux m.pl.1ZulgoHallerareoeil m., yeux m.pl.8.6GemzekSabataiereeyeœil8.7MereyGravinaɗəreeyeœil8.8DugworJubumnareeyeœil8.9Proto-Mofu Subgroup*daj ʸeyeoeil8.10Mofu NorthBarreteaudejeyeoeil8.11Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdejeyeoeil ; vue1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdejface, likenessfigure, visage9Proto-Maroua*arajeyeoeil9.1Giziga MarvaHamidoureeyeœil9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼarajyeux, œil1MbazlaSILSurveyàrájeyeoeil10Proto-Lamang*irieyeoeil10.1LamangWolffílíeye1LamangWolffíleyes10.2HdiBramlettirieyel'oeil11Proto-Kotoko Island*jɨleyeoeil11.1BudumaMcKonejəloeil, yeux.12Proto-Kotoko South*areeyeoeil12.1ZinaOddenìrìeyeœil12.2MazeraAllisonadeeyeœil13Proto-Musgum*arajeyeoeil13.1VulumTourneuxarajyeux13.2MbaraTourneuxreeeyesyeux1MbaraTourneuxreeface14Proto-Gidar*haraeyeoeil14.1GidarSchuhhara/aoeil14.2GidarHungerfordharaoeil
hadiknm.thornépine1031A
The initial *h in this root is retained in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Musgum, and the initial vowels in Proto-Hurza and Proto-Mandara support the reconstruction of an initial consonant, since Proto-Central Chadic did not permit initial vowels. In the Mafa group, the loss of *h has been compensated for by the addition of a prefix /v/ in Mafa and /m/ in Cuvok. This is a common process in these languages. *d has become *t in Proto-Mafa and Proto-Lamang, and in Proto-Higi, where this is a regular change. The reflex /dz/ in Sukur is unestablished. The *k is realised as *h in Proto-Bata, an unestablished change, and as /t/ in Muskum, a regular change. *i is reconstructed, rather than the palatalisation prosody, primarily on the evidence from the Bata and Higi groups, with support from the Tera, Sukur, Lamang and Musgum groups. In the Bata group, *i has the reflex /ə/ in both Gude and Sharwa. In Sharwa, *ɨ has the contrasting reflex /ɨ/. The Bata group data therefore supports the reconstruction of *i.
1Proto-Bata*dihɨthornépine1.1GudeHoskinsondəhá -əthorn, thorn tree.1.2SharwaGravinadəhəépine2Proto-Mafa*hɨtakthornépine2.1MafaBarreteauvataképine2.2CuvokGravinamətakthornépine3Proto-Tera*ⁿdekithornépine3.1TeraNewmanⁿdekithorn3.2NyimatliHarleyⁿdʒakhtithorn3.3HwanaHarleyⁿdáxáthorn4Proto-Sukur*dzɨk ʸthornépine4.1SukurThomasdʒikthorn; it is the genearl term for thorns.5Proto-Hurza*adakthornépine5.1MbukoGravinaadakthornépine5.2VameKinnairdàdə̀gàthorn ; prickleépine6Proto-Mandara*adakɨthornépine6.1MatalBrangerātàkthornépine6.2PodokoSwackhammertaka,-əépine6.3MandaraFluckigerdákéépine (f)6.4MalgwaLöhrdakethorn6.5GlavdaNghagyivatàkathorn7Proto-Mofu*hadakthornépine7.1OuldemeKinnairdādàkthornépines ; une épine7.2MuyangSmithɑdɑkthornépine (mot général)7.3MolokoFriesenhadakthornépine7.4ZulgoHalleradáképine f.7.5GemzekSabataiadakthornépine7.6MereyGravinadaképine (f)1MereyGravinaadakthornépine7.7DugworJubumnaadakthornépine7.8Mofu NorthBarreteauⁿdàképine7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhátaképine, épineux8Proto-Lamang*tikithornépine8.1LamangWolfftikithorn8.2HdiBramletttekithornl'épine9Proto-Higi*tikɨthornépine9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleytikəthorn9.2BanaLienhardt(ə́)kíépine10Proto-Musgum*hadak ʸthornépine10.1VulumTourneuxhedeképine10.2MbaraTourneuxtahathornépine10.3MuskumTourneuxhedetépine
haɗikʷnm.grasshoppersauterelle1132Bcfdzaraj
This root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *h is retained in most groups, but was lost in Proto-Mafa and many individual languages, which is a common sporadic process. The *ɗ is retained only in Gidar. In many groups it has fused with the *i to become *j, and this *j triggered the creation of the palatalisation prosody in several languages in the Mofu group. These are both sporadic processes. However, in Hdi *ɗ has the reflex /ʔ/ and in Kilba /ʔʲ/. These are unestablished changes. The final *kʷ has been lost in several groups. In Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara it has become *w, and this change also led to the creation of *o in Mpade. In Proto-Daba the labialisation component became *w and replaced the lost *h. In the Maroua group the labialisation component was reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. In the Higi group, *i and *k fused to create /gʲ/. In Bata, the *k fused with *ɗ to create /q/. All these processes are known sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*aɗikʷgrasshoppersauterelle1.1BataBoydqaawelocustcriquet1.2GudeHoskinsonájìwágrasshopper2Proto-Daba*wajakgrasshoppersauterelle2.1BuwalViljoenwɑjɑkgrasshoppersauterelle2.2GavarViljoenwɑjɑkgrasshoppersauterelle2.3MbudumNdokobaïwajakgrasshoppersauterelle2.4DabaLienhardwàjə̄pʼle criquet3Proto-Mafa*jakʷgrasshoppersauterelle3.1CuvokGravinajakʷgrasshoppersauterelle4Proto-Margi*haɗiwgrasshoppersauterelle4.1BuraBlenchhauwaLocust sp.4.2KilbaSchuhhaʼjilocustcriquet5Proto-Mandara*hɨjɨwɨgrasshoppersauterelle5.1MatalBrangerhajawlocustlocuste, criquet5.2PodokoSwackhammerhijawa,-əsauterelle5.3MandaraFluckigeríwacriquet (m)5.4MalgwaLöhriiwelocust gen.criquet6Proto-Mofu*hajakʷgrasshoppersauterelle6.1OuldemeKinnairdàwàjàkcricketcriquet6.2MuyangSmithejewgeneric term for grashoppercriquet (mot générique)6.3MadaNkoumouájàw màdàlácriquet (sp.)6.4MolokoFriesenhejewcricket, generic namecriquet; nom_geàneàral6.5ZulgoHallerhájawsauterelle f. sp.6.6GemzekSabataihejewgrasshoppersauterelle6.7MereyGravinahejewgrasshoppersauterelle, criquet1MereyGravinahejewgrasshoppersauterelle, criquet6.8DugworJubumnahʷejeklocustlocuste, criquet1DugworJubumnahʷejekgrasshoppersauterelle6.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷàjákʷsauterelle (nom g;-en.)6.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajakʷsauterelle, criquet (nom générique) ; (par ext.) insecte7Proto-Maroua*hajak ʷgrasshoppersauterelle7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjuk(u)sauterelle (générique), criquet1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjuk(u)grosse sauterelle2Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjuk(u)petite sauterelle noire7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhojokgrasshoppersauterelle1Giziga MarvaHamidouhojoklocustlocuste, criquet8Proto-Lamang*hiʔigrasshoppersauterelle8.1HdiBramletthiʼigrasshopperle criquet, la sauterelle9Proto-Higi*haɗikgrasshoppersauterelle9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhagjígrasshopper9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhagigrasshopper9.3KiryaBlenchhàjígrasshopper9.4BanaLienhardxàjsauterelle10Proto-Kotoko North*hajawgrasshoppersauterelle10.1MpadeAllisonhàjógrasshoppercriquet1MpadeAllisongajograsshoppersauterelle11Proto-Gidar*hajɗaŋ ʸgrasshoppersauterelle11.1GidarHungerfordheejɗeŋlocuste (migrateur), sauterelle, criquet11.2GidarHungerfordhejdeŋsauterelle11.3GidarHungerfordhejɗeŋcriquet, sauterelle
