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k


kaligimon.camelchameau36Asynɮɨgʷamɨ ʸᵑgʲaluba
This root is a borrowing from the old Kanuri /kaligimo/, and is found in three of the Kotoko groups. There were no back vowels in these groups at an earlier point in their history, and this has led to the displacement of the back vowel next to velar consonants in Lagwan, Mser and Mazera. The back vowel was reanalysed as labialisation of the velar consonants, which then condition a following *ɨ to be realised as [u].
1Proto-Kotoko North*kɨlgimucamelchameau1.1AfadeAllisongɨrgimucamelchameau1.2MpadeAllisongàldʒìmòcamelchameau1.3MaltamAllisongɨrdʒimucamelchameau2Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨrgʷɨmacamelchameau2.1LagwanAllisonkurgumacamelchameau2.2MserAllisongurgumacamelchameau3Proto-Kotoko South*kʷɨrgʷɨmacamelchameau3.1MazeraAllisonkurgumacamelchameau4Kanurikalímo; kalímo ngʷáana / kàlìímò // kàlìgímòcamelchameau
kasinum.twodeux35Bsynɓɨwaksɨwratsɨjɨw
This root is found in the Kotoko Island, North and Centre groups, but not Kotoko South. The change *s→x in Buduma is regular. The *k has reflexes *k, *g and *x, which are unestablished changes.
1Proto-Kotoko Island*kihitwodeux1.1BudumaMcKonekixitwo (2)deux (2)1.2BudumaMcKonekixideux.2Proto-Kotoko North*gasitwodeux2.1AfadeAllisongasitwo (2)deux (2)2.2MpadeAllisongàsìtwo (2)deux (2)3Proto-Kotoko Centre*xɨsatwodeux3.1LagwanAllisonxsɨɗatwo (2)deux (2)3.2MserAllisonkitʃotwo (2)deux (2)
katakamn.mousemouse34Bsynkʷɨhɨmkʷɨsɨm
This root is found in a few languages in the south-eastern part of the Central Chadic area. The labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua is a common sporadic innovation in that language.
1Proto-Daba*katakammousesouris1.1DabaLienhardkàtàkàmla souris de la maison2Proto-Maroua*katakam ʷmousesouris2.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankotokomsouris1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankotokomplante2.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukotokomratrat1Giziga MarvaHamidoukotokommousesouris3Proto-Gidar*katkammousesouris3.1GidarSchuhkatkamrat3.2GidarHungerfordkatkamsouris, rat
kɨdɨmnm.crocodilecrocodile1133Csynrigɨ
This well-attested root is surprisingly difficult to reconstruct. It is probably borrowed from Nilo-Saharan at an early stage of the history of Central Chadic, but does not come directly from the Kanuri 'karam'. The initial *k has the unestablished reflexes *g in Mbuko and some of the Mofu group languages, and *h in Proto-Musgum. *d is reconstructed as the second consonant. There was a change of word-medial *d→r in the North sub-branch, though the *d is not retained in Proto-Bata or Proto-Sukur. The presence of *d coincides with the presence of *g. The original root may have been *gɨdɨm, and developed into *kɨrɨm in the North sub-branch, and then the two competing roots spread between languages at a later stage. Alternatively, two different cognates may have been borrowed into Central Chadic from different directions. In Proto-Mandara, the final *m has become *w as part of a regular change.
1Proto-Bata*kɨrɨmcrocodilecrocodile1.1GudeHoskinsonkə́rə́má -əcrocodile1.2JimiDjibikərəmənCrocodile2Proto-Mafa*kɨrdam, gɨdamcrocodilecrocodile2.1MafaNdokobaikərdamcrocodile2.2CuvokGravinagədamcrocodilecrocodile3Proto-Sukur*kɨlɨmcrocodilecrocodile3.1SukurDavidkəlumcrocodile3.2SukurThomaskələmcrocodile; a large reptile with a long tail, hard skin, big jaws and lives in rivers.4Proto-Hurza*gɨdamcrocodilecrocodile4.1MbukoGravinagədamcrocodilecrocodile5Proto-Margi*hɨm, karamcrocodilecrocodile5.1MargiHoffmanhəmcrocodile5.2Margi SouthHarleyhəmcrocodile5.3KilbaSchuhkaramcrocodile6Proto-Mandara*kɨrwɨ ʸcrocodilecrocodile6.1MatalBrangerkʷədəw, kuducrocodilecrocodile6.2MandaraFluckigerkjérrúecaïman (m), crocodile, alligator6.3MalgwaLöhrkirwecrocodile6.4GlavdaNghagyivakírwacrocodile1GlavdaOwenskírcrocodile7Proto-Mofu*kɨrɨm, gɨdamcrocodilecrocodile7.1MuyangSmithkurᵐbuNile crocodilecrocodile7.2MadaNkoumouakrámcrocodile7.3MolokoFriesenkəraᵐbacrocodilecayman crocodile7.4ZulgoHallerkə̀rəmcrocodile m.7.5GemzekSabataikəramcrocodilecrocodile7.6MereyGravinagədamcrocodilecrocodile7.7DugworJubumnagədamcrocodilecrocodile7.8Mofu NorthBarreteaugə̀dàmcrocodile7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthgədemcrocodile8Proto-Maroua*hɨrɨm ʷcrocodilecrocodile8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhurumcaiþman,crocodile8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhuromcrocodilecrocodile8.3MbazlaTourneuxhurumcrocodile9Proto-Lamang*kɨramcrocodilecrocodile9.1LamangWolffkəramcrocodile9.2HdiBramlettkəramcrocodilele crocodile10Proto-Higi*kɨlɨmcrocodilecrocodile10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykə́lmícrocodile10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykələməᵑgcrocodile10.3KiryaBlenchhə̀lə́mə́crocodile10.4BanaLienhardkə́lə́ᵐbə́crocodile, claman11Proto-Musgum*hɨrɨm ʷcrocodilecrocodile11.1VulumTourneuxhorumcrocodile11.2MbaraTourneuxhurumcrocodilecrocodile12Kanurikárámcrocodilecrocodile
kɨjanm.moonlune723Asyntira
The basic sense of this root is 'moon', but it has the extended sense 'month' i.e. a period of time, in almost all languages. This is one of two roots for 'moon', with *tira being used widely across Chadic languages. The *k is realised as *h in Proto-Margi, an unestablished change, and also in Zina where this is a regular change. In some Mofu group languages the *j has triggered the creation of the palatalisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Mafa*kɨjamoonlune1.1MafaBarreteaukijalune1.2CuvokGravinakijamoonlune1CuvokGravinakijamonthmois2Proto-Hurza*kɨjamoonlune2.1MbukoGravinakijamoon; monthlune; mois2.2VameKinnairdkíjāhkēmoonlune ; mois3Proto-Margi*hjamoonlune3.1MargiHoffmanhjamoon, month3.2Margi SouthHarleyhjamoon3.3KilbaSchuhhjamoon, month4Proto-Mofu*kɨjamoonlune4.1OuldemeKinnairdkʷìjòmoonlune1OuldemeKinnairdkʷìjòmonthmois4.2MuyangSmithkijimoon ; monthlune; mois4.3MadaNkoumoumàwɮàr já kjaclarté de la lune4.4MolokoFriesenkəjamoonlune1MolokoFriesenkəjamonthmois4.5ZulgoHallerkijelune f.1ZulgoHallerkijemois m.4.6GemzekSabataikijemonthmois1GemzekSabataikijemoonlune4.7MereyGravinakijemonthmois; lune4.8DugworJubumnakijamoon; monthlune; mois4.9Mofu NorthBarreteaukijalune, mois4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkijálune1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkijámois (lunaire)2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkijásaison5Proto-Maroua*kɨjamoonlune5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankijalune, mois1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankijadébut saison des pluies (IV-I)2Giziga MoutourwaMichielankija5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukijamoonlune1Giziga MarvaHamidoukijamonthmois5.3MbazlaSILSurveykíjáhmoonlune1MbazlaTourneuxkijalune6Proto-Kotoko Island*kɨjamoonlune6.1BudumaMcKonekijamois, nouvelle lune.6.2BudumaMcKonekija; kija hə bohumonthmois7Proto-Kotoko South*kɨjamoonlune7.1ZinaOddenhìjàmoonlune1ZinaOddenhìjàmonthmois7.2MazeraAllisonkijamoonlune
kɨɬɨɗn.broombalai59Dsynsɨmɨt ʸsɨrɨkʷ
This root is found in a mixed group of languages. This, and the variation in the reflexes, make it uncertain that these are all cognate. The word is undoubtedly an innovation that was not in use in Proto-Central Chadic.
1Proto-Daba*ᵑkɨɬɨɗbroombalai1.1BuwalViljoenmɬɑɗbroombalai1.2GavarViljoenŋkəɬəɗbroombalai1.3MbudumNdokobaïŋɡəɬəɗbroombalai2Proto-Margi*ɬatɨbroombalai2.1KilbaSchuhɬata/əbroom3Proto-Mandara*maɬaɗbroombalai3.1MatalBrangermaɬaɗbroombalai4Proto-Kotoko North*wɨɬɨɗbroombalai4.1AfadeAllisonwɨtsobroombalai4.2MpadeAllisonwósʼóbroombalai4.3MalgbeAllisonwaɬɨbroombalai5Proto-Musgum*lɨhabroombalai5.1MuskumTourneuxlɨhabalai
kɨrv., n.stealvoler1649B
This is one of the best attested roots in Central Chadic. Some of the entries are for the verb 'to steal', and some are for the nouns 'theft' and 'thief'. It is not clear which form is the basic root. The *k has the reflexes *h, *hʷ, *ɣ and *ɣʷ, which are unestablished reflexes. No labialisation is reconstructed since the support comes only from an unusual reflex in Lagwan, and from the Giziga languages where sporadic labialisation is common. It is not clear whether the proto-form had *h or *k, but *k is preferred as *k→h is more common than the opposite change in Central Chadic. The *r has the regular reflex *l in the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba. The *r in Proto-Kotoko North is an exception. In a few languages *r has the reflex /ɗ/, which is an unestablished change. There is some evidence for reconstructing *i, but the mix of noun and verb forms makes it difficult to reconstruct the vowels with confidence. For this reason the root is given the confidence level B rather than A.
1Proto-Bata*hɨrstealvoler1.1BataBoydhɨ́rsteal1.2GudeHoskinsonharəsteal.1.3JimiDjibihərənVoler, dérober ;1.4SharwaGravinaharVoler, dérober1SharwaGravinamaharə, maharəʼəkəVoleur,euse1.5TsuvanJohnstonahəllele voleur2Proto-Daba*hɨlstealvoler2.1BuwalViljoenŋhelstealvoler (dérober)1BuwalViljoenŋhelthiefvoleur2BuwalViljoenŋheltheftvol2.2GavarViljoenŋhəlstealvoler (dérober)1GavarViljoenŋhəlthiefvoleur2GavarViljoenŋhəltheft2.3MbudumNdokobaïmihiltheftvol1MbudumNdokobaïmihəlthiefvoleur2MbudumNdokobaïhilstealvoler (dérober)2.4DabaLienhardhə̄lfaire ; lutter ; voler2.5MazagwayHidiNoussihəlvol3Proto-Mafa*kɨrstealvoler3.1CuvokGravinakərawtheftil faut voler1CuvokGravinakərejstealvoler (dérober)4Proto-Sukur*kɨrstealvoler4.1SukurDavidkərsteal, to4.2SukurThomaskərsteal; to take something from a person permission or without intending to return it or pay for it.5Proto-Hurza*kɨrastealvoler5.1MbukoGravinaakartheftvol1MbukoGravinakərato steal stvoler5.2VameKinnairdākárvol6Proto-Margi*hilastealvoler6.1BuraBlenchhilaTheft1BuraBlenchhilaTo steal6.2Margi SouthHarleyhəlto steal6.3KilbaSchuhhəlatheft7Proto-Mandara*ɣɨlstealvoler7.1MatalBrangermàd ɡə̀lstealvoler7.2MandaraFluckigerílávoler1MandaraFluckigerílávol (m)7.3MalgwaLöhrnaŋəlethief1MalgwaLöhrŋəlasteal7.4GlavdaNghagyivaglathief1GlavdaOwensgthief2GlavdaNghagyivaʁɨ́lᵊgasteal7.5DghwedeFrickgəlethief8Proto-Mofu*kɨlstealvoler8.1OuldemeKinnairdàkàlvol8.2MadaNkoumouakkalvol8.3MolokoFriesenakarrobberyle vol1MolokoFriesenakarthiefvoleur2MolokoFriesenakarthiefvoleur3MolokoFriesenkarajstealvoler; dérober8.4ZulgoHallerakə́lvol m.8.5GemzekSabataiakəltheftvol1GemzekSabataimekəlestealvoler (dérober)8.6MereyGravinakəlastealvoler (dérober)1MereyGravinaməkaltheftvol, voleur8.7DugworJubumnanəkalthiefvoleur1DugworJubumnanəkaltheftvol2DugworJubumnamənəkəlejstealvoler (dérober)8.8Mofu NorthBarreteauméhùlèjvoler1Mofu NorthBarreteauméhùlèjdérober2Mofu NorthBarreteaumáhàlvoleur8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlálvoler, dérober, détourner1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmalajvoleur9Proto-Maroua*hʷɨlstealvoler9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhulvoler1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhulmentir, faire son coup en douce, travailler par en dessous, fausseté, parler derrière pas franchement, calomnier9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhultheftvol9.3MbazlaTourneuxlajvoler (dérober)1MbazlaSILSurveyàlāíʼstealvoler (dérober)10Proto-Lamang*ɣilastealvoler10.1LamangWolffɣilasteal1LamangWolffɣìlìtheft10.2HdiBramlettɣalithiefle voleur11Proto-Higi*ɣɨlistealvoler11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣəlito steal1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣə̀lìsteal11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣirəthief1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣiresteal11.3KiryaBlenchɣə̀lə̀steal11.4BanaLienhardɣ(ə̀)lívoler, piler12Proto-Kotoko North*hirstealvoler12.1AfadeAllisonhiʔithiefvoleur12.2MpadeAllisonháɗithiefvoleur12.3MalgbeAllisonhiruthiefvoleur13Proto-Kotoko Centre*ɣʷɨjstealvoler13.1LagwanAllisonmusxuithiefvoleur13.2MserAllisonnɣejthiefvoleur14Proto-Kotoko South*hɨlastealvoler14.1ZinaOddenàhə̀lthiefvoleur14.2MazeraAllisonjalethiefvoleur15Proto-Musgum*hɨlstealvoler15.1VulumTourneuxmihilvol16Proto-Gidar*ɨhalastealvoler16.1GidarSchuhəhalavoler (de voleur)16.2GidarHungerfordɨɨhaladérober, voler16.3GidarHungerfordɨ halavol, derober
kɨrakaɬ ʸn.boneos410Csynɗiɬ
This root is found primarily in three groups that are currently unconnected (the Moloko word is borrowed from neighbouring Mbuko). However at some time in the past these groups may have been adjacent. The exact form of the original root is difficult to determine.
