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p


pakʷaɗɨpnm.lungpoumon1536C
This root is complex to reconstruct. It contains four consonants, and the two medial consonants have been lost in several groups. In many cases this has been compensated for by the reduplication of one of the other root consonants.
Proto-Central Chadic *p had the allophone [p] in word-initial position and [f] in word-final position. The initial *p has the reflex *b in several groups. The final *p
f has the irregular reflex *v in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko South.
*kʷ has the reflex *gʷ in Gude, Proto-Margi, Proto-Maroua, Proto-Higi and Proto-Musgum, which is regular only in Proto-Higi. In Proto-Tera it has the unestablished reflex *hʷ. The labialisation component has been lost in Proto-Mofu, and has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Tera and Proto-Musgum, along with several individual languages, which are common sporadic processes. The *kʷ has been lost completely in several groups, probably through the sporadic changes *kʷ→hʷ→h→0.
The *
ɗ is retained only in Daba, and has the reflex /ʔ/ in Giziga Marva. Elsewhere its existence can be deduced from compensatory reduplication. Where either *kʷ or *ɗ is lost, many languages have compensated for the lost material by reduplicating a syllable. In Gude, Proto-Tera, Proto-Hurza, Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi, there is reduplication, though this could be triggered by the loss of either the initial *p or the *ɗ. However, in Mofu-Gudur and Proto-Maroua, the *p, *kʷ and *f are still present, implying that another consonant has been lost. The evidence for *ɗ is indirect, but cannot be ignored.
1Proto-Bata*bɨfi ʸ, *gʷɨgʷɨfilungspoumon1.1GudeHoskinsongùgùfínəlungs1.2SharwaGravinabjəfipoumon2Proto-Daba*pakʷaɗɨflungpoumon2.1BuwalViljoenɣɑmpɑflungpoumon2.2GavarViljoenɣɑlɑ kɑmpɑflungpoumon2.3MbudumNdokobaïbahaflungpoumon2.4DabaLienhardpòkòɗūfle poumon3Proto-Mafa*baflungpoumon3.1MafaBarreteaubafpoumon3.2CuvokGravinabeflungpoumon4Proto-Tera*huhuplungpoumon4.1NyimatliHarleykhukhuplung5Proto-Sukur*bɨflungspoumon5.1SukurThomasbəflung in inside the stomach6Proto-Hurza*baf, *kʷɨkʷɨfalungpoumon6.1MbukoGravinabaflungspoumon6.2VameKinnairdkùkùfàlungpoumon7Proto-Margi*gʷagʷavilungspoumon7.1Margi SouthHarleygʷagʷavilungs7.2KilbaSchuhguguvilungs8Proto-Mandara*pɨfalungspoumon8.1MatalBrangerpafaflungspoumon8.2PodokoSwackhammerbə́fa,-əpoumon9Proto-Mofu*abahaflungspoumon9.1OuldemeKinnairdᵐbèflungpoumon9.2MadaNkoumouamᵐbahaflungpoumon9.3MolokoFriesenpahavlungpoumon9.4ZulgoHallerabaflungpoumon m.9.5GemzekSabataiabaflungpoumon9.6MereyGravinabaᵐbaflungle poumon9.7DugworJubumnaboᵐboflungpoumon9.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthbabəkaflungpoumon (Gudur)10Proto-Maroua*babagʷaflungpoumon10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanboboᵑgof(Mt), bofoko(Mj)poumons10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoububuʼoflungpoumon10.3MbazlaTourneuxbaagafpoumons11Proto-Lamang*bɨflungpoumon11.1HdiBramlettbəflungle poumon12Proto-Higi*gʷɨgʷɨfilungpoumon12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygugufəlung12.2KiryaBlenchgùgùfílungs12.3BanaLienhardbə̀fìpoumons13Proto-Kotoko North*kafolungpoumon13.1AfadeAllisongafolungpoumon13.2MpadeAllisonkófolungpoumon14Proto-Kotoko South*ɣʷavɨlungpoumon14.1MazeraAllisonɣʷavɣʷavɨlungpoumon15Proto-Musgum*bubugaflungpoumon15.1VulumTourneuxbaagafpoumon15.2MbaraTourneuxbubugaflung