hajaɣn.ground squirrelécureuil820C
This root is primarily found in the languages of the North sub-branch, but is also found in the Hurza group. The initial *h is retained in Proto-Mofu, and implied by the abnormal initial vowels in Proto-Hurza, Proto-Mandara, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Kotoko South, and the (compensatory) reduplication in Proto-Musgum. The *ɣ is retained in Glavda and Lamang. It has the reflex /g/ in Mpade, /h/ in the Hurza group, Mazera and Moloko, which borrowed the root from Mbuko. *ŋ is the reflex of *ɣ in Proto-Mofu, which was borrowed by Matal. The reflex *w in the Giziga languages is less natural, and may imply that *ɣ was labialised. None of these changes are established regular changes. The *j has triggered the creation of the palatalisation in some Mofu group languages, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Hurza*ajahsquirrrelécureuil1.1MbukoGravinaajahsquirrelécureuil1MbukoGravinawananajahsquirrelécureuil1.2VameKinnairdājáhsquirrelécureuil2Proto-Mandara*ajaɣsquirrelécureuil2.1MatalBrangerhājàŋsquirrelécureuil2.2MandaraFluckigerjàjèécureuil (m)2.3MalgwaLöhrjejesquirrelécureuil2.4GlavdaNghagyivaájàʁájàʁasquirrelécureuil1GlavdaOwensajaγájasquirrelécureuil3Proto-Mofu*hajaŋsquirrelécureuil3.1OuldemeKinnairdàjèŋsquirrelécureuil3.2MuyangSmithejeŋStriped ground squirrelEcureuil fouisseur (écureuil de terre)3.3MolokoFriesenajahsquirrelécureuil3.4ZulgoHallerhíjéŋécureuil (m.) de terre3.5GemzekSabataihijeŋsquirrelécureuil3.6MereyGravinahijeŋpalm ratrat de palme1MereyGravinahijeŋécureuil3.7DugworJubumnahijaŋpalm ratrat de palme1DugworJubumnahijaŋsquirrelécureuil3.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajaŋsquirrelécureuil terrestre ou "Rat palmiste"1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajaŋ aŋgʷal'écureuil qui habite sur les rochers 2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthajaŋ ᵑga palahl'écureuil qui habite sur la plaine4Proto-Maroua*ajawsquirrelécureuil4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjaw, ajawécureuil, scyurus1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanjaw, ajawécureuil, scyurus, un enfant né très petit, ou nim donné par un devin, ou surnom donné à un enfant qui commence à marcher très petit - On tourne l'enfant autour de la termitière pour qu'il grassit, surnom d'un enfant maigre4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouajewpalm ratrat de palme1Giziga MarvaHamidouajewsquirrelécureuil5Proto-Lamang*jaɣesquirrelécureuil5.1LamangWolffjáɣsquirrel1LamangWolffjáɣèground squirrel6Proto-Kotoko North*jagasquirrelécureuil6.1MpadeAllisonjágàflying squirrelécureil volant7Proto-Kotoko South*ajahesquirrelécureuil7.1MazeraAllisonajahesquirrelécureuil8Proto-Musgum*jajasquirrelécureuil8.1MbaraTourneuxjajasquirrelécureuil
hakʷnf.firefeu1439B
This root is an established Chadic root, though the exact form of the Proto-Central Chadic root is harder to pin down. The *kʷ is present in six of the group proto-languages, and has the reflex *gʷ in the Bata and Kotoko South groups, *ɣʷ in the Higi group, *ʔʷ in the Margi group, and *w in the Maroua, Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Kotoko Centre groups, and in Mbara in the Musgum group. These are not established changes. There is strong evidence for an initial consonant, and an initial *h is reconstructed. The *h is present in the Daba, Margi, Kotoko North and Musgum groups. However, in many groups the *h has been lost completely. There are a few unusual reflexes. The Proto-Daba root is the result of metathesis. In the Mafa group, the *h has been lost, triggering compensatory prefixation in Mafa and compensatory reduplication in Cuvok.
1Proto-Bata*gʷɨfirefeu1.1GudeHoskinsongúnəfire, heat.1.2JimiDjibigunLe feu1.3SharwaGravinarugʷəfeu1.4TsuvanJohnstongulkʷele feu2Proto-Daba*kʷahʷɨfirefeu2.1BuwalViljoenkʷɑhʷɑwfirefeu2.2GavarViljoenkʷɑhufirefeu1GavarViljoenkʷɑhu(be) hot2.3MbudumNdokobaïkahawfirefeu2.4DabaLienhardkùhūle feu, la lampe3Proto-Mafa*hakʷafirefeu3.1MafaBarreteauvogʷafeu3.2CuvokGravinakʷakʷawfirefeu4Proto-Sukur*kʷɨfirefeu4.1SukurDavidkufire4.2SukurThomaskufire; is the general term for fire.5Proto-Hurza*akʷafirefeu5.1MbukoGravinaukofire, light, electricityfeu, lumière, electricité5.2VameKinnairdákʷāfirefeu6Proto-Margi*hɨʔʷɨfirefeu6.1BuraBlenchuʼuFire6.2MargiHoffmanuʼufire6.3Margi SouthHarleyuʼufire6.4KilbaSchuhhuʼufire7Proto-Mofu*akʷɨfirefeu7.1OuldemeKinnairdàkùfirefeu7.2MuyangSmithɑkufirele feu, le courant électrique7.3MolokoFriesenokofirefeu7.4ZulgoHallerakʷáfeu m.7.5GemzekSabataiakofirefeu7.6MereyGravinaakofeu7.7DugworJubumnaakʷafirefeu7.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthawawfirefeu, chaleur torride8Proto-Maroua*awɨfirefeu8.1MbazlaTourneuxawufeu1MbazlaSILSurveyàwúfirefeu9Proto-Higi*ɣʷifirefeu9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣʷi1.fire.2.flower9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣʷifire9.3KiryaBlenchɣùfire9.4PsikyeAngelogʷufire9.5BanaLienhardɣʷə̀feu10Proto-Kotoko Island*awfirefeu10.1BudumaMcKoneaəwfirefeu10.2BudumaMcKoneâwfeu.11Proto-Kotoko North*hɨwfirefeu11.1AfadeAllisonhɨwfirefeu11.2MalgbeAllisonufirefeu11.3MaltamAllisonjaufirefeu12Proto-Kotoko Centre*awɨfirefeu12.1MserAllisonawufirefeu13Proto-Kotoko South*agʷafirefeu13.1MazeraAllisonagofirefeu14Proto-Musgum*huu, akʷɨfirefeu14.1MbaraTourneuxhuufirefeu14.2MuskumTourneuxakufeu, chaud
haᵐbɨrnm.skinpeau513A
*h is retained only in Moloko, but the presence of an initial vowel in the other Mofu group languages, along with Proto-Hurza and Vulum, supports its presence. No Proto-Central Chadic words begin with a vowel. The *ᵐb is found in all reflexes, except for Vulum where it has become /m/. *r has become *l as a result of a regular change in all the languages of the North major group, and also in Cuvok from a separate regular change. /r/ in Moloko is also the result of regular change.