1Proto-Daba*kɨrɨᵑgɨɬ ʸboneos1.1BuwalViljoenkerəᵑgeɬboneos1.2MbudumNdokobaïkirŋɡiɬboneos1.3DabaLienhardgèᵑgíríɮl'os2Proto-Hurza*kɨlakaɬboneos2.1MbukoGravinakəlakaɬboneos, bec2.2VameKinnairdāɬə̄ɬākboneos3Proto-Mofu*kɨlakaɬboneos3.1MolokoFriesenkəlakaɬboneos4Proto-Musgum*kaɬka ʸboneos4.1MulwiTourneuxkeɬkeos4.2VulumTourneuxkeɬkeos4.3MbaraTourneuxᵑgiɬboneos4.4MuskumTourneuxkɨɬɨtos
kɨrinm.dogchien1335C
This root may have come into Central Chadic from Kanuri or from Nilo-Saharan. The root presents some unusual difficulties. *r has the reflex *d in some languages, and *l in others. If this root were a Proto-Central Chadic root, then we would expect *r→l in the North sub-branch, but this is the case only in a few groups, some of which have a separate, later *r→l change. A Proto-Central Chadic root with *d in medial position should give *r in the North sub-branch. There is a reasonable degree of consistency in this, but there are many exceptions. The best explanation for the forms is that the word entered Central Chadic at the time of the group proto-languages. The final vowel is reconstructed as *i, as in Kanuri, and this is reflected in Proto-Margi, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi. In the Higi group the *i has been reanalysed as palatalisation of *l.
1Proto-Mafa*kɨdadogchien1.1MafaNdokobaikədadogchien1MafaBarreteaukədachien1.2CuvokGravinagədadogchien2Proto-Sukur*kɨradogchien2.1SukurDavidkəradog2.2SukurThomaskəradog3Proto-Hurza*kɨladogchien3.1MbukoGravinakəladogchien3.2VameKinnairdkə̄ládogchien4Proto-Margi*kiladogchien4.1BuraBlenchkilaDog5Proto-Mandara*kɨdadogchien5.1MatalBrangerkədadogchien5.2PodokoSwackhammerkədá,-achien5.3MandaraFluckigerkéréchien (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrkəredog5.5DghwedeFrickgdedog6Proto-Mofu*kɨradogchien6.1OuldemeKinnairdkə̀ràdogchien6.2MuyangSmithkərɑdogchien6.3MolokoFriesenkəradogchien6.4ZulgoHallerkərachien m.6.5GemzekSabataikəradogchien6.6DugworJubumnakəradogchien6.7Proto-Mofu Subgroup*gɨdaj ʸdogchien6.8Mofu NorthBarreteaugə̄dējchien6.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthgədéjchien7Proto-Maroua*kɨrɨ ʸdogchien7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankiri (Mt) k(i) ri (ɗu)chien (kiri nañ (Mj) kri nañ (Mt) son chien7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukredogchien7.3MbazlaTourneuxkirechien1MbazlaSILSurveykrɛ́ʼdogchien8Proto-Lamang*kɨridogchien8.1LamangWolffkə́rédog8.2HdiBramlettkəridogle chien9Proto-Higi*kɨlidogchien9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykəljə̊dog9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykəljedog9.3KiryaBlenchkə́ɽídog9.4BanaLienhardk(ə́)ríchien10Proto-Kotoko Island*kɨlidogchien10.1BudumaMcKonekəliədogchien10.2BudumaMcKonekəlichien.11Proto-Kotoko North*kɨlewdogchien11.1AfadeAllisongɨlewdogchien11.2MpadeAllisonkɨ́lèwdogchien11.3MalgbeAllisongɨlewdogchien12Proto-Kotoko Centre*kɨledogchien12.1LagwanAllisonkle; kɨledogchien12.2MserAllisonkledogchien13Proto-Gidar*kɨradogchien13.1GidarSchuhkərachien13.2GidarHungerfordkrachien14Kanurikə́ridogchien
kɨrɨp ʸnf.fishpoisson1546A
This is one of the best attested Central Chadic roots. The initial *k has the regular reflex *j in the Tera group, and the unestablished reflex /h/ in Vulum. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and Cuvok in the Mafa group, though the /l/ in Mafa itself is irregular. *p was realised as [f] in word-final position in Proto-Central Chadic, and /f/ was then phonemicised, but in this word it has the reflex *p in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi. These are unestablished changes. The palatalisation prosody is retained in all groups where the palatalisation prosody exists.
1Proto-Bata*kɨrɨfɨ ʸfishpoisson1.1BataBoydqərfjéefish1.2GudeHoskinsonhə̀rə̀fìnəfish.1.3JimiDjibihərjəfənPoisson1.4SharwaGravinakurjəfipoisson1.5TsuvanJohnstonwulfinles poissons2Proto-Daba*kɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson2.1BuwalViljoenŋkəleffishpoisson2.2GavarViljoenŋkiliffishpoisson2.3MbudumNdokobaïkəlːiffishpoisson2.4DabaLienhardkìlífle poisson2.5MazagwayHidiNoussikilifpoisson3Proto-Mafa*kɨlaf ʸfishpoisson3.1MafaBarreteaukíléfnom gén. pour les gros poissons3.2CuvokGravinakəleffishpoisson4Proto-Tera*jɨrvɨ ʷfishpoisson4.1TeraNewmanjurvufish4.2NyimatliHarleyjurvufish5Proto-Sukur*kɨrɨf ʸfishpoisson5.1SukurDavidkiriffish5.2SukurThomaskiriffish; is the general term for fishes.6Proto-Hurza*kɨlaf ʸfishpoisson6.1MbukoGravinakəleffishpoisson7Proto-Margi*kɨlfi ʸfishpoisson7.1BuraBlenchkilfaGeneral name for fish7.2MargiHoffmankjififish7.3Margi SouthHarleykalfifish7.4KilbaSchuhkalfifish8Proto-Mandara*kɨlɨfɨ ʸfishpoisson8.1MatalBrangerkilfi, kilfəjfishpoisson8.2PodokoSwackhammerkɨləfe,-əpoisson8.3MandaraFluckigerkelfepoisson (m)8.4MalgwaLöhrkəlfefish gen.8.5GlavdaOwenskilfish1GlavdaNghagyivakìilfafish8.6DghwedeFrickklfefish9Proto-Mofu*kɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson9.1OuldemeKinnairdkə̄līfpoisson9.2MolokoFriesenkəleffishpoisson en général9.3ZulgoHallerkílífpoisson m.9.4GemzekSabataikəleffishpoisson9.5MereyGravinakəleffishpoisson9.6DugworJubumnakəleffishpoisson9.7Mofu NorthBarreteaukə́léfpoisson (nom g;-en.)10Proto-Maroua*kɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankilifpoisson ( ne général)10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukileffishpoisson10.3MbazlaTourneuxkilifpoisson1MbazlaSILSurveykilivfishpoisson11Proto-Lamang*kɨlɨpifishpoisson11.1LamangWolffkəlpifish11.2HdiBramlettkəlipifishle poisson12Proto-Higi*kɨlipɨfishpoisson12.1Kamwe-FutuHarleykələpəfish12.2KiryaBlenchkə̀rèpə́fish (general)1KiryaBlenchkə̀ɽìpə́fish12.3PsikyeAngelokələpə́fish12.4BanaLienhardk(ə)lìpə̀poisson1BanaLienhardkə̀rpìpoissons (pl)13Proto-Kotoko South*kɨlfɨfishpoisson13.1ZinaOddenhə̀lfə̀fishpoisson13.2MazeraAllisonkɨlfafishpoisson14Proto-Musgum*hɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson14.1VulumTourneuxhilifpoisson (générique)15Proto-Gidar*kɨlfɨ ʸfishpoisson15.1GidarHungerfordkilfipoisson
kɨrɨwnum.tendix518Csynhɨkankʷɨm
This is one of three widely-attested roots for 'ten'. It is found in the area around the Mandara Mountains. The *r is expected to be realised as *l in the North sub-branch, but this is only the case for the Mandara group, and not for the Maroua and Mofu groups. In the Mafa group, /l/ is found in Mafa where /r/ is expected and /r/ is found in Cuvok where /l/ is expected. This indicates that the root may not be very old, and that it spread by borrowing rather than being inherited. The *w is variously interpreted as labialisation of *k or as the labialisation prosody.
1Proto-Mafa*kʷɨrawtendix1.1MafaBarreteaukuladix1.2CuvokGravinakurawten (10)dix (10)2Proto-Hurza*kɨra ʷtendix2.1MbukoGravinakurotendix3Proto-Mandara*kɨlawatendix3.1MatalBrangerkᵘ̄l(u)tendix3.2MandaraFluckigerkelawadix3.3GlavdaOwenskəlten1GlavdaNghagyivaklàːwaten (10)4Proto-Mofu*kɨrawtendix4.1OuldemeKinnairdkūlūtendix4.2MuyangSmithkrutendix4.3MolokoFriesenkərotendix4.4ZulgoHallerkúrwádix4.5GemzekSabataikuroten (10)dix (10)4.6MereyGravinakuroten (10)dix (10)4.7DugworJubumnakurowten (10)dix (10)4.8Mofu NorthBarreteaukúráwdix1Mofu NorthBarreteaukúráwdix4.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkúráwdix5Proto-Maroua*kɨrɨ ʷtendix5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankuruʼudix5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukuruten (10)dix (10)5.3MbazlaTourneuxkurudix1MbazlaSILSurveȳkúrúʼtendix
kɨwahnum.sixsix929Asynɬiramarkɨɗ ʸvɨnahkɨr
This is one of four well-attested roots for 'six'. It has the widest distribution, and is the most likely candidate for the Proto-Cental Chadic root. The *w has been reinterpreted as labialisation of *k in several groups. The final *h has been lost in most groups. These are common sporadic processes. In common with some other numerals, a nasal has been prefixed to the root in most cases.
1Proto-Bata*kɨwasixsix1.1GudeHoskinsonkùwásixsix1.2JimiDjibiənkoSix2Proto-Daba*kʷahsixsix2.1BuwalViljoenŋkʷɑhsix (6)six (6)2.2GavarViljoenŋkʷɑhsix (6)six (6)2.3MbudumNdokobaïŋ̩kuhsix (6)six (6)2.4DabaLienhardkōhsix3Proto-Mafa*makʷasixsix3.1MafaBarreteaumokʷasix3.2CuvokGravinamakʷasix (6)six (6)4Proto-Sukur*mɨkʷasixsix4.1SukurDavidmukʷasix4.2SukurThomasməkʷasix5Proto-Margi*kʷasixsix5.1BuraBlenchnkʷaSixsix5.2Margi SouthHarleykʷasix6Proto-Mandara*mɨkɨwahsixsix6.1MatalBrangermᵘ̄kʷásixsix6.2PodokoSwackhammerməkuwá,-əsix6.3MalgwaLöhrunkʷesix6.4GlavdaNghagyivaùŋkʷàxasix (6)7Proto-Mofu*mɨkʷawsixsix7.1OuldemeKinnairdmūkúsixsix7.2MuyangSmithmukusixsix7.3MolokoFriesenməkosixsix7.4MereyGravinaməkʷasix (6)six (6)7.5DugworJubumnamukowsix (6)six (6)7.6Mofu NorthBarreteaumúkʷasix7.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaakʷáwsix ; chiffre signalant un nombre impair dans la divination par les cailloux1MofuGudurHollingsworthmaakʷáwsix ; chiffre signalant un nombre impair dans la divination par les cailloux8Proto-Lamang*mkɨwasixsix8.1LamangWolffmkʷásix1LamangWolffm̀kúwásix8.2HdiBramlettməʼkusixsix9Proto-Higi*kʷaŋsixsix9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleynkʷáᵑgə́Six9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleynkʷaᵑgosix9.3KiryaBlenchkʷáᵑgsix9.4PsikyeAngeloŋkʷáŋə́six9.5BanaLienhardkʷáŋsix (6)
koron.donkeyâne920Bsynᵐburiziᵑgʷa
This is a widespread African root that may have come into Central Chadic from Kanuri. Many Central Chadic languages do not have back vowels, and the *o has been reinterpreted as labialisation of *k, the labialisation prosody or as the sequence /aw/. The *r has not changed in any languages, which indicates a very short time depth for the introduction of this root into Central Chadic.