paɮan.upper armavant-bras610Crel. tohɨpaɬ ʸsyndzɨvɨ ʸhɨra
This root is probably related to the root *hɨpaɬ ʸ 'shoulder'. In three of the groups the *p is realised as /b/, and in two groups the initial consonant has been prenasalised. In all except two of the groups, the *ɮ is realised as /l/, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Daba*palalaŋ ʸarmbras1.1GavarViljoenmɑpeleleŋarmsbras2Proto-Hurza*baɮaupper armavant-bras2.1MbukoGravinabaɮaupper armpartie supérieure du bras3Proto-Maroua*baɮaarmbras3.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhirbaɮamuscle du bras, bras, suprérieur humérus4Proto-Higi*pɨlahandmain4.1KiryaBlenchpə̀làhand5Proto-Kotoko North*ᵐbalaarmbras5.1AfadeAllisonᵐbɨlaarmbras5.2MpadeAllisonᵐbalaarmbras1MpadeAllisonᵐbalaforearmavant-bras2MpadeAllisonᵐbalaupper armbras supérieur5.3MalgbeAllisonᵐbalaarmbras5.4MaltamAllisonᵐbalaarmbras6Proto-Kotoko Centre*mpalaforearmavant-bras6.1LagwanAllisonmpalaarmbras6.2MserAllisonmpalaarmbras
pɨɗakʷ ʸnm.razorrasoir913Acfbeli
It is not possible to determine whether this root was present in Proto-Central Chadic, or whether it was an early technological innovation that spread through the langauges at a later point. The regularity of the root is consistent with an early origin. *ɗ has the regular reflex /r/ in Bura, Kirya and Bana.
1Proto-Bata*pɨɗɨkʷa ʸrazorrasoir1.1GudeHoskinsonpíɗə̀kʷátype of razor with triangular shaped iron blade2Proto-Daba*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir2.1BuwalViljoenpədekʷrazorrasoir2.2MbudumNdokobaïpjɗeɗrazorrasoir2.3DabaLienhardpìdēkle rasoir indigène3Proto-Mafa*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir3.1CuvokGravinapəɗekʷrazorrasoir4Proto-Sukur*pɨɗakʼʷ ʸrazorrasoir4.1SukurDavidpidoekʼrazor4.2SukurThomaspiɗikʼurazor5Proto-Hurza*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir5.1MbukoGravinapəɗœkrazorrasoir6Proto-Margi*parkʷɨ ʸrazorrasoir6.1BuraBlenchpjerkuRazor blade1BuraBlenchperkuRazor blade7Proto-Mandara*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir7.1MatalBrangerpᵊ̀ɗʲɛ́kʷrazorrasoir8Proto-Mofu*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir8.1Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́pəɗekʷrasoir (pointe effilée en fer)9Proto-Higi*pɨɗikʷrazorrasoir9.1Kamwe-FutuHarleypəɗirazor9.2KiryaBlenchpìrúkúrazor9.3BanaLienhardpìrə̀rasoir, lame
pikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸv.whistlesiffler618Bcfv2vatsviɮ
Two alternative roots are proposed due to the contradictory evidence. The data from the Daba, Mafa and Mofu groups supports reconstructing the palatalisation prosody, whilst the data from the other groups indicates that the vowel *i should be reconstructed. *p has the reflex *f in all groups, which is not expected in word-initial position. The word may therefore have an onomatapoeic origin.
