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maborn.lionlion59Bsynlɨvarizɨjɨl
This is one of three roots for 'lion'. It is unusual in that the labialisation prosody is present in two groups, and there is a back vowel in the Daba group. Neither the labialisation prosody nor back vowels are reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic, and any back vowels in reflexes can normally be explained as originating with *w or a labialised velar. In this case, no such explanation is evident. There was no change *r→l, so the root cannot have any great time depth. The root could have been borrowed, though the source is not known, or it could be a comparatively recent coining. *ma- is a common nominalizing prefix, and the word may denote 'a thing that goes bor', for example.
1Proto-Daba*maborlionlion1.1MbudumNdokobaïmaborlionlion2Proto-Mafa*mabarlionlion2.1CuvokGravinamabarlionlion3Proto-Hurza*bɨrbar ʷlionlion3.1MbukoGravinabərboranimalanimal (comme le lion?)4Proto-Mofu*mabarlionlion4.1MolokoFriesenmaborbrush lionlion_de_la_brousse4.2DugworJubumnamaborlionlion4.3Mofu NorthBarreteaumábàrlion4.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmabárlion5Proto-Maroua*mabar ʷlionlion5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmoborlion1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmoborsurnom du chef (majesté)5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumoborlionlion
madɨwann.ratrat613A
This root is found in a wide range of languages around the Mandara Mountains. It is expected that there would be a change of word-final *n→r in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Mofu. However this has not taken place, indicating that the root may have been borrowed into these groups form another language such as Mafa.
1Proto-Daba*maⁿdɨwanratrat1.1BuwalViljoenmɑⁿduwɑnratrat1.2DabaLienhardmāⁿdə̀wànle rat palmiste2Proto-Mafa*madɨwanratrat2.1MafaNdokobaimadəwarat1MafaBarreteauməduwarat de Gambie2.2CuvokGravinamadwaŋratrat3Proto-Sukur*mɨdwanratrat3.1SukurDavidmudwanrat, large3.2SukurThomasmədwanrat; a small animal with a long tail, that looks like large mouse usually considered as a pest.4Proto-Hurza*mɨdɨdɨwanratrat4.1MbukoGravinamədəduwanratrat, raton5Proto-Mandara*madɨwanɨratrat5.1PodokoSwackhammermadə́wana,-ərat palmiste6Proto-Mofu*madɨwanratrat6.1MuyangSmithmɑdwɑŋratrat6.2MolokoFriesenmədəwanpalm ratrat_palmiste6.3ZulgoHallermédiwiŋrat m.6.4GemzekSabataimaduwaŋratrat6.5MereyGravinamaduwaŋratrat6.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaⁿdəwaŋRat de Gambie
mahʷan.horncorne34Csyndɨrɨmlaganᵐbɨkʷɨm
This is one of the rarer roots for 'horn', and is found only in three groups in the Eastern Plains area. The labialisation component of the *h has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Musgum and Proto-Gidar, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Kotoko South*ahʷahorncorne1.1ZinaOddenàhʷàlhorncorne1.2MazeraAllisonmɨhuehorncorne2Proto-Musgum*maha ʷhorncorne2.1MbaraTourneuxmohohorn3Proto-Gidar*maha ʷhorncorne3.1GidarSchuhmoho, ocorne3.2GidarHungerfordmohõcorne
majnm.mouthbouche1543A
This is an extremely well-attested root, and is found in all groups except for Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Kotoko Centre. There was a regular change *m→w word-inital before a vowel in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group, and this form has been borrowed by Podoko and Lamang. The *j has been lost in several groups, has combined with *a to produce *e in the Tera and Kotoko South groups, and has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Hurza and Maroua groups. All these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*mamouthbouche1.1GudeHoskinson(inher. poss. body part) mouth, edge, rim.1.2JimiDjibimanBouche1.3SharwaGravinamabouche1.4TsuvanJohnstonmala bouche2Proto-Daba*mamouthbouche2.1BuwalViljoenmouth (outside)bouche (extérieur)1BuwalViljoenlanguagelangue, language2BuwalViljoenwordparole3BuwalViljoenproblemproblème4BuwalViljoenissuequestion2.2GavarViljoenmouth (outside)bouche (extérieur)1GavarViljoenlanguagelangue2GavarViljoenspeechdiscours3GavarViljoenissueproblème2.3MbudumNdokobaïmamouthbouche2.4DabaLienhardla bouche, les mots, le langage, la parole3Proto-Mafa*mamouthbouche3.1MafaBarreteaumabouche3.2CuvokGravinamamouthbouche4Proto-Tera*memouthbouche4.1TeraNewmanmemouth4.2NyimatliHarleymemouth5Proto-Sukur*ŋʷɨmouthbouche5.1SukurThomasŋʷumouth6Proto-Hurza*ma ʸ, ʔammouthbouche6.1MbukoGravinaʼammouthbouche6.2VameKinnairdmé 1language ; mouth ; wordlangue ; bouche ; parole1VameKinnairdmé 2beakbec7Proto-Margi*mjamouthbouche7.1BuraBlenchmjaMouth7.2Margi SouthHarleymijamouth1Margi