1Proto-Bata*kʷaradonkeyâne1.1BataBoydkʷááréétodonkey1.2GudeHoskinsonkʷárádonkey1.3JimiDjibikʷaraAne1.4SharwaGravinakʷaraAne2Proto-Tera*korodonkeyâne2.1TeraNewmankorodonkey2.2NyimatliHarleykoorodonkey3Proto-Margi*kʷaradonkeyâne3.1BuraBlenchkʷaraAss1BuraBlenchkʷaraDonkey3.2Margi SouthHarleykʷaradonkey3.3KilbaSchuhkʷara/adonkey4Proto-Maroua*kawradonkeyâne4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankawra; awraâne à museau blanc5Proto-Higi*kʷaradonkeyâne5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykʷaradonkey5.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykʷaradonkey5.3KiryaBlenchkʷàràdonkey5.4PsikyeAngelokʷarádonkey6Proto-Kotoko Island*kurodonkeyâne6.1BudumaMcKonekuroâne.7Proto-Kotoko North*korodonkeyâne7.1MpadeAllisonkóródonkeyâne7.2MalgbeAllisongrodonkeyâne8Proto-Musgum*kʷɨra ʸdonkeyâne8.1VulumTourneuxkʉreâne8.2MbaraTourneuxkurodonkeyâne8.3MuskumTourneuxkʉretâne9Proto-Gidar*kara ʷdonkeyâne9.1GidarSchuhkoroâne10Kanurikóro / kóródonkeyâne
kʷaɗahv.boilbouillir920A
The basic sense of this word is to cook by boiling. In most cases it is a transitive verb with a person being the agent and the liquid being the patient. *kʷ is retained in all groups, though the labialisation has been lost in a few languages (a sporadic process). The *ɗ→r in Tera is an unestablished process. *h is widely retained, which is unusual, and has the irregular reflex /s/ in Bachama. Two groups have palatalisation in the forms given, but this may be a property of the citation form that is used rather than of the root itself.
1Proto-Bata*kʷaɗasa ʸboilbouillir1.1BachamaSkinnerkʷaɗjasabubble2Proto-Daba*kʷɨɗah ʸboilbouillir2.1MbudumNdokobaïkjdehboil (food)bouillir (la nourriture)2.2DabaLienhardkùɗa̍jbouillir un liquide3Proto-Mafa*kʷɨɗahaboilbouillir3.1CuvokGravinakuɗahaboilbouillir (la nourriture)4Proto-Tera*kʷɨɗahboilbouillir4.1TeraNewmankuraxiboil1NyimatliHarleykuɮakhboil (water), bubble up5Proto-Hurza*kʷaɗahboilbouillir5.1MbukoGravinakʷaɗahto boil, dilutebouillir, diluer1VameKinnairdkʷāɗáhāboil ; simmerbouillir6Proto-Margi*kʷɨduboilbouillir6.1BuraBlenchkuduBoil7Proto-Mandara*kʷaɗahboilbouillir7.1PodokoSwackhammerkʷaɗáhabouillir, cuire dans de l'eau bouillante7.2MalgwaLöhrkʷaɗaboil8Proto-Mofu*kʷaɗahboilbouillir8.1OuldemeKinnairdkʷàɗèhèŋbouillir1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemkʷàɗèhèŋcuire longtemps8.2MuyangSmithkoɗɑhɑjboil (trs)cuire; faire bouillir8.3MadaNkoumoumákʷàɗàhcuire (faire-, mijoter longtemps)8.4ZulgoHallerkʷàɗàhbouillir, bouilloner8.5GemzekSabataimekʷeɗehebouillir8.6DugworJubumnaməkʷoɗehej ( jam )bubble up, boil (water)bouillonner (l'eau)8.7Mofu NorthBarreteaumékʷèɗèhèjbouillir9Proto-Lamang*kʷaɗahboilbouillir9.1LamangWolffkʷaɗahboil, heat, cook9.2HdiBramlettkəɗahajto boilbouillir
kʷarv.refuserefuser812B
This root is found in a good selection of groups, but only in one or two languages in each group with the data available. The initial *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in many cases as a sporadic process. *r has the regular reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba as expected.
1Proto-Bata*karrefuserefuser1.1GudeHoskinsonkaareerefuse, reject1.2JimiDjibikaranənRefuser ;2Proto-Daba*kalrefuserefuser2.1GavarViljoenŋkɑlrefuserefuser3Proto-Sukur*karrefuserefuser3.1SukurDavidkarrefuse, to3.2SukurThomaskarrefuse: to say that you will not do something that somebody has asked you to do.4Proto-Hurza*kɨrarefuserefuser4.1VameKinnairdkə́ràmissrefuser d'aller5Proto-Mandara*kʷalarefuserefuser5.1PodokoSwackhammerkʷalá 1refuser1PodokoSwackhammerkʷalá 2rejeter5.2MandaraFluckigerkʷalarefuser6Proto-Mofu*kʷalrefuserefuser6.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemkʷàlrefuser1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemkʷàlne devrait-il pas?6.2MuyangSmithkelejcut with axecouper; refuser6.3MereyGravinakərahrefuserefuser7Proto-Lamang*kʷalarefuserefuser7.1HdiBramlettkʷalaɣutato refuserefuser8Proto-Higi*kɨlirefuserefuser8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykəljərefuse1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykə́rjə̀refuse
kʷarajn.rainbow, droughtarc-en-ciel, sécheresse517A
In most languages, this root has two senses: a rainbow; and a period of dry weather during rainy season. It is not obvious how the two senses are related, though the Giziga Moutourwa definition offers an interesting explanation. The root is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, Proto-Daba and Cuvok, leaving Mafa as the only language represented here to retain *r.
1Proto-Daba*kʷalajrainbowarc-en-ciel1.1BuwalViljoenkʷɑlɑjdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette1BuwalViljoenkʷɑlɑjrainbowarc-en-ciel1.2GavarViljoenŋkʷɑlɑjdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette1.3MbudumNdokobaïkolajrainbowarc-en-ciel2Proto-Mafa*kʷarajrainbowarc-en-ciel2.1MafaBarreteaukʷárájarc-en-ciel2.2CuvokGravinakʷalajdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette3Proto-Hurza*kʷɨlajrainbowarc-en-ciel3.1MbukoGravinakulajrainbow, dry period during rainy seasonarc en ciel, sécheresse entre les pluies4Proto-Mofu*kʷɨlaj, makɨlahrainbowarc-en-ciel4.1OuldemeKinnairdmākʷālājdroughtsécheresse ; périodes sèches de la saison des pluies4.2MuyangSmithmɑkʷɑldrought ; rainbowpériode de sécheresse après les premières sémailles: arc-en-ciel qui annonce soit une pluie immédiate, soit la sécheresse4.3MolokoFriesenkolajrainbowarc en ciel4.4ZulgoHallermàkə̀làharc-en-ciel m.4.5GemzekSabataikularainbowarc-en-ciel1GemzekSabataikuladrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette2GemzekSabataimakəlahrainbowarc-en-ciel4.6MereyGravinamakəlahsécheresse4.7DugworJubumnakulajrainbowarc-en-ciel4.8Mofu NorthBarreteaukʷálàjarc-en-ciel, arrêt entre deux pluies4.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkʷalajarc-en-ciel1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkʷalajsécheresse en saison des pluies5Proto-Maroua*kʷalajrainbowarc-en-ciel5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷalaj (Mv kolaj)arc en ciel, le kwalay : arrête la pluie en pleine saison, même pendant 20 jours c'est le soleil qui se reflète sur de vieilles houes abandonnées en brousse, ce qui provoque l'arc-ce-ciel. il y a un grand serpent en haut ; s'il se roule sur lui-même il ne pleut pas ; s'il se déroule, il pleut (kaw madiëa)1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷalaj (Mv kolaj)empècher de pleuvoir5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukolajrainbowarc-en-ciel1Giziga MarvaHamidoukolajdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette
kʷasɨkʷanm.market (n)marchéChadicsuqmarket1224B
This root derives ultimately from the Arabic 'suq', through Shoa Arabic 'sug' and Kanuri 'kasugu'. The back vowels are reinterpreted as labialisation of *k or *g. The Fulfulde word 'luumo' is replacing this root in many areas. There are no real indicators in the data of the age of this borrowing.
1Proto-Tera*kasumarketmarché1.1HwanaHarleykàsúmarket2Proto-Sukur*sɨkʷɨmarketmarché2.1SukurDavidsukumarket2.2SukurThomassəkumarket:- is a place where people gather to sell and buy things.3Proto-Hurza*kasɨkʷamarketmarché3.1MbukoGravinakʷasukomarketmarché3.2VameKinnairdkāsúkāmarketmarché4Proto-Margi*sɨkʷɨmarketmarché4.1KilbaSchuhsəkumarket5Proto-Mandara*kʷasɨkʷamarketmarché5.1MatalBrangerkʷasəkʷa // kosukamarketmarché5.2PodokoSwackhammerkʷasákʷa,-amarché5.3MalgwaLöhrkʷaskʷemarket5.4GlavdaOwenskásúmarket, week1GlavdaOwenskásúkmarket, business, week2GlavdaNghagyivakàsúkʷamarket (n)6Proto-Mofu*kʷasɨkʷamarketmarché6.1OuldemeKinnairdkʷāskʷāmarketmarché6.2MuyangSmithɡoskumarket ; weekmarché, semaine6.3MadaNkoumougoskó (kosko)marché6.4MolokoFriesenkosokomarketmarché6.5ZulgoHallerkʷáskʷàsemaine f.1ZulgoHallerkʷáskʷàmarché m.7Proto-Maroua*kaska ʷmarketmarché7.1Giziga MarvaHamidoukoskomarket (n)marché8Proto-Higi*sʲɨkʷɨmarketmarché8.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyʃikʷimarket8.2PsikyeAngeloʃkʷumarket1PsikyeAngeloʃekʷumarket9Proto-Kotoko Island*kahagʷɨmarketmarché9.1BudumaMcKonekaxaguəmarket (n)marché10Proto-Kotoko North*kasɨgʷɨmarketmarché10.1AfadeAllisongasɨbimarket (n)marché10.2MpadeAllisonkàsúgùmarket (n)marché10.3MalgbeAllisongegbɨmarket (n)marché11Proto-Kotoko Centre*kaskʷɨmarketmarché11.1LagwanAllisonkaskumarket (n)marché11.2MserAllisonkaskumarket (n)marché12Proto-Musgum*kaskʷamarketmarché12.1MbaraTourneuxkaskomarketmarché13Kanurikasúwu //// kāsugūmarket (n)marché14Shoa Arabicsûg; sawagamarket (n)marché
kʷɨhɨmn.mousesouris821Asynkatakamkʷɨsɨm
This root is cognate with *kʷɨsɨm, though there isn't a regular change that accounts for the distribution of the two forms. The *kʷ has the unestablished reflex *ɣʷ in Proto-Tera. The labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in many Mofu group languages. The *h has been lost in several groups as a sporadic process, and has the irregular reflex *f in Matal, Muyang and Moloko.
1Proto-Bata*hʲɨmɨmousesouris1.1GudeHoskinsonhímà -əmouse1.2TsuvanJohnstonhimkənla souris2Proto-Mafa*kʷamamousesouris2.1MafaBarreteaukʷamasouris3Proto-Tera*ɣʷɨmmousesouris3.1TeraNewmanɣummouse3.2NyimatliHarleyɣumrat4Proto-Sukur*kʷɨmmousesouris4.1SukurDavidkummouse4.2SukurThomaskummouse; a small animal that is covered in fur and has a long thin tail. It lives in bush, people's house or where food is stored.5Proto-Hurza*kʷɨhammousesouris5.1MbukoGravinakuhommousesouris5.2VameKinnairdkʷàmmousesouris6Proto-Mandara*kʷɨhɨmmousesouris6.1MatalBrangerkʷəfu, kufumousesouris6.2PodokoSwackhammerkumasouris7Proto-Mofu*kʷɨhɨmmousesouris7.1OuldemeKinnairdkūmmousesouris7.2MuyangSmithɑkfummouse (general word)souris (mot général)7.3MolokoFriesenokfommousesouris7.4ZulgoHallerkʷàhúmsouris f.7.5GemzekSabataikohommousesouris7.6MereyGravinakuhummousesouris7.7DugworJubumnakohommousesouris7.8Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷàmsouris7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthahʷammousesouris (nom gén.)8Proto-Higi*kʷɨmmousesouris8.1PsikyeAngelokʷumouse8.2BanaLienhardkúmsouris
kʷɨkaɗnf.baobabbaobab1021Bsynᵐbatuɓ
This root may be borrowed from the Kanuri 'kalkuka', though it is more likely that the word was borrowed from Chadic languages by Kanuri since the forms that are attested in Central Chadic cannot easily be derived from *kuka. In addition, the Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang forms indicate that there was a glottal component in the word, which is not present in Kanuri. The labialisation has spread from the *kʷ onto the *k in several languages. The glottal component is accounted for by reconstructing a final *ɗ, though more evidence is needed before this can be established with confidence.
1Proto-Bata*kɨkɨʔʷbaobabbaobab1.1BataBoydkawtobaobab1BataBoydkaawebaobab1.2BachamaSkinnerkawtœ, kœwebaobab tree1.3GudeHoskinsonkúkùʼ únəbaobab tree1.4SharwaGravinakəkəʼwəbaobab1.5TsuvanJohnstonkukʷakənle baobab2Proto-Tera*kʷɨkabaobabbaobab2.1NyimatliHarleykukabaobab tree2.2GaʼandaGwajikukʷatabaobab3Proto-Hurza*kʷakʷabaobabbaobab3.1MbukoGravinakokobaobab3.2VameKinnairdkʷàkʷàtree typebaobab4Proto-Margi*kʷagʷɨbaobabbaobab4.1BuraBlenchkʷàgúBaobab monkey bread tree See also kogu Adansonia digitata1BuraBlenchkoguBaobab tree cf. kwagu4.2KilbaSchuhgubaobab5Proto-Mandara*kʷakʷabaobabbaobab5.1MatalBrangermakʷakʷa, makokʷabaobabbaobab5.2MandaraFluckigerkʷakʷabaobab (m) ou feuille comestible de baobab5.3MalgwaLöhrkʷakʷa, kokʷatree sp., baobab, Adansonia digitata, baobab leaf5.4GlavdaNghagyivakʷàkʷabaobab tree6Proto-Mofu*kaka ʷbaobabbaobab6.1MolokoFriesenkokotree baobabbaobab7Proto-Lamang*kaʔʷbaobabbaobab7.1HdiBramlettkaʼubaobab treele baobab8Proto-Higi*kʷɨkʷɨbaobabbaobab8.1KiryaBlenchkúkùbaobab8.2BanaLienhardkʷə́kʷə̀baobab, Adansonia digitala9Proto-Kotoko North*kʷɨkabaobabbaobab9.1AfadeAllisonkukabaobab treebaobab10Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨkabaobabbaobab10.1LagwanAllisonkukabaobab treebaobab11Hausakúukàbaobab treebaobab
kʷɨmnum.tendix511Csynhɨkankɨrɨw
This is one of several roots for 'ten', and is the most likely to have been the Proto-Central Chadic root. The Nyimatli, Sukur and Hdi forms are possibly not cognate. In the Higi group there is sporadic metathesis in all languages except Kirya.
1Proto-Tera*kʷɨmtendix1.1NyimatliHarleygʷaᵑgten (10)1.2GaʼandaGwajikumten2Proto-Sukur*waŋtendix2.1SukurDavidwaŋten3Proto-Margi*kʷɨmatendix3.1BuraBlenchkumaTen3.2Margi SouthHarleykumouten4Proto-Lamang*ɣʷaŋtendix4.1HdiBramlettɣʷaŋtendix5Proto-Higi*gʷɨmtendix5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymùᵑgə́Ten5.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymuᵑgəten5.3KiryaBlenchgùmten5.4PsikyeAngeloməŋten1PsikyeAngeloməŋə́ten5.5BanaLienhardmə́ŋdix
kʷɨman.facevisage58B
This root is not widely attested. Where it does occur, the labialisation of *kʷ has often been sporadically lost.
1Proto-Bata*kʷɨnwɨfacevisage1.1GudeHoskinsonkúnwá -əface ? (upper dialect)2Proto-Sukur*kɨmafacevisage2.1SukurDavidkəmaface3Proto-Margi*kʷɨmafacevisage3.1BuraBlenchkumaFace4Proto-Lamang*kɨmafacevisage4.1LamangWolffkə́máface, front4.2HdiBramlettkəmafacela figure5Proto-Higi*kɨmafacevisage5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykəmaface5.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykəmaface5.3PsikyeAngelokəmaface
kʷɨnɨjn.urineurine1331B
This root is well attested across the Central Chadic languages. The *kʷ is retained in most groups, but has the reflex *k in Proto-Hurza, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Gidar, a sporadic change. There is a regular *n→r change word-medially in Proto-Mandara, and a sporadic *n͏→r change in some of the Kotoko groups. This change also appears in the Mafa and Sukur data, where it is irregular. There is a subsequent unestablished *r→ɗ change, which gives the forms for Proto-Hurza, several Mofu group languages and Mazera. The distribution of the changes suggests that a certain degree of borrowing took place between languages. The *j has been vocalised in several languages, and in Gidar it is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, both of which are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Mafa*kʷɨrajurineurine1.1MafaNdokobaikurajurine2Proto-Sukur*kʷɨr ʸurineurine2.1SukurThomasmiskuirurine3Proto-Hurza*mɨkaɗajurineurine3.1MbukoGravinaməkaɗajurineurine3.2VameKinnairdkə̄māɗáj, kumaɗaj (Afem)tribe ; descendanturine; tribu ; descendant4Proto-Margi*kʷɨniurineurine4.1BuraBlenchkiniUrine4.2KilbaSchuhkunjiurine5Proto-Mandara*kʷɨrɨjurineurine5.1MatalBrangerkᶷlājurineurine5.2PodokoSwackhammerkure,-iurine5.3MandaraFluckigerkúréurine (f)5.4MalgwaLöhrkureurine5.5GlavdaOwenskururine1GlavdaNghagyivakùrìjaurine6Proto-Mofu*kʷɨnajurineurine6.1OuldemeKinnairdkūnājurine6.2MuyangSmithkʉɗiŋurineurine6.3MadaNkoumoukʷneurine6.4MolokoFriesenkʷənenurineurine6.5ZulgoHallerkʷìɗéurine f.6.6GemzekSabataikuɗeurineurine6.7MereyGravinakuɗeurineurine1MereyGravinakuɗejurine6.8DugworJubumnakuneŋurineurine6.9Mofu NorthBarreteaukùràjurine6.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkurájurine7Proto-Maroua*kʷɨnajurineurine7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷanajurine7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukunajurineurine7.3MbazlaSILSurveykúnaíʼurineurine1MbazlaTourneuxkunajurine8Proto-Lamang*kʷaniurineurine8.1HdiBramlettkʷaniurinel'urine9Proto-Kotoko Island*kʷarajurineurine9.1BudumaMcKonekorajurine.10Proto-Kotoko North*kʷɨreurineurine10.1MpadeAllisonkúrèurineurine11Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨneurineurine11.1LagwanAllisonnkuneurineurine11.2MserAllisonkureurineurine12Proto-Kotoko South*kɨmaɗeurineurine12.1MazeraAllisonkɨmaɗeurineurine13Proto-Gidar*kɨna ʸurineurine13.1GidarHungerfordkineurine13.2GidarSchuhkine/eurine
kʷɨsapn.grassgrass612Asynkʷɨzɨn ʸ
This root probably had a different meaning from *kʷɨzɨn ʸ. The original sense may have referred to grassland as an area, rather than to the grass itself, or possibly to hay. The *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in Matal (a sporadic process), and is lost in Mbuko and Proto-Higi, which is an irregular process. *p was realised as [f] in Proto-Central Chadic in word-final position, and this appears in all the data.
1Proto-Daba*ᵑkʷɨsafgrassherbe1.1BuwalViljoenŋkusɑfgrassherbe1.2GavarViljoenŋkəsɑfgrassherbe1.3MbudumNdokobaïŋɡusofgrassherbe2Proto-Mafa*kʷɨsafgrassherbe2.1CuvokGravinakusafblade (of grass)brin (d'herbe)3Proto-Hurza*safbushbrousse3.1MbukoGravinasafbushbrousse4Proto-Mandara*kɨsafgrassherbe4.1MatalBrangerksaf, kəsafgrassherbe5Proto-Mofu*kʷɨsafgrassherbe5.1Gemzekkəsafbush country, rural areabrousse, campagne5.2Mereykəsafforestbrousse, forêt5.3MofuNorthBarreteaukúsáfbrousse1MofuNorthBarreteaukúsáfbroussaille2MofuNorthBarreteaukúsáfbrousse5.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkusafbrousse, herbes6Proto-Higi*sɨfɨgrassherbe6.1BanaLienhardsə́fə̀herbes seches, jaune6.2KiryaBlenchʃafabush
kʷɨsɨmn.mousesouris512Bsynkatakamkʷɨhɨm
This root is cognate with *kʷɨhɨm, though it may come from a separate source. There is no known regular change that would account for *h to *s or vice versa. The root with *h is also found in East Chadic and this root with *s is also found in West Chadic. It is strange that this root is found in the more easterly Central Chadic languages.
1Proto-Mofu*gʷamsomousesouris1.1OuldemeKinnairdgʷàmsòsouris ; rat roussard1.2MolokoFriesengəmsofield mouse, greysouris de brousse; gris2Proto-Kotoko North*kʷɨsɨmmousesouris2.1MpadeAllisonkusumumousesouris2.2MalgbeAllisongbimmousesouris2.3MaltamAllisonɓɨsɨmmousesouris3Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨsɨmmousesouris3.1LagwanAllisonxsumimousesouris3.2MserAllisonkusummousesouris4Proto-Kotoko South*kʷɨsɨmmousesouris4.1ZinaOddenàksùmmousesouris4.2MazeraAllisonkusɨmemousesouris5Proto-Musgum*kɨsɨm ʷmousesouris5.1VulumTourneuxkusumsouris5.2MbaraTourneuxkusummousesouris5.3MuskumTourneuxguzumsouris6Hausakúusù /// kuusùu, kuusanjàamousesouris
kʷɨtɨr ʸn.tailqueue1126B
This root is well attested across the Central Chadic languages. The initial *kʷ has a wider range of reflexes than with other roots. These reflexes include *hʷ, *w, *gʷ, *g and *f, and are all unestablished. In Gidar the labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process. The *t has the unestablished reflexes /d/ and /ⁿd/ in some languages. In Glavda, *t is palatalised by the palatalisation prosody, and *tʲ→kʲ due to the regular process of velarisation of palatalised alveolars. *r has the regular reflex *l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba, with a few irregular exceptions.
1Proto-Bata*hʷɨtɨrɨtailqueue1.1SharwaGravinahutɨrəqueue2Proto-Daba*kʷɨtɨl ʸtailqueue2.1BuwalViljoenkuteltailqueue2.2MazagwayHidiNoussikʷetirqueue3Proto-Mafa*hʷɨtartailqueue3.1MafaBarreteaufútórqueue3.2CuvokGravinahʷadartailqueue4Proto-Sukur*turtailqueue4.1SukurDavidturtail4.2SukurThomasturtail:- a long thin park at the back of animals normally they used it to protect them from fly.5Proto-Hurza*kʷɨtar ʸtailqueue5.1MbukoGravinagutertailqueue5.2VameKinnairdkutertailqueue1VameKinnairdkʷītértailqueue6Proto-Mandara*kʷɨtɨlɨ ʸtailqueue6.1PodokoSwackhammerfətəla,-əqueue6.2MandaraFluckigerukterela queue (f)1MandaraFluckigerugderequeue (f)2MandaraFluckigerkatalíáqueue (f)6.3MalgwaLöhrgatalijatail6.4GlavdaNghagyiva xùkʲlatail1GlavdaOwensxʷçətail6.5DghwedeFrickxʷtəletail7Proto-Mofu*hʷɨtɨl ʸtailqueue7.1OuldemeKinnairdàftə̀ltailqueue7.2MuyangSmithhutultailqueue7.3MolokoFriesenhʷətertailqueue7.4GemzekSabataiguteltailqueue7.5MereyGravinahuteltailqueue7.6DugworJubumnaməteltailqueue7.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdeŋgʷélqueue (Mokong)1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthgʷeⁿdélqueue (Gudur)8Proto-Lamang*hʷɨtirtailqueue8.1LamangWolffhʷtirtail8.2HdiBramletthuturtailla queue9Proto-Higi*twɨlɨtailqueue9.1KiryaBlenchtwə́lə́tail10Proto-Gidar*kɨtɨrɨ ʷtailqueue10.1GidarSchuhkutəro/0queue10.2GidarHungerfordkutur, kuturoqueue11Proto-Musgum*gɨɗar ʸ, hɨntɨl ʷtailqueue11.1VulumTourneuxgiɗerqueue1MbaraTourneuxhuntultailqueue

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k


kaligimon.camelchameau36Asynɮɨgʷamɨ ʸᵑgʲaluba
This root is a borrowing from the old Kanuri /kaligimo/, and is found in three of the Kotoko groups. There were no back vowels in these groups at an earlier point in their history, and this has led to the displacement of the back vowel next to velar consonants in Lagwan, Mser and Mazera. The back vowel was reanalysed as labialisation of the velar consonants, which then condition a following *ɨ to be realised as [u].