1Proto-Bata*fikʷwhistlesiffler1.1GudeHoskinsonfikuwhistle1.2JimiDjibifikʷənSiffler avec la bouche ;2Proto-Daba*fɨfakʷ ʸwhistlesiffler2.1BuwalViljoenfefekʷwhistle (v)siffler2.2MbudumNdokobaïfəfekwhistle (v)siffler1MbudumNdokobaïfəfəkwhistle (v)siffler3Proto-Mafa*fɨkʷ ʸwhistlesiffler3.1MafaBarreteaufʉkʷsiffler3.2CuvokGravinafəfkʷahisssiffler (serpent)1CuvokGravinafafkʷablowsouffler2CuvokGravinafafkʷawhistle (v)siffler4Proto-Mandara*fikʷawhistlesiffler4.1PodokoSwackhammerfikʷásiffler4.2MandaraFluckigerfikʷasiffler4.3MalgwaLöhrfiikʷawhistle4.4GlavdaNghagyivafàfíkʷawhistle (v)4.5DghwedeFrickfəgeto blow5Proto-Mofu*fɨkʷ ʸwhistlesiffler5.1MuyangSmithfikʷejwhistlesiffler5.2MolokoFriesenfokajwhistle with your lipssiffler avec les lèvres5.3ZulgoHallerfèfekʷésiffler5.4GemzekSabataimefukʷe dədœhisssiffler (serpent)1GemzekSabataimefukʷesiffler2GemzekSabataifukblowsouffler5.5MereyGravinafəfəkʷblow, hisssiffler (serpent), souffler5.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthfáfákʷsiffler1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthfáfákʷwhistle (with mouth, without instrument), call by whistling (a dog, goat)siffler (avec la bouche, sans instrument), appeler en sifflant (un chien, chèvre) 6Proto-Higi*figʷewhistlesiffler6.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyfigʷewhistle
pɨnv.itchdémanger411A
The basic meaning is to scratch an itch. The change *n to *r in the Mofu group is regular. This change is also found in Cuvok, but is a borrowing from Mofu-Gudur. (Apart from the Cuvok borrowing, the root is not found in languages of the South sub-branch.) There is reduplication in several languages, which can indicate that an initial consonant, such as *h, has been lost. Proto-Central Chadic *p has the reflex *f in all groups, which is not expected in this position.
1Proto-Mafa*fafɨritchdémanger1.1CuvokGravinamefefrejitch (the itch)démangeaison2Proto-Hurza*fɨfɨnitchdémanger2.1MbukoGravinafəfanscratch; itchgratter; démanger2.2VameKinnairdfə̄fə́nàitch ; scratch_oneselfgratter_se3Proto-Mofu*fɨritchdémanger3.1MadaNkoumoumóffordémanger (causer des démangeaisons)3.2MolokoFriesenfarscratchgratter3.3GemzekSabataifərscrape (v)gratter, racler3.4MereyGravinafəfargratter3.5DugworJubumnaməferej baitch (the itch)démangeaison3.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthfáfər(se) gratter, frotter4Proto-Maroua*funitchdémanger4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfun vúse gratter le corps, démanger4.2Giziga MarvaHamidoufuna voitch (the itch)démangeaison
pɨrav.to untiedénouer1532A
Proto-Central Chadic *p has the irregular reflex *f in Proto-Kotoko Island and Proto-Kotoko North, and *v as an irregular development of *f in Proto-Kotoko Centre. *r has the reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba due to a regular change.
1Proto-Bata*pɨrɨuntiedélier1.1BataBoydpə́rmelt; untie1.2GudeHoskinsonpərəuntie, unfold, unwrap1GudeHoskinsonpərə1.3JimiDjibipərənDétacher ;2Proto-Daba*pɨluntiedélier2.1BuwalViljoenpɑ̀l lɑ́xɑ̀ɾɮɑ̀kuntiedénouer2.2GavarViljoenpəluntiedénouer1GavarViljoenpəlloosendesserrer2GavarViljoenpəlreleaserelâcher2.3DabaLienhardpə̄ldétacher, déplier3Proto-Mafa*pɨruntiedélier3.1MafaBarreteaúpə́rdélier3.2CuvokNdokobaïmepəlejdélier4Proto-Tera*pɨriuntiedélier4.1TeraNewmanpəriuntie5Proto-Sukur*pɨruntiedétacher5.1SukurThomaspəruntie6Proto-Hurza*parauntiedélier6.1VameKinnairdpárā 1untie ; let loosedétacher1VameKinnairdpárā 2untiedélier7Proto-Margi*piliuntiedélier7.1BuraBlenchmpiliTo loose, untie7.2KilbaSchuhpəlija/auntie8Proto-Mandara*pɨlauntiedélier8.1MatalBrangermàpᵊl ə̀wdáuntiedélier8.2PodokoSwackhammerpəladétacher, relâcher8.3MandaraFluckigerpálédétacher, libérer, détacher en parlant d'une corde ou d'une ficelle, défaire, dénouer - voir * pele1MandaraFluckigerpélédétacher - v. int. = pálé8.4MalgwaLöhrpəlauntie, loosen, eg. goat8.5GlavdaNghagyivapɨlgauntie9Proto-Mofu*pɨluntiedélier9.