1Proto-Mafa*ᵐbarskinpeau1.1CuvokGravinaᵐbalskin (of man)peau (d'homme)1CuvokGravinaᵐbalskin (animal) (v)peau (d'animal)2CuvokGravinaᵐbalhide (of animal)peau (d'animal)2Proto-Hurza*aᵐbarskinpeau2.1MbukoGravinaaᵐbaranimal skinpeau d'un animal2.2VameKinnairdàᵐbàrskin ; hidepeau3Proto-Mofu*haᵐbɨlskinpeau3.1OuldemeKinnairdāᵐbə̀lskin, part of bodypeau, partie du corps3.2MuyangSmithɑᵐbəlskin ; leatherpeau; cuir3.3MadaNkoumouaᵐbalpeau, cuir1MadaNkoumouaᵐbalpeau3.4MolokoFriesenhaᵐbarskinpeau3.5GemzekSabataiaᵐbəlhide (of animal); skin (animal) (v)peau (d'animal)3.6MereyGravinaᵐbalhide (of animal)peau (d'animal)3.7DugworJubumnaaᵐbalhide (of animal); skin (of man)peau (d'animal); peau (d'homme)3.8Mofu-GudurHollingswortháᵐbalpeau (humaine ou animale)4Proto-Higi*ᵐbɨlskinpeau4.1BanaLienhardᵐbə́lsac en peau5Proto-Musgum*amɨrskinpeau5.1VulumTourneuxamɨrpeau
haᵐbɨz ʸn.bloodsang1028A
The initial *h is lost in almost all languages, only being present in Mbazla. It is reconstructed largely due to the frequent reduplication, which is strongly indicative of a lost consonant. This compensatory reduplication has taken place in the Daba, Mafa, Sukur, Mofu, Maroua and Higi groups. The *ᵐb is not reduplicated in its entirety except in Buwal. In other languages, either the /b/ or the /m/ component is used to replace the lost *h. In the Hurza, Margi, Mandara and Higi groups, and the Tokombere subgroup of the Mofu group, *ᵐb has become *m, which is an unestablished change. In Mandara and Malgwa there was a regular change *m→w. The *z is devoiced in Proto-Margi as part of a regular change, and it is deleted in Proto-Higi, which is a common but not fully regular process for final consonants. There was metathesis of *ᵐb and *z in Proto-Bata. There is good support for the presence of the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Bata*zaᵐbebloodsang1.1BataBoydzààᵐbeblood1.2BachamaSkinnerzaᵐbeblood2Proto-Daba*haᵐbɨzbloodsang2.1BuwalViljoenᵐbɑᵐbɑzbloodsang2.2GavarViljoenʼɑmpəsbloodsang2.3MbudumNdokobaïmuᵐbəzbloodsang3Proto-Mafa*baᵐbaz ʸbloodsang3.1MafaNdokobaipaᵐbazsang3.2CuvokGravinabeᵐbezbloodsang1CuvokGravinabeᵐbezbloodsang4Proto-Sukur*muᵐbusbloodsang4.1SukurDavidmuᵐbussblood5Proto-Hurza*mɨza ʸbloodsang5.1MbukoGravinamezbloodsang5.2VameKinnairdmùnʒèbloodsang6Proto-Margi*masi ʸbloodsang6.1KilbaSchuhmaʃiblood7Proto-Mandara*mɨzɨ ʸbloodsang7.1MatalBrangeraŋiz, aŋiʒbloodsang7.2PodokoSwackhammermuzá,-əsang7.3MandaraFluckigerúʒesang (m)7.4MalgwaLöhruuʒeblood8Proto-Mofu*haᵐbɨz ʸbloodsang8.1Proto-Tokombere*amɨz ʸbloodsang8.2OuldemeKinnairdámìzbloodsang8.3MadaNkoumouemeʒsang8.4ZulgoHallermə́ᵐbə̀zsang m.8.5GemzekSabataibaᵐbazbloodsang8.6MereyGravinabaᵐbazbloodsang8.7Mofu NorthBarreteaumáᵐbàzsang8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaᵐbazsang9Proto-Maroua*hɨᵐbɨs ʷbloodsang9.1Giziga MarvaHamidoupuᵐbusbloodsang9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼaᵐbus, haᵐbussang1MbazlaSILSurveyǎᵐbūsbloodsang10Proto-Higi*mimibloodsang10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymimjiblood1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymímíblood10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymjimjiblood10.3KiryaBlenchmímíblood10.4BanaLienhardmímísang
hɨdzɨn ʸnf.mortarmortier1234C
There are two different cognate roots which are mixed here. In the presentation the Daba, Hurza and Mofu entries are divided according to which root is being used. The main difference between the roots is the choice of *n or *r as the final consonant. There is a regular change of final *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, but this does not account for *r in the Proto-Bata, Proto-Sukur and Proto-Higi roots, along with Daba and Vame. Nor does it account for the /ŋ/ (from *n) in several Mofu group languages. A possible explanation is that the root existed before the sound change in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, but that the different forms developed different uses, e.g. one was a large mortar for pounding millet and the other was a small mortar for pounding other items, and the two roots spread independently. *h is proposed to account for the frequent reduplication of the *n root. The *dz is frequently prenasalised, which is a sporadic process. The changes *dz→d in Proto-Musgum and *dz→z in Proto-Kotoko Centre are regular.
1Proto-Bata*ⁿdzɨrɨ ʸmortarmortier1.1JimiDjibiaⁿdzərənPetit mortier qui sert à piler le tabac pour priser.1.2SharwaGravinaⁿdʒirəmortier2Proto-Daba*ⁿdzar ʸmortarmortier2.1DabaLienhardⁿdʒērmortier3Proto-Daba*dzɨdzaŋ ʸmortarmortier3.1MbudumNdokobaïdʒidʒeŋmortarmortier4Proto-Sukur*dzɨmdzɨr ʸmortarmortier4.1SukurDavidjim zərmortar, wooden4.2SukurThomasjimdzər, jimnzər, jimzərmortar;- is wooden mortar used for grinding source for soup.5Proto-Hurza*dzɨra ʸmortarmortier5.1VameKinnairddzə́rémortarmortier6Proto-Hurza*dzɨⁿdzan ʸmortarmortier6.1MbukoGravinadzəⁿdzenmortarmortier7Proto-Margi*ⁿdzɨr ʸmortarmortier7.1BuraBlenchⁿdʒirGrain mortar8Proto-Mandara*dzɨrɨmortarmortier8.1MatalBrangerdzərəw // dzərumortarmortier8.2PodokoSwackhammerdzə́ra,-əmortier8.3MandaraFluckigerdzerámortier (m)8.4MalgwaLöhrdzəramortar8.5GlavdaNghagyivad͡zᵊɾamortar, pounding pot1GlavdaOwensdzimortar9Proto-Mofu*dzɨramortarmortier9.1OuldemeKinnairddzə́rómortarmortier9.2MuyangSmithdʒərɑmortarmortier9.3MadaNkoumouadʒramortier9.4ZulgoHallerdzəramortier m.10Proto-Mofu*dzɨdzaŋ ʸmortarmortier10.1MuyangSmithdʒidʒiŋmortarmortier10.2MolokoFriesentʃədʒenmortarmortier10.3GemzekSabataidzeŋdzeŋmortarmortier10.4MereyGravinadzəⁿdzeŋmortarmortier10.5DugworJubumnadʒədʒeŋmortarmortier10.6Mofu NorthBarreteaudʒə̀ŋdʒèŋmortier10.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdʒédʒeŋmortier11Proto-Maroua*dzɨdzɨŋ ʸmortarmortier11.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielandʒidʒiŋmortier à mil1Giziga MoutourwaMichielandʒidʒiŋpilon à mil11.2Giziga MarvaHamidoudʒidʒeŋmortarmortier12Proto-Higi*ⁿdzirmortarmortier12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyⁿdzíríMortar12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyⁿdzirmortar; pounding pot13Proto-Kotoko Island*adzinmortarmortier13.1BudumaMcKoneaedʒinmortarmortier13.2BudumaMcKoneâdʒinmortier.14Proto-Kotoko Centre*zɨnmortarmortier14.1LagwanAllisonzɨnhamortarmortier14.2MserAllisonazɨnmortarmortier15Proto-Musgum*dɨŋmortarmortier15.1VulumTourneuxadɨŋmortier15.2MbaraTourneuxdinajmortar15.3MuskumTourneuxtɨŋCeiba pentandra (Bombacaceae)1MuskumTourneuxtɨŋmortier
hɨjɨn.milletmil814Asyndawvɨjaw
This is one of three or more well-attested roots for millet, the staple crop in the region. The forms of the root are very consistent, with the primary differences being in the quality of the vowels. The root is found in languages from a wide area, and so may be reasonably old. However the existence of four different roots for the staple crop suggests that agriculture was not practiced by the earliest Central Chadic peoples.