1Proto-Kotoko North*kɨlgimucamelchameau1.1AfadeAllisongɨrgimucamelchameau1.2MpadeAllisongàldʒìmòcamelchameau1.3MaltamAllisongɨrdʒimucamelchameau2Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨrgʷɨmacamelchameau2.1LagwanAllisonkurgumacamelchameau2.2MserAllisongurgumacamelchameau3Proto-Kotoko South*kʷɨrgʷɨmacamelchameau3.1MazeraAllisonkurgumacamelchameau4Kanurikalímo; kalímo ngʷáana / kàlìímò // kàlìgímòcamelchameau
kasinum.twodeux35Bsynɓɨwaksɨwratsɨjɨw
This root is found in the Kotoko Island, North and Centre groups, but not Kotoko South. The change *s→x in Buduma is regular. The *k has reflexes *k, *g and *x, which are unestablished changes.
1Proto-Kotoko Island*kihitwodeux1.1BudumaMcKonekixitwo (2)deux (2)1.2BudumaMcKonekixideux.2Proto-Kotoko North*gasitwodeux2.1AfadeAllisongasitwo (2)deux (2)2.2MpadeAllisongàsìtwo (2)deux (2)3Proto-Kotoko Centre*xɨsatwodeux3.1LagwanAllisonxsɨɗatwo (2)deux (2)3.2MserAllisonkitʃotwo (2)deux (2)
katakamn.mousemouse34Bsynkʷɨhɨmkʷɨsɨm
This root is found in a few languages in the south-eastern part of the Central Chadic area. The labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua is a common sporadic innovation in that language.
1Proto-Daba*katakammousesouris1.1DabaLienhardkàtàkàmla souris de la maison2Proto-Maroua*katakam ʷmousesouris2.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankotokomsouris1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankotokomplante2.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukotokomratrat1Giziga MarvaHamidoukotokommousesouris3Proto-Gidar*katkammousesouris3.1GidarSchuhkatkamrat3.2GidarHungerfordkatkamsouris, rat
kɨdɨmnm.crocodilecrocodile1133Csynrigɨ
This well-attested root is surprisingly difficult to reconstruct. It is probably borrowed from Nilo-Saharan at an early stage of the history of Central Chadic, but does not come directly from the Kanuri 'karam'. The initial *k has the unestablished reflexes *g in Mbuko and some of the Mofu group languages, and *h in Proto-Musgum. *d is reconstructed as the second consonant. There was a change of word-medial *d→r in the North sub-branch, though the *d is not retained in Proto-Bata or Proto-Sukur. The presence of *d coincides with the presence of *g. The original root may have been *gɨdɨm, and developed into *kɨrɨm in the North sub-branch, and then the two competing roots spread between languages at a later stage. Alternatively, two different cognates may have been borrowed into Central Chadic from different directions. In Proto-Mandara, the final *m has become *w as part of a regular change.
1Proto-Bata*kɨrɨmcrocodilecrocodile1.1GudeHoskinsonkə́rə́má -əcrocodile1.2JimiDjibikərəmənCrocodile2Proto-Mafa*kɨrdam, gɨdamcrocodilecrocodile2.1MafaNdokobaikərdamcrocodile2.2CuvokGravinagədamcrocodilecrocodile3Proto-Sukur*kɨlɨmcrocodilecrocodile3.1SukurDavidkəlumcrocodile3.2SukurThomaskələmcrocodile; a large reptile with a long tail, hard skin, big jaws and lives in rivers.4Proto-Hurza*gɨdamcrocodilecrocodile4.1MbukoGravinagədamcrocodilecrocodile5Proto-Margi*hɨm, karamcrocodilecrocodile5.1MargiHoffmanhəmcrocodile5.2Margi SouthHarleyhəmcrocodile5.3KilbaSchuhkaramcrocodile6Proto-Mandara*kɨrwɨ ʸcrocodilecrocodile6.1MatalBrangerkʷədəw, kuducrocodilecrocodile6.2MandaraFluckigerkjérrúecaïman (m), crocodile, alligator6.3MalgwaLöhrkirwecrocodile6.4GlavdaNghagyivakírwacrocodile1GlavdaOwenskírcrocodile7Proto-Mofu*kɨrɨm, gɨdamcrocodilecrocodile7.1MuyangSmithkurᵐbuNile crocodilecrocodile7.2MadaNkoumouakrámcrocodile7.3MolokoFriesenkəraᵐbacrocodilecayman crocodile7.4ZulgoHallerkə̀rəmcrocodile m.7.5GemzekSabataikəramcrocodilecrocodile7.6MereyGravinagədamcrocodilecrocodile7.7DugworJubumnagədamcrocodilecrocodile7.8Mofu NorthBarreteaugə̀dàmcrocodile7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthgədemcrocodile8Proto-Maroua*hɨrɨm ʷcrocodilecrocodile8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhurumcaiþman,crocodile8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhuromcrocodilecrocodile8.3MbazlaTourneuxhurumcrocodile9Proto-Lamang*kɨramcrocodilecrocodile9.1LamangWolffkəramcrocodile9.2HdiBramlettkəramcrocodilele crocodile10Proto-Higi*kɨlɨmcrocodilecrocodile10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykə́lmícrocodile10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykələməᵑgcrocodile10.3KiryaBlenchhə̀lə́mə́crocodile10.4BanaLienhardkə́lə́ᵐbə́crocodile, claman11Proto-Musgum*hɨrɨm ʷcrocodilecrocodile11.1VulumTourneuxhorumcrocodile11.2MbaraTourneuxhurumcrocodilecrocodile12Kanurikárámcrocodilecrocodile
kɨjanm.moonlune723Asyntira
The basic sense of this root is 'moon', but it has the extended sense 'month' i.e. a period of time, in almost all languages. This is one of two roots for 'moon', with *tira being used widely across Chadic languages. The *k is realised as *h in Proto-Margi, an unestablished change, and also in Zina where this is a regular change. In some Mofu group languages the *j has triggered the creation of the palatalisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Mafa*kɨjamoonlune1.1MafaBarreteaukijalune1.2CuvokGravinakijamoonlune1CuvokGravinakijamonthmois2Proto-Hurza*kɨjamoonlune2.1MbukoGravinakijamoon; monthlune; mois2.2VameKinnairdkíjāhkēmoonlune ; mois3Proto-Margi*hjamoonlune3.1MargiHoffmanhjamoon, month3.2Margi SouthHarleyhjamoon3.3KilbaSchuhhjamoon, month4Proto-Mofu*kɨjamoonlune4.1OuldemeKinnairdkʷìjòmoonlune1OuldemeKinnairdkʷìjòmonthmois4.2MuyangSmithkijimoon ; monthlune; mois4.3MadaNkoumoumàwɮàr já kjaclarté de la lune4.4MolokoFriesenkəjamoonlune1MolokoFriesenkəjamonthmois4.5ZulgoHallerkijelune f.1ZulgoHallerkijemois m.4.6GemzekSabataikijemonthmois1GemzekSabataikijemoonlune4.7MereyGravinakijemonthmois; lune4.8DugworJubumnakijamoon; monthlune; mois4.9Mofu NorthBarreteaukijalune, mois4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkijálune1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkijámois (lunaire)2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkijásaison5Proto-Maroua*kɨjamoonlune5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankijalune, mois1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankijadébut saison des pluies (IV-I)2Giziga MoutourwaMichielankija5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukijamoonlune1Giziga MarvaHamidoukijamonthmois5.3MbazlaSILSurveykíjáhmoonlune1MbazlaTourneuxkijalune6Proto-Kotoko Island*kɨjamoonlune6.1BudumaMcKonekijamois, nouvelle lune.6.2BudumaMcKonekija; kija hə bohumonthmois7Proto-Kotoko South*kɨjamoonlune7.1ZinaOddenhìjàmoonlune1ZinaOddenhìjàmonthmois7.2MazeraAllisonkijamoonlune
kɨɬɨɗn.broombalai59Dsynsɨmɨt ʸsɨrɨkʷ
This root is found in a mixed group of languages. This, and the variation in the reflexes, make it uncertain that these are all cognate. The word is undoubtedly an innovation that was not in use in Proto-Central Chadic.
1Proto-Daba*ᵑkɨɬɨɗbroombalai1.1BuwalViljoenmɬɑɗbroombalai1.2GavarViljoenŋkəɬəɗbroombalai1.3MbudumNdokobaïŋɡəɬəɗbroombalai2Proto-Margi*ɬatɨbroombalai2.1KilbaSchuhɬata/əbroom3Proto-Mandara*maɬaɗbroombalai3.1MatalBrangermaɬaɗbroombalai4Proto-Kotoko North*wɨɬɨɗbroombalai4.1AfadeAllisonwɨtsobroombalai4.2MpadeAllisonwósʼóbroombalai4.3MalgbeAllisonwaɬɨbroombalai5Proto-Musgum*lɨhabroombalai5.1MuskumTourneuxlɨhabalai
kɨrv., n.stealvoler1649B
This is one of the best attested roots in Central Chadic. Some of the entries are for the verb 'to steal', and some are for the nouns 'theft' and 'thief'. It is not clear which form is the basic root. The *k has the reflexes *h, *hʷ, *ɣ and *ɣʷ, which are unestablished reflexes. No labialisation is reconstructed since the support comes only from an unusual reflex in Lagwan, and from the Giziga languages where sporadic labialisation is common. It is not clear whether the proto-form had *h or *k, but *k is preferred as *k→h is more common than the opposite change in Central Chadic. The *r has the regular reflex *l in the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba. The *r in Proto-Kotoko North is an exception. In a few languages *r has the reflex /ɗ/, which is an unestablished change. There is some evidence for reconstructing *i, but the mix of noun and verb forms makes it difficult to reconstruct the vowels with confidence. For this reason the root is given the confidence level B rather than A.
1Proto-Bata*hɨrstealvoler1.1BataBoydhɨ́rsteal1.2GudeHoskinsonharəsteal.1.3JimiDjibihərənVoler, dérober ;1.4SharwaGravinaharVoler, dérober1SharwaGravinamaharə, maharəʼəkəVoleur,euse1.5TsuvanJohnstonahəllele voleur2Proto-Daba*hɨlstealvoler2.1BuwalViljoenŋhelstealvoler (dérober)1BuwalViljoenŋhelthiefvoleur2BuwalViljoenŋheltheftvol2.2GavarViljoenŋhəlstealvoler (dérober)1GavarViljoenŋhəlthiefvoleur2GavarViljoenŋhəltheft2.3MbudumNdokobaïmihiltheftvol1MbudumNdokobaïmihəlthiefvoleur2MbudumNdokobaïhilstealvoler (dérober)2.4DabaLienhardhə̄lfaire ; lutter ; voler2.5MazagwayHidiNoussihəlvol3Proto-Mafa*kɨrstealvoler3.1CuvokGravinakərawtheftil faut voler1CuvokGravinakərejstealvoler (dérober)4Proto-Sukur*kɨrstealvoler4.1SukurDavidkərsteal, to4.2SukurThomaskərsteal; to take something from a person permission or without intending to return it or pay for it.5Proto-Hurza*kɨrastealvoler5.1MbukoGravinaakartheftvol1MbukoGravinakərato steal stvoler5.2VameKinnairdākárvol6Proto-Margi*hilastealvoler6.1BuraBlenchhilaTheft1BuraBlenchhilaTo steal6.2Margi SouthHarleyhəlto steal6.3KilbaSchuhhəlatheft7Proto-Mandara*ɣɨlstealvoler7.1MatalBrangermàd ɡə̀lstealvoler7.2MandaraFluckigerílávoler1MandaraFluckigerílávol (m)7.3MalgwaLöhrnaŋəlethief1MalgwaLöhrŋəlasteal7.4GlavdaNghagyivaglathief1GlavdaOwensgthief2GlavdaNghagyivaʁɨ́lᵊgasteal7.5DghwedeFrickgəlethief8Proto-Mofu*kɨlstealvoler8.1OuldemeKinnairdàkàlvol8.2MadaNkoumouakkalvol8.3MolokoFriesenakarrobberyle vol1MolokoFriesenakarthiefvoleur2MolokoFriesenakarthiefvoleur3MolokoFriesenkarajstealvoler; dérober8.4ZulgoHallerakə́lvol m.8.5GemzekSabataiakəltheftvol1GemzekSabataimekəlestealvoler (dérober)8.6MereyGravinakəlastealvoler (dérober)1MereyGravinaməkaltheftvol, voleur8.7DugworJubumnanəkalthiefvoleur1DugworJubumnanəkaltheftvol2DugworJubumnamənəkəlejstealvoler (dérober)8.8Mofu NorthBarreteauméhùlèjvoler1Mofu NorthBarreteauméhùlèjdérober2Mofu NorthBarreteaumáhàlvoleur8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlálvoler, dérober, détourner1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmalajvoleur9Proto-Maroua*hʷɨlstealvoler9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhulvoler1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhulmentir, faire son coup en douce, travailler par en dessous, fausseté, parler derrière pas franchement, calomnier9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouhultheftvol9.3MbazlaTourneuxlajvoler (dérober)1MbazlaSILSurveyàlāíʼstealvoler (dérober)10Proto-Lamang*ɣilastealvoler10.1LamangWolffɣilasteal1LamangWolffɣìlìtheft10.2HdiBramlettɣalithiefle voleur11Proto-Higi*ɣɨlistealvoler11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣəlito steal1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyɣə̀lìsteal11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣirəthief1Kamwe-FutuHarleyɣiresteal11.3KiryaBlenchɣə̀lə̀steal11.4BanaLienhardɣ(ə̀)lívoler, piler12Proto-Kotoko North*hirstealvoler12.1AfadeAllisonhiʔithiefvoleur12.2MpadeAllisonháɗithiefvoleur12.3MalgbeAllisonhiruthiefvoleur13Proto-Kotoko Centre*ɣʷɨjstealvoler13.1LagwanAllisonmusxuithiefvoleur13.2MserAllisonnɣejthiefvoleur14Proto-Kotoko South*hɨlastealvoler14.1ZinaOddenàhə̀lthiefvoleur14.2MazeraAllisonjalethiefvoleur15Proto-Musgum*hɨlstealvoler15.1VulumTourneuxmihilvol16Proto-Gidar*ɨhalastealvoler16.1GidarSchuhəhalavoler (de voleur)16.2GidarHungerfordɨɨhaladérober, voler16.3GidarHungerfordɨ halavol, derober
kɨrakaɬ ʸn.boneos410Csynɗiɬ
This root is found primarily in three groups that are currently unconnected (the Moloko word is borrowed from neighbouring Mbuko). However at some time in the past these groups may have been adjacent. The exact form of the original root is difficult to determine.