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stempə̄lse détacher1OuldemeKinnairdubd stempēléŋdetach ; untiedétacher ; dénouer2OuldemeKinnairdməpəleŋdétacher ; aplanir3OuldemeKinnairdməpəlájse détacher4OuldemeKinnairdubd stempə̄léŋdétacher un objet9.2ZulgoHallerpə̀lse détacher, se lâcher9.3GemzekSabataimepəla didetacher9.4MereyGravinapəlauntiedénouer, délier10Proto-Lamang*pɨluntiedélier10.1LamangWolffpəluntie10.2HdiBramlettpəlajto untiedétacher11Proto-Higi*pɨluntiedélier11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleypələntəuntie11.2KiryaBlenchmpə́lto untie, loose11.3BanaLienhardp(ə́)lídéplier, détacher, suspendre, étaler, déballer12Proto-Kotoko Island*feluuntiedénouer12.1BudumaMcKonefeluuntiedénouer13Proto-Kotoko North*faluntiedélier13.1MpadeAllisonfàl jountiedénouer13.2MalgbeAllisonfal jauntiedénouer14Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨluntiedéllier14.1LagwanAllisonvɨlun he (vɨl)untiedénouer14.2MserAllisonval jountiedénouer15Proto-Gidar*ɨppɨlauntiedétacher15.1GidarSchuhəppəladétacher15.2GidarHungerfordəpɨladélier, détacher, dénouer
pɨrin.butterflypapillon1117
In many cases, this root is reduplicated, and in some cases there is a prefix, which implies that there may have been more material at the start of this root, or else that the word was a nominalisation of a root with a different meaning. *r has the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba as part of a regular change. The final *i is reconstructed from its presence in the three Consonant Prosody groups, Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi.
1Proto-Bata*pɨributterflypapillon1.1GudeHoskinsonpə́rípə̀rínəbutterfly, moth2Proto-Daba*pulabutterflypapillon2.1MbudumNdokobaïməpulpulabutterflypapillon3Proto-Tera*pɨrbutterflypapillon3.1NyimatliHarleypu̱rmapu̱rbutterfly4Proto-Sukur*pɨrbutterflypapillon4.1SukurDavidmuɮəpərpərbutterfly4.2SukurThomasməɮəpərpərbutterfly; a fling insect with a long thin body and four large, usually brightly coloured and wings.5Proto-Hurza*pala ʸ, pɨrabutterflypapillon5.1MbukoGravinamapərokpapillon5.2VameKinnairdpélpélēbutterflypapillon6Proto-Margi*pirbutterflypapillon6.1BuraBlenchpirpirButterfly or moth6.2KilbaSchuhpərpərbutterfly7Proto-Mandara*palabutterflypapillon7.1MalgwaLöhrnapalapalabutterfly gen.1MalgwaLöhrmaləm madʒaᵐbalabutterfly gen.2MalgwaLöhrmalampalapalabutterfly7.2GlavdaNghagyivaàpàlàpàjáʒɨ̀glabutterfly8Proto-Mofu*pɨlabutterflypapillon8.1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmapəla-pəlapapillon (nom gén.)9Proto-Maroua*pɨlabutterflypapillon9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmapalapalapapillon1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmiplapla (Mt) mapalapalapapillon9.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumuplaplabutterflypapillon10Proto-Higi*pɨlibutterflypapillon10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykʷápàlpàButterfly.10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleypaləpabutterfly10.3BanaLienhardpə́lpə́lìpapillon11Proto-Gidar*pala ʷbutterflypapillon11.1GidarHungerfordmotopolo-polopapillon
pɨrɨs ʸn.horsecheval1032Asynbɨskʷantakʷ
This root is a borrowing from the Arabic 'FRS', denoting a mare. The Arabic /f/ appears as a Proto-Central Chadic *p, since there was no *p/*f contrast in the early stages of Central Chadic, and [p] was the word-inital allophone. Likewise, the *r has the regular reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba. However, it is also realised as *l in Proto-Mafa and Proto-Hurza, where *r is expected. The palatalisation prosody is present in all groups where it is expected, except for Gidar.