SouthHarleymjamouth7.3KilbaSchuhnja/amouth8Proto-Mandara*wamouthbouche8.1PodokoSwackhammerwa,-abouche8.2MandaraFluckigerwebouche (f)8.3MalgwaLöhrwemouth8.4DghwedeFrickwuwemouth9Proto-Mofu*majmouthbouche9.1OuldemeKinnairdmouthbouche1OuldemeKinnairdopeningouverture9.2MuyangSmithmouth ; face ; shapebouche; visage; forme1MuyangSmithentrance ; doorentrée; porte2MuyangSmithword ; matter ; languagemot; parole; langue3MuyangSmithfrontdevant9.3MadaNkoumoumámmabouche9.4MolokoFriesenmamouthbouche1MolokoFriesenmalanguagelangue2MolokoFriesenmawordparole3MolokoFriesenmabeakbec9.5ZulgoHalleràhəmlangue f., langage m.1ZulgoHalleràhəmparole f.9.6MereyGravinamebouche9.7DugworJubumnamejmouthbouche1DugworJubumnamejwordmot, parole9.8Mofu NorthBarreteauméjbouche,gueule, bec1Mofu NorthBarreteauméjbord, bout, extreminité, entrée2Mofu NorthBarreteauméjdevant, début, avant3Mofu NorthBarreteauméjparole, langue, langage4Mofu NorthBarreteauméjaffaire, palabre5Mofu NorthBarreteauméjbouche6Mofu NorthBarreteauméjparole9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjmouthbouche, lèvre ; gueule ; bec1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjwordparole, langue, langage2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjopeningbord, bout, extrémité, entrée3Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjdevant, début, avant4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjaffaires, palabre10Proto-Maroua*ma ʸmouthbouche10.1Giziga MarvaHamidoumemouthbouche10.2MbazlaSILSurveymeʼmouthbouche1MbazlaTourneuxmebouche11Proto-Lamang*wajmouthbouche11.1LamangWolfféwémouth12Proto-Higi*mimouthbouche12.1KiryaBlenchmouth12.2BanaLienhardbouche13Proto-Kotoko South*memouthbouche13.1ZinaOddenmouthbouche13.2MazeraAllisonmemouthbouche14Proto-Musgum*majmouthbouche14.1VulumTourneuxmeŋbouche14.2MulwiTourneuxmeᵑgbouche14.3MbaraTourneuxmajmouthbouche14.4MuskumTourneuxmutbouche15Proto-Gidar*mamouthbouche15.1GidarSchuhma, abouche15.2GidarHungerfordmaʼbouche
majnm.hungerfaim1335A
This extremely well-attested root has the same form as the root for 'mouth', and was probably originally an extended sense of the same root. The basic sense is 'hunger', and this is extended in many languages to cover a time of famine. There was a regular change *m→w word-initial before a vowel in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group.
1Proto-Bata*mihungerfaim1.1SharwaGravinamikifaim, famine2Proto-Mafa*majhungerfaim2.1MafaNdokobaimajfaminefamine, faim2.2CuvokGravinamaj(be) hungry, hunger (v)(avoir) faim3Proto-Tera*miihungerfaim3.1TeraNewmanmehunger3.2NyimatliHarleymeedrought, famine1NyimatliHarleymee(be) hungry, hunger (v)3.3GaʼandaGwajimiitafamine4Proto-Sukur*majhungerfaim4.1SukurDavidmájhunger4.2SukurThomasmaihungry; is the general term for hungry; feeling that you want to eat something. For example food.5Proto-Hurza*majhungerfaim5.1MbukoGravinamajhungerfaim5.2VameKinnairdhùmájfaminefamine1VameKinnairdmājhungerfaim6Proto-Margi*mihungerfaim6.1BuraBlenchmiHunger Famine To be hungry ka mi. He is hungry mi ata kita ni6.2MargiHoffmanmihunger7Proto-Mandara*majɨhungerfaim7.1MatalBrangermajhungerfaim7.2PodokoSwackhammermaja,-əfaim, famine7.3MandaraFluckigerwajafaim (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrwajafamine, scarcity1MalgwaLöhrwajahunger7.5GlavdaNghagyivawàja(be) hungry, hunger (v)1GlavdaOwenswahunger, famine8Proto-Mofu*majhungerfaim8.1MolokoFriesenmajhungerfaim8.2ZulgoHallermájfaim f.8.3GemzekSabataimajla famine8.4MereyGravinamajhungerfaim8.5DugworJubumnamaj(be) hungry, hunger (v)(avoir) faim8.6Mofu NorthBarreteaumájfaim1Mofu NorthBarreteaumájfamine8.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmajfaim, famine9Proto-Maroua*majhungerfaim9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmajfaim, désir9.2Giziga Marvamaj gi dʒe(be) hungry, hunger (v)(avoir) faim9.3MbazlaTourneuxmajfaim1MbazlaSILSurveyomáiʼhunger (general)faim (général)10Proto-Lamang*majahungerfaim10.1LamangWolffmajahunger10.2HdiBramlettmajahungerla faim11Proto-Higi*mahungerfaim11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhunger11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyma(be) hungry; hunger (v)11.3KiryaBlenchʼmáhunger11.4PsikyeAngelohunger11.5BanaLienhardfaim12Proto-Musgum*majhungerfaim12.1MbaraTourneuxmijamajhungerfaim13Proto-Gidar*majahungerfaim13.1GidarHungerfordmajafamine13.2GidarHungerfordmajafaim
mamanf.mothermère1439Asynja
The root *mama or *ma is a common root for 'mother' cross-linguistically. In many Central Chadic languages there is also the variant *man. The expected change *m
→w in Mandara and Malgwa did not take place. The root *ja is found in the Kotoko languages.