1Proto-Bata*hajmilletmil1.1SharwaGravinahajəngraine1.2TsuvanJohnstonhele mil2Proto-Sukur*hɨjmilletmil2.1SukurThomashəiguineacorn; general term for guineacorn3Proto-Hurza*ahajmilletmil3.1VameKinnairdāhájmilletmil4Proto-Mandara*hɨjɨmilletmil4.1MatalBrangerhi, həjmilletmil4.2PodokoSwackhammerhijá,-ə 1grain1PodokoSwackhammerhijá,-ə 2mil4.3MandaraFluckigerhiámil (m)5Proto-Mofu*hajmilletmil5.1OuldemeKinnairdhājmilletmil5.2MolokoFriesenhajmilletmil6Proto-Lamang*hɨjamilletmil6.1LamangWolffxíjámillet6.2HdiBramletthijasorghum, guinea cornle sorgho, le mil7Proto-Higi*hamilletmil7.1PsikyeAngelomillet, corn7.2BanaLienhardmil (nom générique)8Proto-Gidar*hajɨmilletmil8.1GidarHungerfordhajjamil de saison de pluie, sorgho8.2GidarSchuhhaja/0mil8.3GidarSchuhhaja/0sorgho
hɨkannum.tendix36Asynkɨrɨwkʷɨm
This is one of three widespread roots for 'ten'. This root is found in three of the four Kotoko groups. *h is lost in Proto-Kotoko North.
1Proto-Kotoko Island*hɨkantendix1.1BudumaMcKonehəkanten (10)dix (10)2Proto-Kotoko North*kantendix2.1AfadeAllisonkanten (10)dix (10)2.2MpadeAllisonkánten (10)dix (10)2.3MalgbeAllisonkanten (10)dix (10)3Proto-Kotoko Centre*hɨkantendix3.1LagwanAllisonxkanten (10)dix (10)3.2MserAllisonkanten (10)dix (10)
hɨkinnum.threetrois1242A
This root is attested across all groups except for Gidar, Musgum and the Kotoko groups. The final *n has become *r in the Margi, Mandara and Mofu groups as part of a regular change. However *r is also found in the Mafa group and in the Giziga languages, and the /ɗ/ in the Daba group is also a reflex of *r. These forms are the result of borrowing. The unestablished *r→ɗ change also took place in Mandara, Malgwa and Glavda. In Mandara the *i and *ɗ fused to create /j/. In Malgwa, there was an intermediate /ɗʲ/, which moved to a velar position as part of a regular process of velarisation of palatalised alveolars. All groups except for the Mandara and Lamang groups have *ma- prefixed to the root. In several groups, the *h has been lost, triggering compensatory lengthening of the *a from the prefix. The *i vowel is reconstructed on the basis of evidence from the Margi, Mandara and Maroua groups. The evidence is not conclusive as there is no support for *i from the Bata or Higi groups.
1Proto-Bata*mahɨkɨnthreetrois1.1BataBoydmʷààkɨ́nthree1.2GudeHoskinsonmákəthree1.3JimiDjibimahəkənTrois1JimiDjibimahəkən32Proto-Daba*mahkaɗthreetrois2.1BuwalViljoenmɑhkɑɗthree (3)trois (3)2.2GavarViljoenmɑhkɑɗthree (3)trois (3)2.3MbudumNdokobaïmakaɗthree (3)trois (3)2.4DabaLienhardmàkāɗtrois3Proto-Mafa*mahkarthreetrois3.1MafaBarreteaumakártrois3.2CuvokGravinamahkarthree (3)trois (3)4Proto-Tera*mahkanthreetrois4.1GaʼandaGwajimahkanthree5Proto-Sukur*maakɨnthreetrois5.1SukurDavidmaakənthree6Proto-Hurza*maakanthreetrois6.1MbukoGravinamaakanthreetrois6.2VameKinnairdmáᵑgānthreetrois7Proto-Margi*maakirthreetrois7.1BuraBlenchmakirThree7.2Margi SouthHarleymaakərthree7.3KilbaSchuhmaakəru//three8Proto-Mandara*hɨkirɨthreetrois8.1MatalBrangermākᵊ̀rthreetrois8.2PodokoSwackhammermakə́ra,-ətrois8.3MandaraFluckigerkéjétrois8.4MalgwaLöhrkəɠjethree8.5GlavdaNghagyivaxkr̩̀ɗathree (3)8.6DghwedeFrickxkrethree9Proto-Mofu*mahkɨrthreetrois9.1OuldemeKinnairdmàkàrthreetrois9.2MuyangSmithmɑhkərthreetrois9.3MolokoFriesenmakarthreetrois9.4GemzekSabataimakarthree (3)trois (3)1GemzekSabataimakərthreetrois9.5MereyGravinamahkartrois9.6DugworJubumnamakarthree (3)trois (3)9.7Mofu NorthBarreteaumàkàrtrois9.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaakarthreetrois10Proto-Maroua*maakaŋthreetrois10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmakirtrois1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmakirtrente10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumakirthree (3)trois (3)10.3MbazlaSILSurveymàkāŋthreetrois1MbazlaTourneuxmaakaŋtrois11Proto-Lamang*hɨkɨnathreetrois11.1LamangWolffxkə́náthree11.2HdiBramletthəkənthreetrois12Proto-Higi*maxkɨnthreetrois12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymakənəthree1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymɑ̀kə̀nə́Three12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymakəothree12.3KiryaBlenchmakənthree12.4PsikyeAngelomaxkə́nthree1PsikyeAngelomaxkə́nə́three12.5BanaLienhardmàxkàntrois
hɨᵐbɨwn.armpitaisselle719B
This root is attested across a good range of groups. The initial *h has been lost in Bachama and Mbuko. In Bachama this has triggered compensatory reduplication. The final *w has been reanalysed as labialisation in Bachama and Proto-Margi. In Bachama the *w has fused with the *ᵐb to form /mʷ/, and in Proto-Margi it fused with *h to form *hʷ. All of these are common sporadic processes. In the Mofu group and in Mbuko the attested roots have extra material added, i.e. /jɨk/ or /ɗ/, possibly reflecting an underlying compound. The Proto-Mafa form comes from metathesis of the first two consonants, a sporadic change.
1Proto-Bata*mʷamʷaarmpitaisselle1.1BachamaSkinnermʷamʷatœarmpit2Proto-Daba*haᵐbɨwaarmpitaisselle2.1BuwalViljoensɑᵐbuwɑarmpitaisselle2.2GavarViljoenskɑ pɑpɑarmpitaisselle2.3MbudumNdokobaïpumpaarmpitaisselle3Proto-Mafa*ᵐbɨhawarmpitaisselle3.1MafaNdokobaihʷaɗ ᵐbəhawaisselle1MafaBarreteauᵐbəhawaisselle3.2CuvokGravinaᵐbuwaarmpitaisselle4Proto-Hurza*aᵐbajakʷ ʸarmpitaisselle4.1MbukoGravinaaᵐbijœkarmpitaisselle5Proto-Margi*hʷɨᵐbɨarmpitaisselle5.1MargiHoffmanhuᵐbuarmpit5.2KilbaSchuhuᵐbuarmpit6Proto-Mofu*hɨᵐbɨɗ ʸ, hʷɨᵐbajak ʸ, ᵐbɨwaarmpitaisselle6.1OuldemeKinnairdhùᵐbùwájarmpitaisselle6.2MolokoFriesenᵐbejewkarmpitaisselle6.3ZulgoHallerhìᵐbiɗaisselle f.6.4GemzekSabataihəᵐbeɗarmpitaisselle6.5MereyGravinahuᵐbejəkarmpitaisselle1MereyGravinahuᵐbejəkarmpitaisselle6.6DugworJubumnahuᵐbajekʷarmpitaisselle6.7Mofu NorthBarreteauᵐbúwāaisselle6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthᵐbəwáaisselle1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthsí-ᵐbəwáaisselle7Proto-Higi*haᵐbɨwɨarmpitaisselle7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhaᵐbuwəarmpit7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhaⁿduwaarmpit
hɨmɨɗ ʸnm.windvent1437Acftaɬ
This root is attested across the Central Chadic languages. The basic meaning is 'wind', but is extended to cover the concept 'cold' in many languages. The initial *h is realised as *s in several groups. This does not correspond with any known regular change, but it may be due to spreading of a cognate form from another branch of Chadic. The root *kʷɨhɨm 'mouse' shows similar distribution of *s and *h. The initial /h/ in Buduma is probably the result of a regular change *s→h in that language, rather than a reflex of Proto-Central Chadic *h. The *h has been sporadically lost in many languages, and has resulted in compensatory reduplication in Cuvok and the two Mofu languages. *m is sporadically realised as *ᵐb in a few languages. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups where it is expected. In Gidar the /j/ is the regular result of the palatalisation of *ɗ.