1Proto-Daba*kɨrɨᵑgɨɬ ʸboneos1.1BuwalViljoenkerəᵑgeɬboneos1.2MbudumNdokobaïkirŋɡiɬboneos1.3DabaLienhardgèᵑgíríɮl'os2Proto-Hurza*kɨlakaɬboneos2.1MbukoGravinakəlakaɬboneos, bec2.2VameKinnairdāɬə̄ɬākboneos3Proto-Mofu*kɨlakaɬboneos3.1MolokoFriesenkəlakaɬboneos4Proto-Musgum*kaɬka ʸboneos4.1MulwiTourneuxkeɬkeos4.2VulumTourneuxkeɬkeos4.3MbaraTourneuxᵑgiɬboneos4.4MuskumTourneuxkɨɬɨtos
kɨrinm.dogchien1335C
This root may have come into Central Chadic from Kanuri or from Nilo-Saharan. The root presents some unusual difficulties. *r has the reflex *d in some languages, and *l in others. If this root were a Proto-Central Chadic root, then we would expect *r→l in the North sub-branch, but this is the case only in a few groups, some of which have a separate, later *r→l change. A Proto-Central Chadic root with *d in medial position should give *r in the North sub-branch. There is a reasonable degree of consistency in this, but there are many exceptions. The best explanation for the forms is that the word entered Central Chadic at the time of the group proto-languages. The final vowel is reconstructed as *i, as in Kanuri, and this is reflected in Proto-Margi, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi. In the Higi group the *i has been reanalysed as palatalisation of *l.
1Proto-Mafa*kɨdadogchien1.1MafaNdokobaikədadogchien1MafaBarreteaukədachien1.2CuvokGravinagədadogchien2Proto-Sukur*kɨradogchien2.1SukurDavidkəradog2.2SukurThomaskəradog3Proto-Hurza*kɨladogchien3.1MbukoGravinakəladogchien3.2VameKinnairdkə̄ládogchien4Proto-Margi*kiladogchien4.1BuraBlenchkilaDog5Proto-Mandara*kɨdadogchien5.1MatalBrangerkədadogchien5.2PodokoSwackhammerkədá,-achien5.3MandaraFluckigerkéréchien (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrkəredog5.5DghwedeFrickgdedog6Proto-Mofu*kɨradogchien6.1OuldemeKinnairdkə̀ràdogchien6.2MuyangSmithkərɑdogchien6.3MolokoFriesenkəradogchien6.4ZulgoHallerkərachien m.6.5GemzekSabataikəradogchien6.6DugworJubumnakəradogchien6.7Proto-Mofu Subgroup*gɨdaj ʸdogchien6.8Mofu NorthBarreteaugə̄dējchien6.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthgədéjchien7Proto-Maroua*kɨrɨ ʸdogchien7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankiri (Mt) k(i) ri (ɗu)chien (kiri nañ (Mj) kri nañ (Mt) son chien7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukredogchien7.3MbazlaTourneuxkirechien1MbazlaSILSurveykrɛ́ʼdogchien8Proto-Lamang*kɨridogchien8.1LamangWolffkə́rédog8.2HdiBramlettkəridogle chien9Proto-Higi*kɨlidogchien9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykəljə̊dog9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykəljedog9.3KiryaBlenchkə́ɽídog9.4BanaLienhardk(ə́)ríchien10Proto-Kotoko Island*kɨlidogchien10.1BudumaMcKonekəliədogchien10.2BudumaMcKonekəlichien.11Proto-Kotoko North*kɨlewdogchien11.1AfadeAllisongɨlewdogchien11.2MpadeAllisonkɨ́lèwdogchien11.3MalgbeAllisongɨlewdogchien12Proto-Kotoko Centre*kɨledogchien12.1LagwanAllisonkle; kɨledogchien12.2MserAllisonkledogchien13Proto-Gidar*kɨradogchien13.1GidarSchuhkərachien13.2GidarHungerfordkrachien14Kanurikə́ridogchien
kɨrɨp ʸnf.fishpoisson1546A
This is one of the best attested Central Chadic roots. The initial *k has the regular reflex *j in the Tera group, and the unestablished reflex /h/ in Vulum. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and Cuvok in the Mafa group, though the /l/ in Mafa itself is irregular. *p was realised as [f] in word-final position in Proto-Central Chadic, and /f/ was then phonemicised, but in this word it has the reflex *p in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi. These are unestablished changes. The palatalisation prosody is retained in all groups where the palatalisation prosody exists.
1Proto-Bata*kɨrɨfɨ ʸfishpoisson1.1BataBoydqərfjéefish1.2GudeHoskinsonhə̀rə̀fìnəfish.1.3JimiDjibihərjəfənPoisson1.4SharwaGravinakurjəfipoisson1.5TsuvanJohnstonwulfinles poissons2Proto-Daba*kɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson2.1BuwalViljoenŋkəleffishpoisson2.2GavarViljoenŋkiliffishpoisson2.3MbudumNdokobaïkəlːiffishpoisson2.4DabaLienhardkìlífle poisson2.5MazagwayHidiNoussikilifpoisson3Proto-Mafa*kɨlaf ʸfishpoisson3.1MafaBarreteaukíléfnom gén. pour les gros poissons3.2CuvokGravinakəleffishpoisson4Proto-Tera*jɨrvɨ ʷfishpoisson4.1TeraNewmanjurvufish4.2NyimatliHarleyjurvufish5Proto-Sukur*kɨrɨf ʸfishpoisson5.1SukurDavidkiriffish5.2SukurThomaskiriffish; is the general term for fishes.6Proto-Hurza*kɨlaf ʸfishpoisson6.1MbukoGravinakəleffishpoisson7Proto-Margi*kɨlfi ʸfishpoisson7.1BuraBlenchkilfaGeneral name for fish7.2MargiHoffmankjififish7.3Margi SouthHarleykalfifish7.4KilbaSchuhkalfifish8Proto-Mandara*kɨlɨfɨ ʸfishpoisson8.1MatalBrangerkilfi, kilfəjfishpoisson8.2PodokoSwackhammerkɨləfe,-əpoisson8.3MandaraFluckigerkelfepoisson (m)8.4MalgwaLöhrkəlfefish gen.8.5GlavdaOwenskilfish1GlavdaNghagyivakìilfafish8.6DghwedeFrickklfefish9Proto-Mofu*kɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson9.1OuldemeKinnairdkə̄līfpoisson9.2MolokoFriesenkəleffishpoisson en général9.3ZulgoHallerkílífpoisson m.9.4GemzekSabataikəleffishpoisson9.5MereyGravinakəleffishpoisson9.6DugworJubumnakəleffishpoisson9.7Mofu NorthBarreteaukə́léfpoisson (nom g;-en.)10Proto-Maroua*kɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankilifpoisson ( ne général)10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukileffishpoisson10.3MbazlaTourneuxkilifpoisson1MbazlaSILSurveykilivfishpoisson11Proto-Lamang*kɨlɨpifishpoisson11.1LamangWolffkəlpifish11.2HdiBramlettkəlipifishle poisson12Proto-Higi*kɨlipɨfishpoisson12.1Kamwe-FutuHarleykələpəfish12.2KiryaBlenchkə̀rèpə́fish (general)1KiryaBlenchkə̀ɽìpə́fish12.3PsikyeAngelokələpə́fish12.4BanaLienhardk(ə)lìpə̀poisson1BanaLienhardkə̀rpìpoissons (pl)13Proto-Kotoko South*kɨlfɨfishpoisson13.1ZinaOddenhə̀lfə̀fishpoisson13.2MazeraAllisonkɨlfafishpoisson14Proto-Musgum*hɨlɨf ʸfishpoisson14.1VulumTourneuxhilifpoisson (générique)15Proto-Gidar*kɨlfɨ ʸfishpoisson15.1GidarHungerfordkilfipoisson
kɨrɨwnum.tendix518Csynhɨkankʷɨm
This is one of three widely-attested roots for 'ten'. It is found in the area around the Mandara Mountains. The *r is expected to be realised as *l in the North sub-branch, but this is only the case for the Mandara group, and not for the Maroua and Mofu groups. In the Mafa group, /l/ is found in Mafa where /r/ is expected and /r/ is found in Cuvok where /l/ is expected. This indicates that the root may not be very old, and that it spread by borrowing rather than being inherited. The *w is variously interpreted as labialisation of *k or as the labialisation prosody.
1Proto-Mafa*kʷɨrawtendix1.1MafaBarreteaukuladix1.2CuvokGravinakurawten (10)dix (10)2Proto-Hurza*kɨra ʷtendix2.1MbukoGravinakurotendix3Proto-Mandara*kɨlawatendix3.1MatalBrangerkᵘ̄l(u)tendix3.2MandaraFluckigerkelawadix3.3GlavdaOwenskəlten1GlavdaNghagyivaklàːwaten (10)4Proto-Mofu*kɨrawtendix4.1OuldemeKinnairdkūlūtendix4.2MuyangSmithkrutendix4.3MolokoFriesenkərotendix4.4ZulgoHallerkúrwádix4.5GemzekSabataikuroten (10)dix (10)4.6MereyGravinakuroten (10)dix (10)4.7DugworJubumnakurowten (10)dix (10)4.8Mofu NorthBarreteaukúráwdix1Mofu NorthBarreteaukúráwdix4.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkúráwdix5Proto-Maroua*kɨrɨ ʷtendix5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankuruʼudix5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukuruten (10)dix (10)5.3MbazlaTourneuxkurudix1MbazlaSILSurveȳkúrúʼtendix
kɨwahnum.sixsix929Asynɬiramarkɨɗ ʸvɨnahkɨr
This is one of four well-attested roots for 'six'. It has the widest distribution, and is the most likely candidate for the Proto-Cental Chadic root. The *w has been reinterpreted as labialisation of *k in several groups. The final *h has been lost in most groups. These are common sporadic processes. In common with some other numerals, a nasal has been prefixed to the root in most cases.
1Proto-Bata*kɨwasixsix1.1GudeHoskinsonkùwásixsix1.2JimiDjibiənkoSix2Proto-Daba*kʷahsixsix2.1BuwalViljoenŋkʷɑhsix (6)six (6)2.2GavarViljoenŋkʷɑhsix (6)six (6)2.3MbudumNdokobaïŋ̩kuhsix (6)six (6)2.4DabaLienhardkōhsix3Proto-Mafa*makʷasixsix3.1MafaBarreteaumokʷasix3.2CuvokGravinamakʷasix (6)six (6)4Proto-Sukur*mɨkʷasixsix4.1SukurDavidmukʷasix4.2SukurThomasməkʷasix5Proto-Margi*kʷasixsix5.1BuraBlenchnkʷaSixsix5.2Margi SouthHarleykʷasix6Proto-Mandara*mɨkɨwahsixsix6.1MatalBrangermᵘ̄kʷásixsix6.2PodokoSwackhammerməkuwá,-əsix6.3MalgwaLöhrunkʷesix6.4GlavdaNghagyivaùŋkʷàxasix (6)7Proto-Mofu*mɨkʷawsixsix7.1OuldemeKinnairdmūkúsixsix7.2MuyangSmithmukusixsix7.3MolokoFriesenməkosixsix7.4MereyGravinaməkʷasix (6)six (6)7.5DugworJubumnamukowsix (6)six (6)7.6Mofu NorthBarreteaumúkʷasix7.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaakʷáwsix ; chiffre signalant un nombre impair dans la divination par les cailloux1MofuGudurHollingsworthmaakʷáwsix ; chiffre signalant un nombre impair dans la divination par les cailloux8Proto-Lamang*mkɨwasixsix8.1LamangWolffmkʷásix1LamangWolffm̀kúwásix8.2HdiBramlettməʼkusixsix9Proto-Higi*kʷaŋsixsix9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleynkʷáᵑgə́Six9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleynkʷaᵑgosix9.3KiryaBlenchkʷáᵑgsix9.4PsikyeAngeloŋkʷáŋə́six9.5BanaLienhardkʷáŋsix (6)
koron.donkeyâne920Bsynᵐburiziᵑgʷa
This is a widespread African root that may have come into Central Chadic from Kanuri. Many Central Chadic languages do not have back vowels, and the *o has been reinterpreted as labialisation of *k, the labialisation prosody or as the sequence /aw/. The *r has not changed in any languages, which indicates a very short time depth for the introduction of this root into Central Chadic.