1Proto-Bata*memothermère1.1TsuvanJohnstonmekənla mère2Proto-Daba*mamothermère2.1BuwalViljoenmɑnmothermère2.2GavarViljoenmɑmɑmothermère2.3MbudumNdokobaïmamamothermère2.4DabaLienhardmājma mère3Proto-Mafa*mamamothermère3.1MafaBarreteaumámámère3.2CuvokGravinamamaŋmothermaman1CuvokGravinamamothermère4Proto-Sukur*mamamothermère4.1SukurDavidma, mamamother4.2SukurThomasmamamother: a female parent of a child or animals. and is a person who is acting as a mother to a child.5Proto-Hurza*mamamothermère5.1MbukoGravinamanmothermère (d'un animal)1MbukoGravinamamajmothermère2MbukoGravinamajmothermère5.2VameKinnairdmāmámothermère6Proto-Margi*mamothermère6.1BuraBlenchmumaMother1BuraBlenchmajaMother6.2Margi SouthHarleyamamother6.3KilbaSchuhamamother7Proto-Mandara*mamothermère7.1PodokoSwackhammermamá,-amère7.2MandaraFluckigermamamère (f)1MandaraFluckigeremmamère (f)7.3MalgwaLöhrmamamother1MalgwaLöhrəmmamother2MalgwaLöhruumamother, female3MalgwaLöhrmamother8Proto-Mofu*mamothermère8.1OuldemeKinnairdmāŋmothermère8.2MuyangSmithmmɑmother (form of address)ma mère8.3MadaNkoumouammamère8.4MolokoFriesenmamamothermère8.5ZulgoHallermə́mə́rmère f.1ZulgoHallermàmá (gà)mère f.8.6GemzekSabataimamərmothermère1GemzekSabataiməmarmothermère8.7MereyGravinamajamère1MereyGravinamajmère8.8DugworJubumnamamamothermère8.9Mofu NorthBarreteaumàjámère8.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmamaŋmother(sa, la) mère9Proto-Maroua*mamothermère9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmahamaman, mère1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmumuŋmère9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouumamothermère9.3MbazlaTourneuxmamère10Proto-Lamang*mamamothermère10.1LamangWolffmamaamother10.2HdiBramlettmamamotherla mère11Proto-Higi*mamothermère11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymamother11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymamamother11.3KiryaBlenchmàjì (mà)mother, grandmother11.4PsikyeAngelomamother1PsikyeAngelomijimother12Proto-Kotoko Island*manmothermère12.1BudumaMcKonemanmère.13Proto-Musgum*maamothermère13.1VulumTourneuxamaama mère13.2MuskumTourneuxmaanama mère14Proto-Gidar*mamothermère14.1GidarSchuhmamère14.2GidarHungerfordəəma, mamère, maman14.3GidarSchuhmmamère
marn.oilhuile1333A
The basic sense is the oil used in cooking, but the root can be applied to other types of oil. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and Cuvok. There was also a regular change *m→w word-initial pre-vocalic in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group which accounts for the change in Glavda.
1Proto-Bata*marɨoilhuile1.1JimiDjibimarənL'huile1.2SharwaGravinamarəhuile, crème2Proto-Daba*mal ʸoilhuile2.1BuwalViljoenmeloilhuile2.2GavarViljoenmɑlioilhuile3Proto-Mafa*maroilhuile3.1MafaBarreteauᵐbárhuile3.2CuvokGravinamaloilhuile4Proto-Tera*maroilhuile4.1TeraNewmanmaroil4.2NyimatliHarleymoroil5Proto-Sukur*miroilhuile5.1SukurDavidmiroil5.2SukurThomasmiroil; is the general term for oil; it can be petroleum, engine oil, groundnut oil etc.6Proto-Hurza*amaroilhuile6.1MbukoGravinaamaroil (cooking)huile6.2VameKinnairdāᵐbároilhuile7Proto-Margi*maloilhuile7.1BuraBlenchmalFat, oil7.2KilbaSchuhmaloil = fat8Proto-Mandara*malɨoilhuile8.1MatalBrangerāmàloilhuile8.2PodokoSwackhammermala,-əhuile8.3GlavdaOwenswal oil, vegetable oil1GlavdaOwensoil, cream2GlavdaNghagyivawàlaoil9Proto-Mofu*amaloilhule9.1OuldemeKinnairdāmāloilhuile9.2MuyangSmithɑmɑloil, fuelhuile ; carburant9.3MadaNkoumouamalhuile9.4MolokoFriesenamaroilhuile9.5ZulgoHallermalhuile f.9.6GemzekSabataimaloilhuile9.7MereyGravinamalhuile9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaumálhuile9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmálhuile10Proto-Maroua*maloilhuile10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmalgraisse, huile, matière grasse10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumaloilhuile11Proto-Kotoko South*amɨloilhuile11.1ZinaOddenàməloilhuile11.2Mazeraamlefatgraisse12Proto-Musgum*maloilhuile12.1VulumTourneuxamelhuile, buerre12.2MbaraTourneuxmaloilhuile12.3MuskumTourneuxmɨltuwhuile, beurre13Proto-Gidar*malɨ ʸoilhuile13.1GidarSchuhmele/0huile13.2GidarHungerfordmelehuile
markɨɗ ʸnum.sixsix25synkɨwahɬiravɨnahkɨr
This is one of the less-common roots for 'six', and is found only in the Hurza and Maroua groups. There is a sporadic change *m→ᵐb in Mbuko, along with sporadic loss of *ɗ.
1Proto-Hurza*markasixsix1.1MbukoGravinaᵐbərkasixsix1.2VameKinnairdmárkàsixsix2Proto-Maroua*markɨɗ ʸsixsix2.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmerkeɗ(e)six2.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumerkiɗsix (6)six (6)2.3MbazlaTourneuxmerkisix1MbazlaSILSurveymɛ̀rkɛ́ʼsixsix
mɨɗɨpnum.sevensept615Csyntasɨraɗ
This is one of two widely distributed roots for 'seven'. This root is found in the languages of the Nigerian Plains. The *p is not present in the Tera group. In Proto-Higi there has been a change *ɗ→r, which is regular in all languages except for Psikye, and also a sporadic change *m→ᵐb. *p was realised as [p] in medial position and [f] in word-final position in Proto-Central Chadic. The widespread presence of /f/ implies that the *p was the final consonant, and that the final *n in the Bata and Higi groups is an addition to the root.
1Proto-Bata*mɨɗɨfiŋsevensept1.1GudeHoskinsonmə̀ɗə̀fəseven1.2JimiDjibiᵐbərəfiŋsevenSept2Proto-Tera*muɗsevensept2.1NyimatliHarleymutseven (7)2.2GaʼandaGwajimuɗseven3Proto-Sukur*maɗafsevensept3.1SukurDavidmaɗafseven3.2SukurThomasmaɗafseven4Proto-Margi*mɨɗɨfawsevensept4.1BuraBlenchmurfaSeven4.2Margi SouthHarleymədəfauseven5Proto-Mandara*mɨɗɨfɨsevensept5.1MatalBrangermᵊ̄ɗᵊ̀fnineneuf5.2PodokoSwackhammermaɗəfá,-əsevensept5.3GlavdaNghagyivaùːɗʲɨ̀faseven (7)6Proto-Higi*ᵐbirfɨŋsevensept6.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyᵐbùrfúᵑgə́Seven6.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyᵐbrfaᵑgoseven6.3KiryaBlenchᵐbìrfə́ᵑgseven6.4PsikyeAngeloᵐbərəfáŋseven6.5BanaLienhardᵐbə̀rf(ə́)ŋsept (7)
mitsv.to extinguishéteindre814Brel. tomɨts
The basic meaning of this verb is 'to put out a fire'. This root is very similar to the root for 'to die', the only difference is that *i is reconstructed. It could possibly be a causative form, i.e. 'to cause (a fire) to die'. There is a regular word-final change *ts→t in several groups.