1Proto-Bata*miɗɨwindvent1.1GudeHoskinsonmə̀ɗá -əair, wind1.2JimiDjibiᵐbiɗənVent, souffle2Proto-Daba*mɨɗ ʸwindvent2.1BuwalViljoenmɑɗ(be) cold (objects)(être) froid2.2GavarViljoenmiɗwind (n)vent1GavarViljoenmiɗairair2.3MbudumNdokobaïmaɗ(be) cold (objects)(être) froid2.4DabaLienhardmīɗle vent, le souffle, la vie3Proto-Mafa*mamaɗ ʸwindvent3.1CuvokGravinamemeɗwindvent1CuvokGravinamemeɗcoldfroid4Proto-Sukur*mɨɗ ʸwindvent4.1SukurDavidmíɗwind4.2SukurThomasmiɗwind5Proto-Hurza*hɨmaɗewindvent5.1MbukoGravinamaɗwind; coldvent, froid5.2NdremeKinnairdhùmàɗɛ̀5.3VameKinnairdhə̀màɗèvent6Proto-Margi*samaɗ ʸwindvent6.1BuraBlenchʃaᵐbarCold1BuraBlenchʃaᵐbarWind6.2MargiHoffmanjamaɗəwind, cold6.3Margi SouthHarleyjəᵐbaɗuwind7Proto-Mofu*hɨmɨɗ ʸwindvent7.1OuldemeKinnairdàmàɗwindvent7.2MuyangSmithɑməɗair ; wind ; cold ; breathvent; froid7.3MadaNkoumouamaɗvent7.4MolokoFriesenhəmaɗwind, coldvent; froid7.5ZulgoHallerhíᵐbíɗvent m.7.6GemzekSabataihəᵐbeɗle vent7.7DugworJubumnahəmeɗwindvent7.8Mofu NorthBarreteaumèmə̀ɗvent1Mofu NorthBarreteaumèmə̀ɗfroid7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmemeɗvent, froid8Proto-Maroua*hɨmɨɗ ʸwindvent8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhimiɗ(i)vent, froid1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhimiɗ(i)se dégonfler8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhimeɗwindvent8.3MbazlaTourneuxsimeɗvent1MbazlaTourneuxtʃimeɗvent9Proto-Kotoko Island*haᵐbaɗɨwindvent9.1BudumaMcKonehəaᵐbaɗə; lienicold weathertemps froid9.2BudumaMcKonehâᵐbaɗəle froid.9.3BudumaMcKonehâᵐbəɗafroid.10Proto-Kotoko North*samaɗewindvent10.1AfadeAllisonsemaɗecold weathertemps froid10.2MpadeAllisonsɨ́máɗɨ̀cold weathertemps froid10.3MalgbeAllisontʃʼamarecold weathertemps froid11Proto-Kotoko Centre*sɨmaɗɨwindvent11.1LagwanAllisonʃimacold weathertemps froid1LagwanAllisonsɨmaɗɨ; ɣʷavawindvent11.2MserAllisonsɨmaɗicold weathertemps froid12Proto-Kotoko South*sɨmaɗewindvent12.1ZinaOddenasmaɗə; màgàwàwindvent12.2MazeraAllisonsɨmɗewindvent13Proto-Musgum*sɨmaɗ ʸwindvent13.1VulumTourneuxsɨmervent1VulumTourneuxsimervent13.2MbaraTourneuxsumʼdajcold1MbaraTourneuxsumʼdajwind13.3MuskumTourneuxsimetvent14Proto-Gidar*sɨmjawindvent14.1GidarHungerfordsəmjavent, froid14.2GidarSchuhsəmjafroid14.3GidarSchuhsəmjavent14.4GidarHungerfordsɨmjafroid
hɨnav.lie downse coucher821A
The basic sense is 'to lie down in order to sleep', but is extended to include 'give birth' in some languages. It is also used to denote the period of time when someone is asleep or extended periods in general, and in at least one language the nominalised form has the sense of a 'day', i.e. a period of twenty-four hours. The root is not found in any languages of the South sub-branch, except for Cuvok where this may be one of many borrowings from Mofu-Gudur. The *h has been lost in several Mofu group languages, and there has been metathesis of the *h and *n in Cuvok and Mbuko.
1Proto-Mafa*nahalie downse coucher1.1CuvokGravinanahalie downse coucher2Proto-Hurza*hɨnalie downse coucher2.1MbukoGravinanahajlie_downcoucher2.2VameKinnairdhə̀nákádèlie downcoucher3Proto-Mandara*hɨnalie downse coucher3.1MatalBrangermahən hiŋ, mahin ~lie downcoucher3.2PodokoSwackhammerhəna 1coucher1PodokoSwackhammerhəna 2passer la nuit2PodokoSwackhammerhəna 3rester longtemps3.3GlavdaNghagyivaxɨ́ᵑgànalie down4Proto-Mofu*hɨnalie downse coucher4.1ZulgoHallerhə́náse coucher4.2ZulgoHallerhə́nápasser la nuit4.3GemzekSabataimehənelie downse coucher4.4MereyGravinahənalie downse coucher4.5DugworJubumnamanajlie downse coucher4.6Mofu NorthBarreteauménējse coucher1Mofu NorthBarreteauménējpasser la nuit2Mofu NorthBarreteauménējdurer4.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́nsleepdormir, se coucher ; passer la nuit ; durer5Proto-Maroua*hɨnlie downse coucher5.1Giziga MarvaHamidouhənlie downse coucher5.2MbazlaTourneuxhənaccoucher6Proto-Lamang*hinilie downse coucher6.1LamangWolffhinisleep, lie down6.2HdiBramletthanadatalie down to sleepse coucher7Proto-Higi*hɨnilie downse coucher7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhinigʷəlie down.7.2KiryaBlenchhàànə́to lie down7.3BanaLienhardxə̀níse coucher8Proto-Kotoko Island*hɨnajlie downse coucher8.1BudumaMcKonehənajlie downse coucher
hɨpaɬ ʸnf.shoulderépaule819Brel. topaɮa
This root is probably related to the root *paɮa 'upper arm', though the lack of regularity in the reflexes of the lateral fricatives in the two roots indicates that these should not be considered as a single root, but as two related forms deriving from one root. The initial *h is lost in many languages, and this loss has triggered compensatory reduplication in many cases. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups. There was metathesis of *p and *ɬ in the Mandara group, a sporadic process.
1Proto-Mafa*paɬpaɬ ʸshoulderépaule1.1MafaNdokobaipeɬpeɬepaule2Proto-Sukur*tapaɬshoulderépaule2.1SukurThomastapaɬshoulder; either of the two parts of the body between the top of each arm and the neck.3Proto-Hurza*paɬpaɬ ʸshoulderépaule3.1VameKinnairdpéɬpēɬshoulderépaule4Proto-Margi*apaɬashoulderépaule4.1BuraBlenchpáɬáhàShoulder Also pátláhù4.2Margi SouthHarleypapaɮashoulder4.3KilbaSchuhpaɬəkashoulder5Proto-Mandara*aɬapɨ ʸshoulderépaule5.1MatalBrangerdzàbàɬa᷆shoulderépaule5.2MandaraFluckigernáhjápéhjápéépaule (f)5.3MalgwaLöhrnahjepeshoulder1MalgwaLöhrlahjepeshoulder5.4GlavdaOwensaçáshoulder1GlavdaNghagyivaāçápashoulder6Proto-Mofu*hɨpaɬ ʸshoulderépaule6.1OuldemeKinnairdmə̄pépéɬshoulderépaule6.2MuyangSmithhəpɑɬboth the shoulders, the part of the body that can be movedles épaules (qu'on peut hausser)6.3MadaNkoumouahpaɬepaule6.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpepéɬomoplate, épaule7Proto-Maroua*papaɮ ʸshoulderépaule7.1Giziga MarvaHamidoupepeɮshoulderépaule8Proto-Higi*baɮashoulderépaule8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleybáɮashoulder8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyᵐbaɮashoulder8.3KiryaBlenchbàbàɮàshoulder8.4BanaLienhardbáɮíépaule
hɨran.arm, handbras, main825Csyndzɨvɨ ʸpaɮa
This is the most widely attested of the three roots for 'arm'. We expect to find *r→l in the languages of the North sub-branch, but the data from Podoko and much of the Mofu group contradicts this. Proto-Maroua *n word-final corresponds with *r word-final in these two groups, so it may be that the North sub-branch languages are reflexes of a different root *(a)han.