1Proto-Bata*kʷaradonkeyâne1.1BataBoydkʷááréétodonkey1.2GudeHoskinsonkʷárádonkey1.3JimiDjibikʷaraAne1.4SharwaGravinakʷaraAne2Proto-Tera*korodonkeyâne2.1TeraNewmankorodonkey2.2NyimatliHarleykoorodonkey3Proto-Margi*kʷaradonkeyâne3.1BuraBlenchkʷaraAss1BuraBlenchkʷaraDonkey3.2Margi SouthHarleykʷaradonkey3.3KilbaSchuhkʷara/adonkey4Proto-Maroua*kawradonkeyâne4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankawra; awraâne à museau blanc5Proto-Higi*kʷaradonkeyâne5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykʷaradonkey5.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykʷaradonkey5.3KiryaBlenchkʷàràdonkey5.4PsikyeAngelokʷarádonkey6Proto-Kotoko Island*kurodonkeyâne6.1BudumaMcKonekuroâne.7Proto-Kotoko North*korodonkeyâne7.1MpadeAllisonkóródonkeyâne7.2MalgbeAllisongrodonkeyâne8Proto-Musgum*kʷɨra ʸdonkeyâne8.1VulumTourneuxkʉreâne8.2MbaraTourneuxkurodonkeyâne8.3MuskumTourneuxkʉretâne9Proto-Gidar*kara ʷdonkeyâne9.1GidarSchuhkoroâne10Kanurikóro / kóródonkeyâne
kʷaɗahv.boilbouillir920A
The basic sense of this word is to cook by boiling. In most cases it is a transitive verb with a person being the agent and the liquid being the patient. *kʷ is retained in all groups, though the labialisation has been lost in a few languages (a sporadic process). The *ɗ→r in Tera is an unestablished process. *h is widely retained, which is unusual, and has the irregular reflex /s/ in Bachama. Two groups have palatalisation in the forms given, but this may be a property of the citation form that is used rather than of the root itself.
1Proto-Bata*kʷaɗasa ʸboilbouillir1.1BachamaSkinnerkʷaɗjasabubble2Proto-Daba*kʷɨɗah ʸboilbouillir2.1MbudumNdokobaïkjdehboil (food)bouillir (la nourriture)2.2DabaLienhardkùɗa̍jbouillir un liquide3Proto-Mafa*kʷɨɗahaboilbouillir3.1CuvokGravinakuɗahaboilbouillir (la nourriture)4Proto-Tera*kʷɨɗahboilbouillir4.1TeraNewmankuraxiboil1NyimatliHarleykuɮakhboil (water), bubble up5Proto-Hurza*kʷaɗahboilbouillir5.1MbukoGravinakʷaɗahto boil, dilutebouillir, diluer1VameKinnairdkʷāɗáhāboil ; simmerbouillir6Proto-Margi*kʷɨduboilbouillir6.1BuraBlenchkuduBoil7Proto-Mandara*kʷaɗahboilbouillir7.1PodokoSwackhammerkʷaɗáhabouillir, cuire dans de l'eau bouillante7.2MalgwaLöhrkʷaɗaboil8Proto-Mofu*kʷaɗahboilbouillir8.1OuldemeKinnairdkʷàɗèhèŋbouillir1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemkʷàɗèhèŋcuire longtemps8.2MuyangSmithkoɗɑhɑjboil (trs)cuire; faire bouillir8.3MadaNkoumoumákʷàɗàhcuire (faire-, mijoter longtemps)8.4ZulgoHallerkʷàɗàhbouillir, bouilloner8.5GemzekSabataimekʷeɗehebouillir8.6DugworJubumnaməkʷoɗehej ( jam )bubble up, boil (water)bouillonner (l'eau)8.7Mofu NorthBarreteaumékʷèɗèhèjbouillir9Proto-Lamang*kʷaɗahboilbouillir9.1LamangWolffkʷaɗahboil, heat, cook9.2HdiBramlettkəɗahajto boilbouillir
kʷarv.refuserefuser812B
This root is found in a good selection of groups, but only in one or two languages in each group with the data available. The initial *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in many cases as a sporadic process. *r has the regular reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba as expected.
1Proto-Bata*karrefuserefuser1.1GudeHoskinsonkaareerefuse, reject1.2JimiDjibikaranənRefuser ;2Proto-Daba*kalrefuserefuser2.1GavarViljoenŋkɑlrefuserefuser3Proto-Sukur*karrefuserefuser3.1SukurDavidkarrefuse, to3.2SukurThomaskarrefuse: to say that you will not do something that somebody has asked you to do.4Proto-Hurza*kɨrarefuserefuser4.1VameKinnairdkə́ràmissrefuser d'aller5Proto-Mandara*kʷalarefuserefuser5.1PodokoSwackhammerkʷalá 1refuser1PodokoSwackhammerkʷalá 2rejeter5.2MandaraFluckigerkʷalarefuser6Proto-Mofu*kʷalrefuserefuser6.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemkʷàlrefuser1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemkʷàlne devrait-il pas?6.2MuyangSmithkelejcut with axecouper; refuser6.3MereyGravinakərahrefuserefuser7Proto-Lamang*kʷalarefuserefuser7.1HdiBramlettkʷalaɣutato refuserefuser8Proto-Higi*kɨlirefuserefuser8.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykəljərefuse1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykə́rjə̀refuse
kʷarajn.rainbow, droughtarc-en-ciel, sécheresse517A
In most languages, this root has two senses: a rainbow; and a period of dry weather during rainy season. It is not obvious how the two senses are related, though the Giziga Moutourwa definition offers an interesting explanation. The root is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, Proto-Daba and Cuvok, leaving Mafa as the only language represented here to retain *r.
1Proto-Daba*kʷalajrainbowarc-en-ciel1.1BuwalViljoenkʷɑlɑjdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette1BuwalViljoenkʷɑlɑjrainbowarc-en-ciel1.2GavarViljoenŋkʷɑlɑjdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette1.3MbudumNdokobaïkolajrainbowarc-en-ciel2Proto-Mafa*kʷarajrainbowarc-en-ciel2.1MafaBarreteaukʷárájarc-en-ciel2.2CuvokGravinakʷalajdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette3Proto-Hurza*kʷɨlajrainbowarc-en-ciel3.1MbukoGravinakulajrainbow, dry period during rainy seasonarc en ciel, sécheresse entre les pluies4Proto-Mofu*kʷɨlaj, makɨlahrainbowarc-en-ciel4.1OuldemeKinnairdmākʷālājdroughtsécheresse ; périodes sèches de la saison des pluies4.2MuyangSmithmɑkʷɑldrought ; rainbowpériode de sécheresse après les premières sémailles: arc-en-ciel qui annonce soit une pluie immédiate, soit la sécheresse4.3MolokoFriesenkolajrainbowarc en ciel4.4ZulgoHallermàkə̀làharc-en-ciel m.4.5GemzekSabataikularainbowarc-en-ciel1GemzekSabataikuladrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette2GemzekSabataimakəlahrainbowarc-en-ciel4.6MereyGravinamakəlahsécheresse4.7DugworJubumnakulajrainbowarc-en-ciel4.8Mofu NorthBarreteaukʷálàjarc-en-ciel, arrêt entre deux pluies4.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkʷalajarc-en-ciel1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkʷalajsécheresse en saison des pluies5Proto-Maroua*kʷalajrainbowarc-en-ciel5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷalaj (Mv kolaj)arc en ciel, le kwalay : arrête la pluie en pleine saison, même pendant 20 jours c'est le soleil qui se reflète sur de vieilles houes abandonnées en brousse, ce qui provoque l'arc-ce-ciel. il y a un grand serpent en haut ; s'il se roule sur lui-même il ne pleut pas ; s'il se déroule, il pleut (kaw madiëa)1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷalaj (Mv kolaj)empècher de pleuvoir5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukolajrainbowarc-en-ciel1Giziga MarvaHamidoukolajdrought, faminesécheresse, famine, disette
kʷasɨkʷanm.market (n)marchéChadicsuqmarket1224B
This root derives ultimately from the Arabic 'suq', through Shoa Arabic 'sug' and Kanuri 'kasugu'. The back vowels are reinterpreted as labialisation of *k or *g. The Fulfulde word 'luumo' is replacing this root in many areas. There are no real indicators in the data of the age of this borrowing.
1Proto-Tera*kasumarketmarché1.1HwanaHarleykàsúmarket2Proto-Sukur*sɨkʷɨmarketmarché2.1SukurDavidsukumarket2.2SukurThomassəkumarket:- is a place where people gather to sell and buy things.3Proto-Hurza*kasɨkʷamarketmarché3.1MbukoGravinakʷasukomarketmarché3.2VameKinnairdkāsúkāmarketmarché4Proto-Margi*sɨkʷɨmarketmarché4.1KilbaSchuhsəkumarket5Proto-Mandara*kʷasɨkʷamarketmarché5.1MatalBrangerkʷasəkʷa // kosukamarketmarché5.2PodokoSwackhammerkʷasákʷa,-amarché5.3MalgwaLöhrkʷaskʷemarket5.4GlavdaOwenskásúmarket, week1GlavdaOwenskásúkmarket, business, week2GlavdaNghagyivakàsúkʷamarket (n)6Proto-Mofu*kʷasɨkʷamarketmarché6.1OuldemeKinnairdkʷāskʷāmarketmarché6.2MuyangSmithɡoskumarket ; weekmarché, semaine6.3MadaNkoumougoskó (kosko)marché6.4MolokoFriesenkosokomarketmarché6.5ZulgoHallerkʷáskʷàsemaine f.1ZulgoHallerkʷáskʷàmarché m.7Proto-Maroua*kaska ʷmarketmarché7.1Giziga MarvaHamidoukoskomarket (n)marché8Proto-Higi*sʲɨkʷɨmarketmarché8.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyʃikʷimarket8.2PsikyeAngeloʃkʷumarket1PsikyeAngeloʃekʷumarket9Proto-Kotoko Island*kahagʷɨmarketmarché9.1BudumaMcKonekaxaguəmarket (n)marché10Proto-Kotoko North*kasɨgʷɨmarketmarché10.1AfadeAllisongasɨbimarket (n)marché10.2MpadeAllisonkàsúgùmarket (n)marché10.3MalgbeAllisongegbɨmarket (n)marché11Proto-Kotoko Centre*kaskʷɨmarketmarché11.1LagwanAllisonkaskumarket (n)marché11.2MserAllisonkaskumarket (n)marché12Proto-Musgum*kaskʷamarketmarché12.1MbaraTourneuxkaskomarketmarché13Kanurikasúwu //// kāsugūmarket (n)marché14Shoa Arabicsûg; sawagamarket (n)marché
kʷɨhɨmn.mousesouris821Asynkatakamkʷɨsɨm
This root is cognate with *kʷɨsɨm, though there isn't a regular change that accounts for the distribution of the two forms. The *kʷ has the unestablished reflex *ɣʷ in Proto-Tera. The labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in many Mofu group languages. The *h has been lost in several groups as a sporadic process, and has the irregular reflex *f in Matal, Muyang and Moloko.
1Proto-Bata*hʲɨmɨmousesouris1.1GudeHoskinsonhímà -əmouse1.2TsuvanJohnstonhimkənla souris2Proto-Mafa*kʷamamousesouris2.1MafaBarreteaukʷamasouris3Proto-Tera*ɣʷɨmmousesouris3.1TeraNewmanɣummouse3.2NyimatliHarleyɣumrat4Proto-Sukur*kʷɨmmousesouris4.1SukurDavidkummouse4.2SukurThomaskummouse; a small animal that is covered in fur and has a long thin tail. It lives in bush, people's house or where food is stored.5Proto-Hurza*kʷɨhammousesouris5.1MbukoGravinakuhommousesouris5.2VameKinnairdkʷàmmousesouris6Proto-Mandara*kʷɨhɨmmousesouris6.1MatalBrangerkʷəfu, kufumousesouris6.2PodokoSwackhammerkumasouris7Proto-Mofu*kʷɨhɨmmousesouris7.1OuldemeKinnairdkūmmousesouris7.2MuyangSmithɑkfummouse (general word)souris (mot général)7.3MolokoFriesenokfommousesouris7.4ZulgoHallerkʷàhúmsouris f.7.5GemzekSabataikohommousesouris7.6MereyGravinakuhummousesouris7.7DugworJubumnakohommousesouris7.8Mofu NorthBarreteauhʷàmsouris7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthahʷammousesouris (nom gén.)8Proto-Higi*kʷɨmmousesouris8.1PsikyeAngelokʷumouse8.2BanaLienhardkúmsouris
kʷɨkaɗnf.baobabbaobab1021Bsynᵐbatuɓ
This root may be borrowed from the Kanuri 'kalkuka', though it is more likely that the word was borrowed from Chadic languages by Kanuri since the forms that are attested in Central Chadic cannot easily be derived from *kuka. In addition, the Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang forms indicate that there was a glottal component in the word, which is not present in Kanuri. The labialisation has spread from the *kʷ onto the *k in several languages. The glottal component is accounted for by reconstructing a final *ɗ, though more evidence is needed before this can be established with confidence.