1Proto-Bata*miitɨextinguishéteindre1.1JimiDjibimiitənEteindre ;2Proto-Daba*muts, mitsiʔnextinguishéteindre2.1MbudumNdokobaïkəmutʃkahawquench, extinguishéteindre2.2DabaLienhardmìtʃīʼnéteindre3Proto-Mafa*mɨtsaextinguishéteindre3.1CuvokGravinamətsaquench, extinguishéteindre4Proto-Hurza*muⁿdzɨjaextinguishéteindre4.1VameKinnairdmūⁿdʒíjāextinguish ; put outéteindre5Proto-Mandara*mɨtsɨextinguishéteindre5.1MatalBrangermamatsiŋ ala, mamatʃiŋ alaextinguishéteindre5.2PodokoSwackhammermetʃeéteindre5.3GlavdaNghagyivaɨ́mt͡sá káːɾaquench, extinguish6Proto-Mofu*mat ʸextinguishéteindre6.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemmētéŋéteindre6.2MuyangSmithmetcause to die, extinguishéteindre1MuyangSmithmetiŋcause to die, extinguishfaire mourir, éteindre6.3Mofu NorthBarreteaumémtsèjetindre (feu)7Proto-Maroua*mutsextinguishéteindre7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmutʃéteindre le feu, fais mourir le feu7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumutʃaquench, extinguishéteindre8Proto-Lamang*mɨtajextinguishéteindre8.1HdiBramlettmətajto extinguish a fireéteindre un feu
mɨtsv.to diemourir1847Arel. tomits
This is one of the most widely-attested Central Chadic roots, and reflexes are found in all eighteen groups. There is a regular change *ts→t which took place independently in several different groups. The resulting *t has the unestablished reflexes *d in Proto-Kotoko North, *ɗ in Proto-Musgum and *r in Proto-Kotoko South. If the Sukur word is cognate, then we have the regular change *ts→s, and the initial *m has the irregular reflex /ŋʷ/.
1Proto-Bata*mɨtdiemourir1.1JimiDjibimətənMourir1.2SharwaGravinamɨtəmourir2Proto-Daba*mɨtsdiemourir2.1BuwalViljoenmɑtʃdiemourir2.2GavarViljoenmtʃɑdiemourir2.3MbudumNdokobaïkəmətʃdiemourir2.4DabaLienhardmə̀tʃla mort, mourir3Proto-Mafa*mɨtsadiemourir3.1MafaBarreteaumətsamourir3.2CuvokGravinamətsadiemourir4Proto-Tera*mɨtdiemourir4.1TeraNewmanməɗidie1TeraNewmanməɗideath2TeraNewmanməɗicorpse4.2NyimatliHarleymu̱tdie5Proto-Sukur*ŋʷɨsdiemourir5.1SukurThomasŋusdie6Proto-Hurza*mɨtsdiemourir6.1MbukoGravinamatsto diemourir6.2VameKinnairdmə́tsàdiemourir7Proto-Margi*mɨtadiemourir7.1BuraBlenchmtaTo die Past tense mta8Proto-Mandara*mɨtsadiemourir8.1MatalBrangermamtsajdiemourir8.2PodokoSwackhammermɨtʃé 1mourir8.3MalgwaLöhrmtsadie, death8.4GlavdaNghagyivaɨ̀mtsᵊgadie8.5DghwedeFrickmtsadeath, to die9Proto-Mofu*mɨtdiemourir9.1OuldemeKinnairdmə̀tdiemourir9.2MadaNkoumoumamtamourir9.3MolokoFriesenmatdiemourir9.4ZulgoHallermə̀tmourir9.5GemzekSabataimemətediemourir9.6MereyGravinamətdiemourir, (être) mort9.7DugworJubumnaməmtajdiemourir9.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́mətsdiemourir1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmémətsejmourir, la mort 10Proto-Maroua*mutsdiemourir10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmutʃmourir, mort10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumutʃdiemourir10.3MbazlaTourneuxmutʃmourir1MbazlaSILSurveymúitʃdiemourir11Proto-Lamang*mɨtadiemourir11.1LamangWolffmtadie11.2HdiBramlettmətajto diemourir12Proto-Higi*mɨtɨdiemourir12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymtə́Die1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymtəto die12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymtodie; dying12.3PsikyeAngelomtə́die12.4BanaLienhardm(ə)tímourir, la mort13Proto-Kotoko Island*matɨdiemourir13.1BudumaMcKonematədiemourir14Proto-Kotoko North*madɨdiemourir14.1AfadeAllisonmadɨdiemourir14.2MpadeAllisonmàdɨ̀diemourir14.3MalgbeAllisonmadidiemourir15Proto-Kotoko Centre*mɨtdiemourir15.1LagwanAllisonmɨtidiemourir15.2MserAllisonmatodiemourir16Proto-Kotoko South*maradiemourir16.1ZinaOddenmàràdiemourir17Proto-Musgum*mɨɗɨ ʸdiemourir17.1VulumTourneuxmirimourir17.2MulwiTourneuxmirimourir17.3MbaraTourneuxmiʼdiŋdie18Proto-Gidar*ɨmtadiemourir18.1GidarHungerfordəmtamourir18.2GidarSchuhumtamourir19Shoa Arabicmât; môt; majjitdiemourir


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m


maborn.lionlion59Bsynlɨvarizɨjɨl
This is one of three roots for 'lion'. It is unusual in that the labialisation prosody is present in two groups, and there is a back vowel in the Daba group. Neither the labialisation prosody nor back vowels are reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic, and any back vowels in reflexes can normally be explained as originating with *w or a labialised velar. In this case, no such explanation is evident. There was no change *r→l, so the root cannot have any great time depth. The root could have been borrowed, though the source is not known, or it could be a comparatively recent coining. *ma- is a common nominalizing prefix, and the word may denote 'a thing that goes bor', for example.