1Proto-Daba*raarmbras1.1BuwalViljoenarmbras1BuwalViljoenhandmain1.2GavarViljoenhandmain1GavarViljoenarmbras2Proto-Mafa*rajarmbras2.1MafaBarreteaurájmain, bras2.2CuvokGravinahahand, handmain, bras3Proto-Tera*xararmbras3.1TeraNewmanxarhand (arm)3.2NyimatliHarleykharhand3.3GaʼandaGwajiᵐbǝraheraarm4Proto-Sukur*riarm, handbras, main4.1SukurDavidriarm, hand4.2SukurThomasrəihand:- is the part of the body at the end of the arm.5Proto-Hurza*alajarmbras5.1MbukoGravinaalajhandbras, main5.2VameKinnairdālájarm|uc{main, bras} - de l'épaule jusqu'au bout des doigts6Proto-Mandara*harɨarmbras6.1MatalBrangerahalarmbras6.2PodokoSwackhammerhará,-əmain; bras7Proto-Mofu*ahɨr, hɨlajarmbras7.1OuldemeKinnairdāhárarm - from the shoulder to the tips of the fingers|uc{main, bras} - de l'épaule jusqu'au bout des doigts7.2MuyangSmithɑhɑrhand ; arm ; handle ; branchmain; bras; manche; branche7.3MadaNkoumouaharbras supérieur7.4MolokoFriesenahararm; handbras; main7.5ZulgoHallerahə́rmain f.7.6GemzekSabataiahərarmbras7.7MereyGravinahəlajarmbras, main7.8DugworJubumnalajarmbras1DugworJubumnalajhandmain7.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhārbras, main7.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthharhand, armla main, bras1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhar(sens figuré) temps, occasion8Proto-Maroua*hanarmbras8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhaŋmain, bras8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhan, haŋhand; armmain; bras8.3MbazlaTourneuxhaŋbras1MbazlaSILSurveyhāŋarm / handbras / main
hɨrɨdz ʸnf.scorpionscorpion1235B
This root is found across almost all the Central Chadic groups, but is not found in any of the Kotoko groups. The initial *h is lost in several languages, a common sporadic change. In Mafa this has been compensated for by the addition of a prefixed /v/, a common process. The *r is expected to have the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, but this is not the case. The implication is that the root did not come into the languages from Proto-Central Chadic. The breadth of the attestations, and the changes found in the reflexes imply that the root is old. It may have existed in the South sub-branch, and spread from there into the North sub-branch. The *dz has the reflexes *ts, *d and *z. The *d in Proto-Musgum and *z in Proto-Gidar are regular, but there are no consistent patterns to the reflexes of *dz in other groups. The palatalisation prosody is retained in almost all groups where it is expected.
1Proto-Bata*hɨradzɨ ʸscorpionscorpion1.1GudeHoskinsonàrə̀də̀də́nəscorpion.1.2JimiDjibiredzən1 - Varan; 2 - Scorpion1.3SharwaGravinaardəscorpion1.4TsuvanJohnstonhərdekənle scorpion2Proto-Daba*rɨdzɨ ʸscorpionscorpion2.1BuwalViljoenredʒescorpionscorpion2.2GavarViljoenrədʒiscorpionscorpion2.3DabaLienhardīrdìle scorpion3Proto-Mafa*haradzscorpionscorpion3.1MafaNdokobaivaradzascorpion3.2CuvokGravinaratsscorpionscorpion4Proto-Sukur*ᵐbɨrdajscorpionscorpion4.1SukurThomasᵐbərdaiscorpion; a small creature like an insects with sex legs, two front claws and a long tail that curves over it's back and can a poisonous sting.5Proto-Hurza*rɨdza ʸscorpionscorpion5.1MbukoGravinarədʒescorpionscorpion6Proto-Margi*hɨda ʸscorpionscorpion6.1BuraBlenchhidiScorpion6.2KilbaSchuhida/ascorpion7Proto-Mandara*radzɨ ʸscorpionscorpion7.1MatalBrangerālìʒscorpionscorpion7.2PodokoSwackhammerraⁿdzá,-əscorpion7.3MandaraFluckigerérdzescorpion (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrərdzascorpion7.5GlavdaOwensardscorpion1GlavdaNghagyivaárd͡zascorpion8Proto-Mofu*hɨrɨda ʸscorpionscorpion8.1OuldemeKinnairdárdàscorpionscorpion8.2MuyangSmithɑⁿdrɑ(small yellow) scorpionsorte de petit scorpion jaune8.3MolokoFriesenharatsscorpionscorpion8.4ZulgoHallerhìrdescorpion m.8.5GemzekSabataihərdedescorpionscorpion8.6MereyGravinahərdədescorpionscorpion8.7DugworJubumnaarədescorpionscorpion8.8Mofu-GudurHollingswortharátsscorpionscorpion9Proto-Maroua*arats ʸscorpionscorpion9.1Giziga MarvaHamidouaratʃescorpionscorpion9.2MbazlaTourneuxʼaretʃscorpion1MbazlaTourneuxʼariʃscorpion10Proto-Lamang*rɨdascorpionscorpion10.1LamangWolffə́rdàscorpion10.2HdiBramlettrədascorpionle scorpion11Proto-Musgum*hɨrɨdɨwscorpionscorpion11.1VulumTourneuxhɨrduuscorpion11.2MulwiTourneuxhirduuscorpion11.3MbaraTourneuxhurtuwajscorpion11.4MuskumTourneuxhurutscorpion12Proto-Gidar*hɨrzɨjascorpionscorpion12.1GidarHungerfordhərzijascorpion
hɨrɨgʷɨvn.baboonbabouin616B
This root is quite difficult to reconstruct. The initial *h is retained only in Mbuko and Moloko, which are neighbours. The *r has changed to *l as expected in the languages of the North sub-branch and the Daba group. The *gʷ has the unestablished reflexes *kʷ in Proto-Mandara and Ouldeme, *ʔʷ in an intermediate form leading to Proto-Maroua, and *hʷ in Proto-Daba, Proto-Mofu and the forms leading to Proto-Tera and Proto-Gidar. In these last two groups, the resulting *h component has been lost and the labialisation reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, resulting in back vowels. This is a common sporadic process. In some Mofu group languages, there has been metathesis of the *l and *hʷ (from *gʷ). The labialisation component of the original *gʷ has also become the labialisation prosody in Proto-Daba, Proto-Hurza and Proto-Maroua. The final *v has become *f in Mbudum and Proto-Maroua, which is an unestablished change. There is no reflex of *v in Malgwa, which would be unusual, implying that the Malgwa word is a chance similarity.
1Proto-Daba*lahav ʷbaboonbabouin1.1MbudumNdokobaïlahafbaboonbabouin1.2DabaLienhardlòhòvle cynoc[ephale, le babouin2Proto-Tera*rufbaboonbabouin2.1TeraNewmanrufbaboon3Proto-Hurza*hɨrgav ʷbaboonbabouin3.1MbukoGravinahərgovbaboonbabouin4Proto-Mandara*lɨkʷɨvababoonbabouin4.1MalgwaLöhrnagula, lagulababoon4.2GlavdaNghagyivalúkùvababoon5Proto-Mofu*hɨlɨgʷɨvbaboonbabouin5.1OuldemeKinnairdālkùvbaboonbabouin ; cynocéphale5.2MuyangSmithɑluɡuvbaboonbabouin5.3MolokoFriesenhərgovmonkeysinge(noir, gros)5.4ZulgoHalleràlùvbabouin m.5.5GemzekSabataihulovbaboonbabouin5.6MereyGravinawuluvbaboonbabouin5.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlagʷavBabouin 6Proto-Maroua*ləʔɨf ʷbaboonbabouin6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanluʼufsinge noir de la montagne, babouin6.2Giziga MarvaHamidoualʼofmonkeysinge7Proto-Gidar*lava ʷbaboonbabouin7.1GidarSchuhlovo, obabouin
hɨwɨjv.to runcourir1021B
This root is found in many different groups. In Mbuko and Sukur the *h and *w are two separate consonants, rather than the single labialised consonant found in almost all the other languages. The process of fusion of *w with another consonant to form a labialised consonant is very common, and there are no clear cases of the separation of the labialisation from the consonant in this way, so the reconstruction with separate *h and *w is preferred.