1Proto-Bata*kɨkɨʔʷbaobabbaobab1.1BataBoydkawtobaobab1BataBoydkaawebaobab1.2BachamaSkinnerkawtœ, kœwebaobab tree1.3GudeHoskinsonkúkùʼ únəbaobab tree1.4SharwaGravinakəkəʼwəbaobab1.5TsuvanJohnstonkukʷakənle baobab2Proto-Tera*kʷɨkabaobabbaobab2.1NyimatliHarleykukabaobab tree2.2GaʼandaGwajikukʷatabaobab3Proto-Hurza*kʷakʷabaobabbaobab3.1MbukoGravinakokobaobab3.2VameKinnairdkʷàkʷàtree typebaobab4Proto-Margi*kʷagʷɨbaobabbaobab4.1BuraBlenchkʷàgúBaobab monkey bread tree See also kogu Adansonia digitata1BuraBlenchkoguBaobab tree cf. kwagu4.2KilbaSchuhgubaobab5Proto-Mandara*kʷakʷabaobabbaobab5.1MatalBrangermakʷakʷa, makokʷabaobabbaobab5.2MandaraFluckigerkʷakʷabaobab (m) ou feuille comestible de baobab5.3MalgwaLöhrkʷakʷa, kokʷatree sp., baobab, Adansonia digitata, baobab leaf5.4GlavdaNghagyivakʷàkʷabaobab tree6Proto-Mofu*kaka ʷbaobabbaobab6.1MolokoFriesenkokotree baobabbaobab7Proto-Lamang*kaʔʷbaobabbaobab7.1HdiBramlettkaʼubaobab treele baobab8Proto-Higi*kʷɨkʷɨbaobabbaobab8.1KiryaBlenchkúkùbaobab8.2BanaLienhardkʷə́kʷə̀baobab, Adansonia digitala9Proto-Kotoko North*kʷɨkabaobabbaobab9.1AfadeAllisonkukabaobab treebaobab10Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨkabaobabbaobab10.1LagwanAllisonkukabaobab treebaobab11Hausakúukàbaobab treebaobab
kʷɨmnum.tendix511Csynhɨkankɨrɨw
This is one of several roots for 'ten', and is the most likely to have been the Proto-Central Chadic root. The Nyimatli, Sukur and Hdi forms are possibly not cognate. In the Higi group there is sporadic metathesis in all languages except Kirya.
1Proto-Tera*kʷɨmtendix1.1NyimatliHarleygʷaᵑgten (10)1.2GaʼandaGwajikumten2Proto-Sukur*waŋtendix2.1SukurDavidwaŋten3Proto-Margi*kʷɨmatendix3.1BuraBlenchkumaTen3.2Margi SouthHarleykumouten4Proto-Lamang*ɣʷaŋtendix4.1HdiBramlettɣʷaŋtendix5Proto-Higi*gʷɨmtendix5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymùᵑgə́Ten5.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymuᵑgəten5.3KiryaBlenchgùmten5.4PsikyeAngeloməŋten1PsikyeAngeloməŋə́ten5.5BanaLienhardmə́ŋdix
kʷɨman.facevisage58B
This root is not widely attested. Where it does occur, the labialisation of *kʷ has often been sporadically lost.
1Proto-Bata*kʷɨnwɨfacevisage1.1GudeHoskinsonkúnwá -əface ? (upper dialect)2Proto-Sukur*kɨmafacevisage2.1SukurDavidkəmaface3Proto-Margi*kʷɨmafacevisage3.1BuraBlenchkumaFace4Proto-Lamang*kɨmafacevisage4.1LamangWolffkə́máface, front4.2HdiBramlettkəmafacela figure5Proto-Higi*kɨmafacevisage5.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykəmaface5.2Kamwe-FutuHarleykəmaface5.3PsikyeAngelokəmaface
kʷɨnɨjn.urineurine1331B
This root is well attested across the Central Chadic languages. The *kʷ is retained in most groups, but has the reflex *k in Proto-Hurza, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Gidar, a sporadic change. There is a regular *n→r change word-medially in Proto-Mandara, and a sporadic *n͏→r change in some of the Kotoko groups. This change also appears in the Mafa and Sukur data, where it is irregular. There is a subsequent unestablished *r→ɗ change, which gives the forms for Proto-Hurza, several Mofu group languages and Mazera. The distribution of the changes suggests that a certain degree of borrowing took place between languages. The *j has been vocalised in several languages, and in Gidar it is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, both of which are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Mafa*kʷɨrajurineurine1.1MafaNdokobaikurajurine2Proto-Sukur*kʷɨr ʸurineurine2.1SukurThomasmiskuirurine3Proto-Hurza*mɨkaɗajurineurine3.1MbukoGravinaməkaɗajurineurine3.2VameKinnairdkə̄māɗáj, kumaɗaj (Afem)tribe ; descendanturine; tribu ; descendant4Proto-Margi*kʷɨniurineurine4.1BuraBlenchkiniUrine4.2KilbaSchuhkunjiurine5Proto-Mandara*kʷɨrɨjurineurine5.1MatalBrangerkᶷlājurineurine5.2PodokoSwackhammerkure,-iurine5.3MandaraFluckigerkúréurine (f)5.4MalgwaLöhrkureurine5.5GlavdaOwenskururine1GlavdaNghagyivakùrìjaurine6Proto-Mofu*kʷɨnajurineurine6.1OuldemeKinnairdkūnājurine6.2MuyangSmithkʉɗiŋurineurine6.3MadaNkoumoukʷneurine6.4MolokoFriesenkʷənenurineurine6.5ZulgoHallerkʷìɗéurine f.6.6GemzekSabataikuɗeurineurine6.7MereyGravinakuɗeurineurine1MereyGravinakuɗejurine6.8DugworJubumnakuneŋurineurine6.9Mofu NorthBarreteaukùràjurine6.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkurájurine7Proto-Maroua*kʷɨnajurineurine7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielankʷanajurine7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoukunajurineurine7.3MbazlaSILSurveykúnaíʼurineurine1MbazlaTourneuxkunajurine8Proto-Lamang*kʷaniurineurine8.1HdiBramlettkʷaniurinel'urine9Proto-Kotoko Island*kʷarajurineurine9.1BudumaMcKonekorajurine.10Proto-Kotoko North*kʷɨreurineurine10.1MpadeAllisonkúrèurineurine11Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨneurineurine11.1LagwanAllisonnkuneurineurine11.2MserAllisonkureurineurine12Proto-Kotoko South*kɨmaɗeurineurine12.1MazeraAllisonkɨmaɗeurineurine13Proto-Gidar*kɨna ʸurineurine13.1GidarHungerfordkineurine13.2GidarSchuhkine/eurine
kʷɨsapn.grassgrass612Asynkʷɨzɨn ʸ
This root probably had a different meaning from *kʷɨzɨn ʸ. The original sense may have referred to grassland as an area, rather than to the grass itself, or possibly to hay. The *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in Matal (a sporadic process), and is lost in Mbuko and Proto-Higi, which is an irregular process. *p was realised as [f] in Proto-Central Chadic in word-final position, and this appears in all the data.
1Proto-Daba*ᵑkʷɨsafgrassherbe1.1BuwalViljoenŋkusɑfgrassherbe1.2GavarViljoenŋkəsɑfgrassherbe1.3MbudumNdokobaïŋɡusofgrassherbe2Proto-Mafa*kʷɨsafgrassherbe2.1CuvokGravinakusafblade (of grass)brin (d'herbe)3Proto-Hurza*safbushbrousse3.1MbukoGravinasafbushbrousse4Proto-Mandara*kɨsafgrassherbe4.1MatalBrangerksaf, kəsafgrassherbe5Proto-Mofu*kʷɨsafgrassherbe5.1Gemzekkəsafbush country, rural areabrousse, campagne5.2Mereykəsafforestbrousse, forêt5.3MofuNorthBarreteaukúsáfbrousse1MofuNorthBarreteaukúsáfbroussaille2MofuNorthBarreteaukúsáfbrousse5.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthkusafbrousse, herbes6Proto-Higi*sɨfɨgrassherbe6.1BanaLienhardsə́fə̀herbes seches, jaune6.2KiryaBlenchʃafabush
kʷɨsɨmn.mousesouris512Bsynkatakamkʷɨhɨm
This root is cognate with *kʷɨhɨm, though it may come from a separate source. There is no known regular change that would account for *h to *s or vice versa. The root with *h is also found in East Chadic and this root with *s is also found in West Chadic. It is strange that this root is found in the more easterly Central Chadic languages.
1Proto-Mofu*gʷamsomousesouris1.1OuldemeKinnairdgʷàmsòsouris ; rat roussard1.2MolokoFriesengəmsofield mouse, greysouris de brousse; gris2Proto-Kotoko North*kʷɨsɨmmousesouris2.1MpadeAllisonkusumumousesouris2.2MalgbeAllisongbimmousesouris2.3MaltamAllisonɓɨsɨmmousesouris3Proto-Kotoko Centre*kʷɨsɨmmousesouris3.1LagwanAllisonxsumimousesouris3.2MserAllisonkusummousesouris4Proto-Kotoko South*kʷɨsɨmmousesouris4.1ZinaOddenàksùmmousesouris4.2MazeraAllisonkusɨmemousesouris5Proto-Musgum*kɨsɨm ʷmousesouris5.1VulumTourneuxkusumsouris5.2MbaraTourneuxkusummousesouris5.3MuskumTourneuxguzumsouris6Hausakúusù /// kuusùu, kuusanjàamousesouris
kʷɨtɨr ʸn.tailqueue1126B
This root is well attested across the Central Chadic languages. The initial *kʷ has a wider range of reflexes than with other roots. These reflexes include *hʷ, *w, *gʷ, *g and *f, and are all unestablished. In Gidar the labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process. The *t has the unestablished reflexes /d/ and /ⁿd/ in some languages. In Glavda, *t is palatalised by the palatalisation prosody, and *tʲ→kʲ due to the regular process of velarisation of palatalised alveolars. *r has the regular reflex *l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba, with a few irregular exceptions.
1Proto-Bata*hʷɨtɨrɨtailqueue1.1SharwaGravinahutɨrəqueue2Proto-Daba*kʷɨtɨl ʸtailqueue2.1BuwalViljoenkuteltailqueue2.2MazagwayHidiNoussikʷetirqueue3Proto-Mafa*hʷɨtartailqueue3.1MafaBarreteaufútórqueue3.2CuvokGravinahʷadartailqueue4Proto-Sukur*turtailqueue4.1SukurDavidturtail4.2SukurThomasturtail:- a long thin park at the back of animals normally they used it to protect them from fly.5Proto-Hurza*kʷɨtar ʸtailqueue5.1MbukoGravinagutertailqueue5.2VameKinnairdkutertailqueue1VameKinnairdkʷītértailqueue6Proto-Mandara*kʷɨtɨlɨ ʸtailqueue6.1PodokoSwackhammerfətəla,-əqueue6.2MandaraFluckigerukterela queue (f)1MandaraFluckigerugderequeue (f)2MandaraFluckigerkatalíáqueue (f)6.3MalgwaLöhrgatalijatail6.4GlavdaNghagyiva xùkʲlatail1GlavdaOwensxʷçətail6.5DghwedeFrickxʷtəletail7Proto-Mofu*hʷɨtɨl ʸtailqueue7.1OuldemeKinnairdàftə̀ltailqueue7.2MuyangSmithhutultailqueue7.3MolokoFriesenhʷətertailqueue7.4GemzekSabataiguteltailqueue7.5MereyGravinahuteltailqueue7.6DugworJubumnaməteltailqueue7.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthdeŋgʷélqueue (Mokong)1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthgʷeⁿdélqueue (Gudur)8Proto-Lamang*hʷɨtirtailqueue8.1LamangWolffhʷtirtail8.2HdiBramletthuturtailla queue9Proto-Higi*twɨlɨtailqueue9.1KiryaBlenchtwə́lə́tail10Proto-Gidar*kɨtɨrɨ ʷtailqueue10.1GidarSchuhkutəro/0queue10.2GidarHungerfordkutur, kuturoqueue11Proto-Musgum*gɨɗar ʸ, hɨntɨl ʷtailqueue11.1VulumTourneuxgiɗerqueue1MbaraTourneuxhuntultailqueue

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