1Proto-Daba*maborlionlion1.1MbudumNdokobaïmaborlionlion2Proto-Mafa*mabarlionlion2.1CuvokGravinamabarlionlion3Proto-Hurza*bɨrbar ʷlionlion3.1MbukoGravinabərboranimalanimal (comme le lion?)4Proto-Mofu*mabarlionlion4.1MolokoFriesenmaborbrush lionlion_de_la_brousse4.2DugworJubumnamaborlionlion4.3Mofu NorthBarreteaumábàrlion4.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmabárlion5Proto-Maroua*mabar ʷlionlion5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmoborlion1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmoborsurnom du chef (majesté)5.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumoborlionlion
madɨwann.ratrat613A
This root is found in a wide range of languages around the Mandara Mountains. It is expected that there would be a change of word-final *n→r in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Mofu. However this has not taken place, indicating that the root may have been borrowed into these groups form another language such as Mafa.
1Proto-Daba*maⁿdɨwanratrat1.1BuwalViljoenmɑⁿduwɑnratrat1.2DabaLienhardmāⁿdə̀wànle rat palmiste2Proto-Mafa*madɨwanratrat2.1MafaNdokobaimadəwarat1MafaBarreteauməduwarat de Gambie2.2CuvokGravinamadwaŋratrat3Proto-Sukur*mɨdwanratrat3.1SukurDavidmudwanrat, large3.2SukurThomasmədwanrat; a small animal with a long tail, that looks like large mouse usually considered as a pest.4Proto-Hurza*mɨdɨdɨwanratrat4.1MbukoGravinamədəduwanratrat, raton5Proto-Mandara*madɨwanɨratrat5.1PodokoSwackhammermadə́wana,-ərat palmiste6Proto-Mofu*madɨwanratrat6.1MuyangSmithmɑdwɑŋratrat6.2MolokoFriesenmədəwanpalm ratrat_palmiste6.3ZulgoHallermédiwiŋrat m.6.4GemzekSabataimaduwaŋratrat6.5MereyGravinamaduwaŋratrat6.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmaⁿdəwaŋRat de Gambie
mahʷan.horncorne34Csyndɨrɨmlaganᵐbɨkʷɨm
This is one of the rarer roots for 'horn', and is found only in three groups in the Eastern Plains area. The labialisation component of the *h has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Musgum and Proto-Gidar, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Kotoko South*ahʷahorncorne1.1ZinaOddenàhʷàlhorncorne1.2MazeraAllisonmɨhuehorncorne2Proto-Musgum*maha ʷhorncorne2.1MbaraTourneuxmohohorn3Proto-Gidar*maha ʷhorncorne3.1GidarSchuhmoho, ocorne3.2GidarHungerfordmohõcorne
majnm.mouthbouche1543A
This is an extremely well-attested root, and is found in all groups except for Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Kotoko Centre. There was a regular change *m→w word-inital before a vowel in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group, and this form has been borrowed by Podoko and Lamang. The *j has been lost in several groups, has combined with *a to produce *e in the Tera and Kotoko South groups, and has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Hurza and Maroua groups. All these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*mamouthbouche1.1GudeHoskinson(inher. poss. body part) mouth, edge, rim.1.2JimiDjibimanBouche1.3SharwaGravinamabouche1.4TsuvanJohnstonmala bouche2Proto-Daba*mamouthbouche2.1BuwalViljoenmouth (outside)bouche (extérieur)1BuwalViljoenlanguagelangue, language2BuwalViljoenwordparole3BuwalViljoenproblemproblème4BuwalViljoenissuequestion2.2GavarViljoenmouth (outside)bouche (extérieur)1GavarViljoenlanguagelangue2GavarViljoenspeechdiscours3GavarViljoenissueproblème2.3MbudumNdokobaïmamouthbouche2.4DabaLienhardla bouche, les mots, le langage, la parole3Proto-Mafa*mamouthbouche3.1MafaBarreteaumabouche3.2CuvokGravinamamouthbouche4Proto-Tera*memouthbouche4.1TeraNewmanmemouth4.2NyimatliHarleymemouth5Proto-Sukur*ŋʷɨmouthbouche5.1SukurThomasŋʷumouth6Proto-Hurza*ma ʸ, ʔammouthbouche6.1MbukoGravinaʼammouthbouche6.2VameKinnairdmé 1language ; mouth ; wordlangue ; bouche ; parole1VameKinnairdmé 2beakbec7Proto-Margi*mjamouthbouche7.1BuraBlenchmjaMouth7.2Margi SouthHarleymijamouth1Margi SouthHarleymjamouth7.3KilbaSchuhnja/amouth8Proto-Mandara*wamouthbouche8.1PodokoSwackhammerwa,-abouche8.2MandaraFluckigerwebouche (f)8.3MalgwaLöhrwemouth8.4DghwedeFrickwuwemouth9Proto-Mofu*majmouthbouche9.1OuldemeKinnairdmouthbouche1OuldemeKinnairdopeningouverture9.2MuyangSmithmouth ; face ; shapebouche; visage; forme1MuyangSmithentrance ; doorentrée; porte2MuyangSmithword ; matter ; languagemot; parole; langue3MuyangSmithfrontdevant9.3MadaNkoumoumámmabouche9.4MolokoFriesenmamouthbouche1MolokoFriesenmalanguagelangue2MolokoFriesenmawordparole3MolokoFriesenmabeakbec9.5ZulgoHalleràhəmlangue f., langage m.1ZulgoHalleràhəmparole f.9.6MereyGravinamebouche9.7DugworJubumnamejmouthbouche1DugworJubumnamejwordmot, parole9.8Mofu NorthBarreteauméjbouche,gueule, bec1Mofu NorthBarreteauméjbord, bout, extreminité, entrée2Mofu NorthBarreteauméjdevant, début, avant3Mofu NorthBarreteauméjparole, langue, langage4Mofu NorthBarreteauméjaffaire, palabre5Mofu NorthBarreteauméjbouche6Mofu NorthBarreteauméjparole9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjmouthbouche, lèvre ; gueule ; bec1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjwordparole, langue, langage2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjopeningbord, bout, extrémité, entrée3Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjdevant, début, avant4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthméjaffaires, palabre10Proto-Maroua*ma ʸmouthbouche10.1Giziga MarvaHamidoumemouthbouche10.2MbazlaSILSurveymeʼmouthbouche1MbazlaTourneuxmebouche11Proto-Lamang*wajmouthbouche11.1LamangWolfféwémouth12Proto-Higi*mimouthbouche12.1KiryaBlenchmouth12.2BanaLienhardbouche13Proto-Kotoko South*memouthbouche13.1ZinaOddenmouthbouche13.2MazeraAllisonmemouthbouche14Proto-Musgum*majmouthbouche14.1VulumTourneuxmeŋbouche14.2MulwiTourneuxmeᵑgbouche14.3MbaraTourneuxmajmouthbouche14.4MuskumTourneuxmutbouche15Proto-Gidar*mamouthbouche15.1GidarSchuhma, abouche15.2GidarHungerfordmaʼbouche
majnm.hungerfaim1335A
This extremely well-attested root has the same form as the root for 'mouth', and was probably originally an extended sense of the same root. The basic sense is 'hunger', and this is extended in many languages to cover a time of famine. There was a regular change *m→w word-initial before a vowel in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group.
1Proto-Bata*mihungerfaim1.1SharwaGravinamikifaim, famine2Proto-Mafa*majhungerfaim2.1MafaNdokobaimajfaminefamine, faim2.2CuvokGravinamaj(be) hungry, hunger (v)(avoir) faim3Proto-Tera*miihungerfaim3.1TeraNewmanmehunger3.2NyimatliHarleymeedrought, famine1NyimatliHarleymee(be) hungry, hunger (v)3.3GaʼandaGwajimiitafamine4Proto-Sukur*majhungerfaim4.1SukurDavidmájhunger4.2SukurThomasmaihungry; is the general term for hungry; feeling that you want to eat something. For example food.5Proto-Hurza*majhungerfaim5.1MbukoGravinamajhungerfaim5.2VameKinnairdhùmájfaminefamine1VameKinnairdmājhungerfaim6Proto-Margi*mihungerfaim6.1BuraBlenchmiHunger Famine To be hungry ka mi. He is hungry mi ata kita ni6.2MargiHoffmanmihunger7Proto-Mandara*majɨhungerfaim7.1MatalBrangermajhungerfaim7.2PodokoSwackhammermaja,-əfaim, famine7.3MandaraFluckigerwajafaim (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrwajafamine, scarcity1MalgwaLöhrwajahunger7.5GlavdaNghagyivawàja(be) hungry, hunger (v)1GlavdaOwenswahunger, famine8Proto-Mofu*majhungerfaim8.1MolokoFriesenmajhungerfaim8.2ZulgoHallermájfaim f.8.3GemzekSabataimajla famine8.4MereyGravinamajhungerfaim8.5DugworJubumnamaj(be) hungry, hunger (v)(avoir) faim8.6Mofu NorthBarreteaumájfaim1Mofu NorthBarreteaumájfamine8.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmajfaim, famine9Proto-Maroua*majhungerfaim9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmajfaim, désir9.2Giziga Marvamaj gi dʒe(be) hungry, hunger (v)(avoir) faim9.3MbazlaTourneuxmajfaim1MbazlaSILSurveyomáiʼhunger (general)faim (général)10Proto-Lamang*majahungerfaim10.1LamangWolffmajahunger10.2HdiBramlettmajahungerla faim11Proto-Higi*mahungerfaim11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyhunger11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyma(be) hungry; hunger (v)11.3KiryaBlenchʼmáhunger11.4PsikyeAngelohunger11.5BanaLienhardfaim12Proto-Musgum*majhungerfaim12.1MbaraTourneuxmijamajhungerfaim13Proto-Gidar*majahungerfaim13.1GidarHungerfordmajafamine13.2GidarHungerfordmajafaim
mamanf.mothermère1439Asynja
The root *mama or *ma is a common root for 'mother' cross-linguistically. In many Central Chadic languages there is also the variant *man. The expected change *m
→w in Mandara and Malgwa did not take place. The root *ja is found in the Kotoko languages.