1Proto-Bata*hʷɨjruncourir1.1JimiDjibihujənCourir ;2Proto-Daba*hɨjruncourir2.1BuwalViljoenhejruncourir1BuwalViljoenhejflees'enfuir2BuwalViljoenhejspread (disease, fire)se répandre, s'étendre2.2MbudumNdokobaïhiruncourir3Proto-Mafa*hʷajruncourir3.1MafaBarreteauhacourir3.2CuvokGravinahʷajruncourir4Proto-Sukur*hɨwiruncourir4.1SukurDavidhuwirun, to4.2SukurThomashuirun5Proto-Hurza*hawruncourir5.1MbukoGravinahawrun; fleecourir; fuir1MbukoGravinahawse précipiter sur6Proto-Margi*hʷiruncourir6.1BuraBlenchhʷiTo run1BuraBlenchhuhʷiTo run (Sustained action)6.2MargiHoffmanwito run6.3Margi SouthHoffmanhʷito run6.4KilbaHoffmanhʷito run1KilbaSchuhhʷi/ihandle (hoe etc.)2KilbaSchuhhʷi/irun7Proto-Mandara*hʷajruncourir7.1MatalBrangermàhʷɔ̄jājruncourir8Proto-Mofu*hʷajruncourir8.1MereyGravinahʷajruncourir, s'enfuir8.2DugworJubumnamahʷajruncourir8.3Mofu NorthBarreteaumáhʷājcourir8.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷ(á)courir, fuir, s'enfuir 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷ(á)rouler vite (voiture, mobylette)2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷ(á)dérouler une botte de paille (un sekko)9Proto-Lamang*hʷajruncourir9.1HdiBramletthʷajajto runcourir10Proto-Higi*hʷiruncourir10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhʷehʷərun10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhohorun10.3KiryaBlenchhʷjito run10.4PsikyeAngeloxʷerun
hʷaɗikn.earthterre1224C
The basic meaning of this root is the soil or earth that the ground is made from. The evidence for *hʷ rather than *h comes from Cuvok, Mbuko and Lamang. In Cuvok the *h component has been lost, resulting in /w/. In Mbuko the labialisation is reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, and in Lamang it has resulted in /o/. These are common sporadic processes. In several languages the *ɗ and *i have fused, resulting in *j. In the Kilba the result is /ʔʲ/. In Kamwe-Futu and Bana the *i has caused the palatalisation of the *h. *k has been lost in all groups except for the Daba, Mafa and Hurza, which is not a regular process. The final /k/ in Hdi is a frozen suffix, and not a reflex of *k. The *i has direct support from the Margi, Lamang and Higi groups.
1Proto-Daba*hajakearthterre1.1BuwalViljoenhɑjɑkground, landsol1BuwalViljoenhɑjɑkdirt, soilsol2BuwalViljoenhɑjɑkcountry, ethnic areapays1.2GavarViljoenhɑjɑkdirt, soilterre1GavarViljoenhɑjɑkground, landsol2GavarViljoenhɑjɑkcountry, ethnic areapays1.3MbudumNdokobaïhajakdirt, soilterre, sol1MbudumNdokobaïhajakground, landterre1.4DabaLienhardhàjə̄k ʼla terre, le pays2Proto-Mafa*wɨjakearthterre2.1CuvokGravinaujakterre3Proto-Tera*ɣajearthterre3.1TeraNewmanɣajearth1TeraNewmanɣajground2TeraNewmanɣajtown3.2NyimatliHarleyɣaidirt, soil4Proto-Sukur*haɗearthterre4.1SukurThomashaɗground5Proto-Hurza*hʷigajearthterre5.1MbukoGravinajugoearthla terre5.2VameKinnairdhígàjground ; earthsol ; terre6Proto-Margi*hɨɗiearthterre6.1BuraBlenchhiEarth, soil, dirt6.2KilbaSchuhhəʼiearth1KilbaSchuhhəʼiland7Proto-Mandara*hajaearthterre7.1MandaraFluckigerháháterre (f)7.2MalgwaLöhrhahaearth, soil, ground7.3DghwedeFrickxajaearth8Proto-Mofu*ahɨɗearthterre8.1ZulgoHalleràhə̀ɗterre f., sol m.9Proto-Maroua*hajearthterre9.1MbazlaTourneuxhajterre10Proto-Lamang*hʷaɗiearthterre10.1LamangWolffhoɗoground, earth10.2HdiBramletthaɗiksoil, earthla terre11Proto-Higi*hɨɗiearthterre11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyhjiɗiground; land; earth11.2KiryaBlenchhàhàjsoil11.3PsikyeAngeloxeɗídirt, earth, ground11.4BanaLienhardxjìɗìterre, pays12Proto-Musgum*jahajearthterre12.1MbaraTourneuxjahajearthterre
hʷaⁿdavn.harelièvre716Asynvida
There are two widespread roots for 'hare', with the other being *vidɨ. These roots are possibly cognate, though it is not clear how these two forms could have come about. The *hʷ has been lost in many languages, leaving /w/ in Mafa and several Mofu group languages, and a back vowel in Ouldeme and Mbara. In many cases /m/ has been prefixed to the root to compensate. This is one of only three roots where *ⁿd has been reconstructed. In Musgum the *ⁿd has the reflex /d/. *v has the reflex *f in Proto-Maroua. These are unestablished changes.
1Proto-Daba*maⁿdavanharelièvre1.1BuwalViljoenmɑⁿdəvɑnharelièvre1.2GavarViljoenmɑⁿdəvɑnharelièvre1.3MbudumNdokobaïməⁿdeveŋharelièvre1.4DabaLienhardmāⁿdàvə̄nle lapin, le lièvre2Proto-Mafa*waⁿdavharelièvre2.1MafaBarreteauwáⁿdávlièvre3Proto-Hurza*ⁿdɨvan ʸharelièvre3.1VameKinnairdⁿdìvèŋrabbit ; harelapin ; lièvre4Proto-Mofu*hʷaⁿdavharelièvre4.1OuldemeKinnairdādāvòharelièvre4.2ZulgoHallerhə́ⁿdávlièvre m.4.3MereyGravinawaⁿdavharelièvre4.4DugworJubumnawaⁿdavharelièvre4.5Mofu NorthBarreteauwáⁿdávlapin4.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaⁿdav-ŋgʷaLapin d'Afrique1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaⁿdav ᵑga palahLièvre à oreilles de lapin 2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaⁿdavlapin (nom gén.)5Proto-Maroua*maⁿdafharelièvre5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmaⁿdaflapin, lièvre (567,577,578)5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumaⁿdafharelièvre6Proto-Musgum*mudivajharelièvre6.1MbaraTourneuxmudivajharelièvre7Proto-Gidar*maⁿdavaharelièvre7.1GidarSchuhmaⁿdava/alapin7.2GidarHungerfordmaⁿdavalièvre, lapin
hʷarajn.shamehonte611Bsynzɨrwa ʸ
This root is one of two roots for 'shame', the best attested concept that relates solely to an emotional state. The attestations are limited, which is to be expected as this concept is only found in the better developed word lists and dictionaries, but they come from a range of groups and show the changes that are expected in a long-standing Central Chadic root. The *hʷ is retained in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Lamang. In the other three groups it is realised as *w, which is a common sporadic process. In Gemzek the labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. The *r has undergone the regular change to *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba, except that *r is found in Proto-Mofu. This indicates a certain degree of borrowing within Central Chadic. The *j is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Daba, as /i/ in Gidar, and is lost in Hdi. These are all common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Daba*walɨ ʸshamehonte1.1DabaLienhardwèlīla honte, la gêne2Proto-Mafa*hʷarajshamehonte2.1MafaBarreteauhʷarajhonte2.2CuvokGravinahʷaraj(be) ashamed(avoir) honte1CuvokGravinahʷarajshame (n)honte3Proto-Hurza*warajshamehonte3.1MbukoGravinawarajshamehonte4Proto-Mofu*hʷarajshamehonte4.1ZulgoHallerhʷarwáhonte f.4.2GemzekSabataihoroshame (n)honte4.3MereyGravinahʷarajshame (n)honte4.4DugworJubumnahʷorajshame (n)honte4.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷarajhonte, déshonneur5Proto-Lamang*hʷɨlashamehonte5.1HdiBramletthulashamela honte6Proto-Gidar*wɨlishamehonte6.1GidarHungerfordwɨlihonte
hʷiɗn.stomachventre929B
The basic sense of this root is the interior of the belly, i.e. the lower part of the abdomen, and in particular the stomach. In some languages the word is used in prepositional constructions to mean 'inside something'. The *hʷ is retained in most groups, but has the reflex *w in Proto-Maroua, Proto-Musgum and Dugwor, which is a common sporadic change. The *ɗ has the reflex *r in Ga'anda, Mbazla and Proto-Musgum, which is an unestablished change. This is also a regular change word-finally for several Higi group languages, as is the loss of final consonants.The *i is reconstructed from the evidence from Proto-Tera, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi.
1Proto-Mafa*hʷaɗbellyventre1.1MafaNdokobaihʷaɗventre1.2CuvokGravinahʷaɗabdomen (external)estomac, abdomen (externe)1CuvokGravinaɬam da hʷaɗstomach (internal)ventre (interne)2Proto-Tera*hʷirabellyventre2.1GaʼandaGwajihʷirastomach3Proto-Sukur*hʷɨɗbellyventre3.1SukurDavidɣuɗbelly3.2SukurThomashuɗstomach; belly:- some body with a big stomack either man or woman.4Proto-Mandara*hʷɨɗɨbellyventre4.1MatalBrangerhʷəɗbellyventre4.2PodokoSwackhammerhuɗa,-ə 1ventre1PodokoSwackhammerhuɗa,-ə 2intérieur4.3MandaraFluckigerhuɗeventre (m), intérieur (m), entrailles (f. pl.)4.4MalgwaLöhrhuɗestomach4.5GlavdaNghagyivaxùɗastomach (internal)1GlavdaOwensxʷə́dbelly4.6DghwedeFrickxʷtʼebelly5Proto-Mofu*hʷɨɗbellyventre5.1OuldemeKinnairdhuraɗstomachventre5.2MuyangSmithhuɗbelly ; interior ; underideventre; dessous5.3MadaNkoumouhoɗventre (interne)1MadaNkoumouhoɗventre (interne)5.4MolokoFriesenhoɗstomachventre5.5ZulgoHallerhuɗventre m.1ZulgoHallerhúɗventre m.5.6GemzekSabataihuɗsein1GemzekSabataihoɗle sein5.7MereyGravinahuɗventre5.8DugworJubumnawaɗstomach (internal)ventre (interne)1DugworJubumnawaɗ (təseve)abdomen (external)estomac, abdomen (externe)5.9Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷāɗventre1Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷaɗventre5.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaɗstomachventre 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthhʷaɗintérieur, centre6Proto-Maroua*wurubellyventre6.1MbazlaTourneuxwuruventre1MbazlaSILSurveyàwúrùbellyventre7Proto-Lamang*huɗibellyventre7.1LamangWolffxúɗíbelly, inside7.2HdiBramletthuɗiabdomenle ventre8Proto-Higi*hʷiɗbellyventre8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhʷístomach8.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyhʷistomach (internal)8.3KiryaBlenchhʷúrstomach8.4BanaLienhardxʷə́rventre, grossesse9Proto-Musgum*warbellyventre9.1VulumTourneuxwarventre9.2MbaraTourneuxwarbelly
hʷɨɗɨɬ ʸnm., v.coughtousser1433Brel. togʷɨɗɨɮ
This root may represent the noun or the verb. It is related to the root for 'belch', with belching being a voiced version of coughing. The root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *hʷ is retained in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Musgum, has the reflex *w in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Gidar., and in Proto-Maroua the reflex is *h. These are all common sporadic changes. In Proto-Tera it has the reflex *kʷ, which is an unestablished change. In Mbuko, the *hʷ is lost, and triggers the compensatory reduplication of /ɮ/. The *ɗ is lost in many groups, also triggering compensatory reduplication in languages of the Meri sub-group. Loss of these consonants and the resulting compensatory reduplication is a common sporadic process. In Proto-Sukur, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Gidar
has the reflex *r, which is an unestablished change. In other groups the glottal component has fused with the reflex of *hʷ. In Bura *w and *ɗ have fused to give *ɓ→b. The same process of *w+*ɗ→ɓ has taken place in Muyang and Moloko. In Kilba the process is *w+*ɗ→ʔʷ. These are common sporadic processes. In Zina the *ɗ was affected by the palatalisation prosody at some earlier time, resulting in the regular *ɗʲ→j. In the Higi group, the change is *ɗʲ→ʔʲ. In Mpade *hʷ has become *kʷ (an unestablished change), and this has fused with *ɗ to form the ejective /kʼʷ/. *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-group, though Mafa has the irregular reflex /ɬ/. There are also regular changes in Mpade *ɬ→ʃ, in Mser and Zina *ɬ→s, and in Mandara, Malgwa and Glavda *ɬʲ→hʲ. The palatalisation prosody is retained in several groups. There are also several instances where sporadic metathesis has taken place.
1Proto-Mafa*wɨɬacoughtoux1.1MafaNdokobaiwuɬatoux2Proto-Tera*kʷɨɮacoughtoux2.1TeraNewmankuɮacough2.2NyimatliHarleykuɮacough (v)3Proto-Sukur*ɮar ʸcoughtousser3.1SukurThomasɮjarcough; to force out air suddenly and noicely through your throat, for when you have a cold.4Proto-Hurza*ɮɨɮah ʸcoughtoux4.1MbukoGravinaɮəɮe(h)coughtoux5Proto-Margi*wɨɗɨɬacoughtoux5.1BuraBlenchbuɬaCough1BuraBlenchbuɬaTo cough5.2KilbaSchuhʼuɬa/acough(ing)6Proto-Mandara*hʷɨɬah ʸcoughtoux6.1MatalBrangermabəɮəhʷajcoughtousser6.2PodokoSwackhammerkuɬáhatousser6.3MandaraFluckigerúhjátousser6.4MalgwaLöhrŋʷihjacough6.5GlavdaNghagyivawúçᵊgacough (v)6.6DghwedeFrickwuɮaxato cough7Proto-Mofu*hʷɨɗɨɬ ʸcoughtoux7.1Proto-Tokombere*wɨɗɨɬajcoughtoux7.2OuldemeKinnairdubd stemɗə̄ɬájcoughtousser7.3MuyangSmithɓəɬɑjcoughtousser7.4MolokoFriesenɓəɬajcoughtousser7.5Proto-Meri*ɗɨɮah ʸcoughtoux7.6ZulgoHalleràɮàhtoux f.7.7GemzekSabataimege ɮəɮahcough (v)tousser7.8MereyGravinaɮəɮehcough (v)tousser7.9DugworJubumnamegej ɮəlɮecough (v)tousser8Proto-Maroua*hɨrɬa ʸcoughtoux8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhirɬetoux, tuberculose8.2Giziga MarvaHamidougi irɬecough (v)tousser9Proto-Higi*ʔʲɨɬacoughtoux9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼjáɬáCough1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʼjathlacough9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleytsaiɬacough9.3PsikyeAngeloʼjiɬácough9.4BanaLienhardʼjiɬála toux, la grippe, le catarrhe10Proto-Kotoko North*hʷɨɗɨɬacoughtoux10.1AfadeAllisonɗɨɬa; ɗɨɬauncough (v)tousser10.2MpadeAllisonlà kʼʷàʃáncough (v)tousser1MpadeAllisonkʼʷàʃáncoughtoux10.3MalgbeAllisonɗaɬawun; ɗaɬacough (v)tousser11Proto-Kotoko Centre*wɨɗɨɬacoughtoux11.1LagwanAllisonuɬawuncough (v)tousser11.2MserAllisonɗasacough (v)tousser12Proto-Kotoko South*wasjacoughtoux12.1ZinaOddenwàsjàcough (v)tousser13Proto-Musgum*hʷaɬcoughtoux13.1MulwiTourneuxhuɬitousser1MulwiTourneuxhoɬtoux13.2MbaraTourneuxʼoɬcough14Proto-Gidar*wɨrɬacoughtousser