1Proto-Bata*memothermère1.1TsuvanJohnstonmekənla mère2Proto-Daba*mamothermère2.1BuwalViljoenmɑnmothermère2.2GavarViljoenmɑmɑmothermère2.3MbudumNdokobaïmamamothermère2.4DabaLienhardmājma mère3Proto-Mafa*mamamothermère3.1MafaBarreteaumámámère3.2CuvokGravinamamaŋmothermaman1CuvokGravinamamothermère4Proto-Sukur*mamamothermère4.1SukurDavidma, mamamother4.2SukurThomasmamamother: a female parent of a child or animals. and is a person who is acting as a mother to a child.5Proto-Hurza*mamamothermère5.1MbukoGravinamanmothermère (d'un animal)1MbukoGravinamamajmothermère2MbukoGravinamajmothermère5.2VameKinnairdmāmámothermère6Proto-Margi*mamothermère6.1BuraBlenchmumaMother1BuraBlenchmajaMother6.2Margi SouthHarleyamamother6.3KilbaSchuhamamother7Proto-Mandara*mamothermère7.1PodokoSwackhammermamá,-amère7.2MandaraFluckigermamamère (f)1MandaraFluckigeremmamère (f)7.3MalgwaLöhrmamamother1MalgwaLöhrəmmamother2MalgwaLöhruumamother, female3MalgwaLöhrmamother8Proto-Mofu*mamothermère8.1OuldemeKinnairdmāŋmothermère8.2MuyangSmithmmɑmother (form of address)ma mère8.3MadaNkoumouammamère8.4MolokoFriesenmamamothermère8.5ZulgoHallermə́mə́rmère f.1ZulgoHallermàmá (gà)mère f.8.6GemzekSabataimamərmothermère1GemzekSabataiməmarmothermère8.7MereyGravinamajamère1MereyGravinamajmère8.8DugworJubumnamamamothermère8.9Mofu NorthBarreteaumàjámère8.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmamaŋmother(sa, la) mère9Proto-Maroua*mamothermère9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmahamaman, mère1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmumuŋmère9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouumamothermère9.3MbazlaTourneuxmamère10Proto-Lamang*mamamothermère10.1LamangWolffmamaamother10.2HdiBramlettmamamotherla mère11Proto-Higi*mamothermère11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymamother11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymamamother11.3KiryaBlenchmàjì (mà)mother, grandmother11.4PsikyeAngelomamother1PsikyeAngelomijimother12Proto-Kotoko Island*manmothermère12.1BudumaMcKonemanmère.13Proto-Musgum*maamothermère13.1VulumTourneuxamaama mère13.2MuskumTourneuxmaanama mère14Proto-Gidar*mamothermère14.1GidarSchuhmamère14.2GidarHungerfordəəma, mamère, maman14.3GidarSchuhmmamère
marn.oilhuile1333A
The basic sense is the oil used in cooking, but the root can be applied to other types of oil. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and Cuvok. There was also a regular change *m→w word-initial pre-vocalic in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group which accounts for the change in Glavda.
1Proto-Bata*marɨoilhuile1.1JimiDjibimarənL'huile1.2SharwaGravinamarəhuile, crème2Proto-Daba*mal ʸoilhuile2.1BuwalViljoenmeloilhuile2.2GavarViljoenmɑlioilhuile3Proto-Mafa*maroilhuile3.1MafaBarreteauᵐbárhuile3.2CuvokGravinamaloilhuile4Proto-Tera*maroilhuile4.1TeraNewmanmaroil4.2NyimatliHarleymoroil5Proto-Sukur*miroilhuile5.1SukurDavidmiroil5.2SukurThomasmiroil; is the general term for oil; it can be petroleum, engine oil, groundnut oil etc.6Proto-Hurza*amaroilhuile6.1MbukoGravinaamaroil (cooking)huile6.2VameKinnairdāᵐbároilhuile7Proto-Margi*maloilhuile7.1BuraBlenchmalFat, oil7.2KilbaSchuhmaloil = fat8Proto-Mandara*malɨoilhuile8.1MatalBrangerāmàloilhuile8.2PodokoSwackhammermala,-əhuile8.3GlavdaOwenswal oil, vegetable oil1GlavdaOwensoil, cream2GlavdaNghagyivawàlaoil9Proto-Mofu*amaloilhule9.1OuldemeKinnairdāmāloilhuile9.2MuyangSmithɑmɑloil, fuelhuile ; carburant9.3MadaNkoumouamalhuile9.4MolokoFriesenamaroilhuile9.5ZulgoHallermalhuile f.9.6GemzekSabataimaloilhuile9.7MereyGravinamalhuile9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaumálhuile9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmálhuile10Proto-Maroua*maloilhuile10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmalgraisse, huile, matière grasse10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumaloilhuile11Proto-Kotoko South*amɨloilhuile11.1ZinaOddenàməloilhuile11.2Mazeraamlefatgraisse12Proto-Musgum*maloilhuile12.1VulumTourneuxamelhuile, buerre12.2MbaraTourneuxmaloilhuile12.3MuskumTourneuxmɨltuwhuile, beurre13Proto-Gidar*malɨ ʸoilhuile13.1GidarSchuhmele/0huile13.2GidarHungerfordmelehuile
markɨɗ ʸnum.sixsix25synkɨwahɬiravɨnahkɨr
This is one of the less-common roots for 'six', and is found only in the Hurza and Maroua groups. There is a sporadic change *m→ᵐb in Mbuko, along with sporadic loss of *ɗ.
1Proto-Hurza*markasixsix1.1MbukoGravinaᵐbərkasixsix1.2VameKinnairdmárkàsixsix2Proto-Maroua*markɨɗ ʸsixsix2.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmerkeɗ(e)six2.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumerkiɗsix (6)six (6)2.3MbazlaTourneuxmerkisix1MbazlaSILSurveymɛ̀rkɛ́ʼsixsix
mɨɗɨpnum.sevensept615Csyntasɨraɗ
This is one of two widely distributed roots for 'seven'. This root is found in the languages of the Nigerian Plains. The *p is not present in the Tera group. In Proto-Higi there has been a change *ɗ→r, which is regular in all languages except for Psikye, and also a sporadic change *m→ᵐb. *p was realised as [p] in medial position and [f] in word-final position in Proto-Central Chadic. The widespread presence of /f/ implies that the *p was the final consonant, and that the final *n in the Bata and Higi groups is an addition to the root.
1Proto-Bata*mɨɗɨfiŋsevensept1.1GudeHoskinsonmə̀ɗə̀fəseven1.2JimiDjibiᵐbərəfiŋsevenSept2Proto-Tera*muɗsevensept2.1NyimatliHarleymutseven (7)2.2GaʼandaGwajimuɗseven3Proto-Sukur*maɗafsevensept3.1SukurDavidmaɗafseven3.2SukurThomasmaɗafseven4Proto-Margi*mɨɗɨfawsevensept4.1BuraBlenchmurfaSeven4.2Margi SouthHarleymədəfauseven5Proto-Mandara*mɨɗɨfɨsevensept5.1MatalBrangermᵊ̄ɗᵊ̀fnineneuf5.2PodokoSwackhammermaɗəfá,-əsevensept5.3GlavdaNghagyivaùːɗʲɨ̀faseven (7)6Proto-Higi*ᵐbirfɨŋsevensept6.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyᵐbùrfúᵑgə́Seven6.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyᵐbrfaᵑgoseven6.3KiryaBlenchᵐbìrfə́ᵑgseven6.4PsikyeAngeloᵐbərəfáŋseven6.5BanaLienhardᵐbə̀rf(ə́)ŋsept (7)
mitsv.to extinguishéteindre814Brel. tomɨts
The basic meaning of this verb is 'to put out a fire'. This root is very similar to the root for 'to die', the only difference is that *i is reconstructed. It could possibly be a causative form, i.e. 'to cause (a fire) to die'. There is a regular word-final change *ts→t in several groups.
1Proto-Bata*miitɨextinguishéteindre1.1JimiDjibimiitənEteindre ;2Proto-Daba*muts, mitsiʔnextinguishéteindre2.1MbudumNdokobaïkəmutʃkahawquench, extinguishéteindre2.2DabaLienhardmìtʃīʼnéteindre3Proto-Mafa*mɨtsaextinguishéteindre3.1CuvokGravinamətsaquench, extinguishéteindre4Proto-Hurza*muⁿdzɨjaextinguishéteindre4.1VameKinnairdmūⁿdʒíjāextinguish ; put outéteindre5Proto-Mandara*mɨtsɨextinguishéteindre5.1MatalBrangermamatsiŋ ala, mamatʃiŋ alaextinguishéteindre5.2PodokoSwackhammermetʃeéteindre5.3GlavdaNghagyivaɨ́mt͡sá káːɾaquench, extinguish6Proto-Mofu*mat ʸextinguishéteindre6.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemmētéŋéteindre6.2MuyangSmithmetcause to die, extinguishéteindre1MuyangSmithmetiŋcause to die, extinguishfaire mourir, éteindre6.3Mofu NorthBarreteaumémtsèjetindre (feu)7Proto-Maroua*mutsextinguishéteindre7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmutʃéteindre le feu, fais mourir le feu7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumutʃaquench, extinguishéteindre8Proto-Lamang*mɨtajextinguishéteindre8.1HdiBramlettmətajto extinguish a fireéteindre un feu
mɨtsv.to diemourir1847Arel. tomits
This is one of the most widely-attested Central Chadic roots, and reflexes are found in all eighteen groups. There is a regular change *ts→t which took place independently in several different groups. The resulting *t has the unestablished reflexes *d in Proto-Kotoko North, *ɗ in Proto-Musgum and *r in Proto-Kotoko South. If the Sukur word is cognate, then we have the regular change *ts→s, and the initial *m has the irregular reflex /ŋʷ/.
1Proto-Bata*mɨtdiemourir1.1JimiDjibimətənMourir1.2SharwaGravinamɨtəmourir2Proto-Daba*mɨtsdiemourir2.1BuwalViljoenmɑtʃdiemourir2.2GavarViljoenmtʃɑdiemourir2.3MbudumNdokobaïkəmətʃdiemourir2.4DabaLienhardmə̀tʃla mort, mourir3Proto-Mafa*mɨtsadiemourir3.1MafaBarreteaumətsamourir3.2CuvokGravinamətsadiemourir4Proto-Tera*mɨtdiemourir4.1TeraNewmanməɗidie1TeraNewmanməɗideath2TeraNewmanməɗicorpse4.2NyimatliHarleymu̱tdie5Proto-Sukur*ŋʷɨsdiemourir5.1SukurThomasŋusdie6Proto-Hurza*mɨtsdiemourir6.1MbukoGravinamatsto diemourir6.2VameKinnairdmə́tsàdiemourir7Proto-Margi*mɨtadiemourir7.1BuraBlenchmtaTo die Past tense mta8Proto-Mandara*mɨtsadiemourir8.1MatalBrangermamtsajdiemourir8.2PodokoSwackhammermɨtʃé 1mourir8.3MalgwaLöhrmtsadie, death8.4GlavdaNghagyivaɨ̀mtsᵊgadie8.5DghwedeFrickmtsadeath, to die9Proto-Mofu*mɨtdiemourir9.1OuldemeKinnairdmə̀tdiemourir9.2MadaNkoumoumamtamourir9.3MolokoFriesenmatdiemourir9.4ZulgoHallermə̀tmourir9.5GemzekSabataimemətediemourir9.6MereyGravinamətdiemourir, (être) mort9.7DugworJubumnaməmtajdiemourir9.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́mətsdiemourir1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmémətsejmourir, la mort 10Proto-Maroua*mutsdiemourir10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmutʃmourir, mort10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumutʃdiemourir10.3MbazlaTourneuxmutʃmourir1MbazlaSILSurveymúitʃdiemourir11Proto-Lamang*mɨtadiemourir11.1LamangWolffmtadie11.2HdiBramlettmətajto diemourir12Proto-Higi*mɨtɨdiemourir12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymtə́Die1Kamwe-NkafaHarleymtəto die12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleymtodie; dying12.3PsikyeAngelomtə́die12.4BanaLienhardm(ə)tímourir, la mort13Proto-Kotoko Island*matɨdiemourir13.1BudumaMcKonematədiemourir14Proto-Kotoko North*madɨdiemourir14.1AfadeAllisonmadɨdiemourir14.2MpadeAllisonmàdɨ̀diemourir14.3MalgbeAllisonmadidiemourir15Proto-Kotoko Centre*mɨtdiemourir15.1LagwanAllisonmɨtidiemourir15.2MserAllisonmatodiemourir16Proto-Kotoko South*maradiemourir16.1ZinaOddenmàràdiemourir17Proto-Musgum*mɨɗɨ ʸdiemourir17.1VulumTourneuxmirimourir17.2MulwiTourneuxmirimourir17.3MbaraTourneuxmiʼdiŋdie18Proto-Gidar*ɨmtadiemourir18.1GidarHungerfordəmtamourir18.2GidarSchuhumtamourir19Shoa Arabicmât; môt; majjitdiemourir