1Proto-Daba*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval1.1DabaLienhardpìlísle cheval2Proto-Mafa*pɨlas ʸhorsecheval2.1MafaBarreteaupíléʃcheval2.2CuvokGravinapəlezhorsecheval3Proto-Tera*pɨrsi, pirʃahorsecheval3.1TeraNewmanpərsihorse3.2NyimatliHarleypu̱rsihorse1NyimatliHarleypu̱rsaᵑghorse-the3.3GaʼandaGwajipirʃahorse4Proto-Hurza*pɨlas ʸhorsecheval4.1MbukoGravinapəleshorsecheval4.2VameKinnairdpə̄léʃhorsecheval5Proto-Mandara*pɨlɨsa ʸhorsecheval5.1MatalBrangerpəlis, pəliʃhorsecheval5.2PodokoSwackhammerpɨrəʃé,-echeval5.3MandaraFluckigerbélsácheval (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrbəlsahorse5.5GlavdaOwenspəlshorse1GlavdaNghagyivapɨ̀lːʃahorse6Proto-Mofu*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval6.1OuldemeKinnairdpə̀lìshorsecheval6.2MolokoFriesenpəleshorsecheval6.3ZulgoHallerpíríscheval m.6.4GemzekSabataipəleshorsecheval6.5MereyGravinapəleshorsecheval6.6DugworJubumnapəleshorsecheval6.7Mofu NorthBarreteaupéléscheval6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpəlescheval 7Proto-Maroua*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanpilis(i) Mt:plis ffd: putʃucheval7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoupileshorsecheval7.3MbazlaTourneuxpiliʃcheval8Proto-Lamang*pɨlishorsecheval8.1LamangWolffpə́líshorse1LamangWolffpə́lísíhorse2LamangWolffplíshorse8.2HdiBramlettpəlishorsele cheval9Proto-Musgum*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval9.1MulwiTourneuxaplischeval9.2VulumTourneuxaplischeval9.3MbaraTourneuxpilishorse9.4MuskumTourneuxplesekecheval10Proto-Gidar*pɨlsahorsecheval10.1GidarSchuhpəlsacheval10.2GidarHungerfordpɨɨlsacheval
pitsɨnf.sunsoleil1445A
In Proto-Central Chadic [p] and [f] were allophones of *p, but they split into separate phonemes by the time of the group proto-languages. [p] was the word-initial allopohone of *p, and so *p is found in many groups. *f is the reflex in Proto-Bata, Proto-Tera, Proto-Mandara, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Higi *v being a development from *f. There is no known rule to account for this change. *ts has the reflex *s in Proto-Sukur (regular) and in Proto-Maroua (irregular). It has the regular reflex *t in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Tera *ɗ being an unestablished development from *t.
1Proto-Bata*fitɨsunsoleil1.1JimiDjibifitənSoleil, s'emploie aussi pour désigner le jour comme durée.1.2SharwaGravinafətəsoleil, jour1.3TsuvanJohnstonfetele soleil2Proto-Daba*pɨts ʸsunsoleil2.1BuwalViljoenpesdaytimejournée1BuwalViljoenpessunsoleil2.2GavarViljoenpiʃsunsoleil1GavarViljoenpiʃdayjour2.3MbudumNdokobaïpissunsoleil2.4DabaLienhardpītʃle soleil, le jour3Proto-Mafa*patssunsoleil3.1MafaBarreteaupátssoleil, jour (lumière)3.2CuvokGravinapasdayjour1CuvokGravinapassunsoleil4Proto-Tera*fɨɗasunsoleil4.1TeraNewmanfəɗasun1TeraNewmanfəɗaday4.2NyimatliHarleyfu̱ɗaday1NyimatliHarleyfu̱ɗasun2NyimatliHarleyfu̱ɗarday5Proto-Sukur*pissunsoleil5.1SukurDavidpissun5.2SukurThomaspissun; the star that shine in the sky during the day and give the earth heat and light.6Proto-Hurza*patssunsoleil6.1MbukoGravinapatssunsoleil1MbukoGravinapatsdayjour (m)6.2VameKinnairdápāssunsoleil7Proto-Margi*pɨtsisunsoleil7.1BuraBlenchptʃiDay (when counting)1BuraBlenchptʃiSun7.2Margi SouthHarleypətʃisun. day7.3KilbaSchuhpətʃisun8Proto-Mandara*fatsɨ ʸsunsoleil8.1MatalBrangerāfàtssunsoleil8.2PodokoSwackhammerpatsa,-ajour1PodokoSwackhammerpatsa,-əsoleil8.3MalgwaLöhrvatʃijasun, daylight8.4GlavdaOwensfačday, sun1GlavdaNghagyivafàt͡ʃíjasun2GlavdaNghagyivadvàt͡ʃījaday8.5DghwedeFrickfitʃesun, day9Proto-Mofu*patssunsoleil9.1OuldemeKinnairdfatsunsoleil1OuldemeKinnairdfatl´heure du jour9.2MuyangSmithfɑtsun ; daysoleil; jour9.3MolokoFriesenfatsunsoleil1MolokoFriesenfatdayjour; moment9.4ZulgoHallerpatsoleil m.9.5GemzekSabataipatsunsoleil1GemzekSabataihəpətdayjour9.6MereyGravinapatsoleil1MereyGravinahəpatdayjour, journée, midi9.7DugworJubumnapatsunsoleil9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaupassoleil1Mofu NorthBarreteaupasjour2Mofu NorthBarreteaupasmoment, heure3Mofu NorthBarreteaupassoleil9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpasday, sunsoleil1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpasjour, lumière2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpasmoment, heure3Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpapasjour10Proto-Maroua*passunsoleil10.1Giziga MarvaHamidoupassunsoleil10.2MbazlaTourneuxpassoleil1MbazlaSILSurveypǎssunsoleil11Proto-Lamang*fitisunsoleil11.1LamangWolfffítísun1LamangWolffvítáday11.2HdiBramlettfitikday, sunle jour, le soleil12Proto-Higi*vɨtsisunsoleil12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvetʃisun12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvitʃisun12.3KiryaBlenchvə̀tʃísun12.4PsikyeAngelovətʃiday12.5BanaLienhardv(ə)tʃísoleil, jour1BanaLienhardftʃàjour13Proto-Kotoko South*fatsasunsoleil13.1ZinaOddenávàtʃásunsoleil13.2MazeraAllisonfatʃasunsoleil14Proto-Musgum*futɨjsunsoleil14.1VulumTourneuxfutiisoleil14.2MulwiTourneuxfutiisoleil14.3MbaraTourneuxfutajsun14.4MuskumTourneuxfasasoleil
pɨtsiɗn.ashcendres717B
The *p has the reflex *f in several groups, even though *p is expected. In Proto-Mofu this has become *v, which is an irregular change. The subsequent change *v→b in Zulgo and Dugwor is regular. *ts has the reflex *t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Mofu, which is a regular process, and the *t has developed into /d/ in Buduma, which is an unestablished process. The Mofu North form may be a borrowing.There is no clear explanation for the presence of *u in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. The *ɗ has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*fɨtiɗashcendres1.1BataBoydfɨ́téash; I rubbed ash on my face; salt1.2BachamaSkinnerfitœɗijeashes2Proto-Tera*pɨsiɗashcendres2.1TeraNewmanpədʒitashes2.2NyimatliHarleypu̱ʒitashes2.3HwanaHarleyfíʃèashes3Proto-Margi*pɨtsɨɗuashcendres3.1KilbaSchuhpətsəɗuashes4Proto-Mandara*fɨtsuɗashcendres4.1GlavdaOwensáftashes1GlavdaNghagyivaàft͡saashes4.2DghwedeFrickftsutʼeash5Proto-Mofu*vɨta ʸashcendres5.1MuyangSmithvitiashes (powdery and cold)cendres poudreuses et froides5.2MolokoFriesenvəteashesceindre5.3ZulgoHallerbìtécendre (f.) dans laquelle on conserve des haricots etc.5.4DugworJubumnabətaashescendres5.5Mofu NorthBarreteaupə́tsáwfumée, cendre6Proto-Maroua*pɨtsɨ ʷashcendres6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfútʃúcendre6.2Giziga MarvaHamidouaftʃoashescendres6.3MbazlaTourneuxfutʃucendre1MbazlaSILSurveypútʃúʼashcendre7Proto-Kotoko Island*fɨdɨnashescendres7.1BudumaMcKonefədəncendres.


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p


pakʷaɗɨpnm.lungpoumon1536C
This root is complex to reconstruct. It contains four consonants, and the two medial consonants have been lost in several groups. In many cases this has been compensated for by the reduplication of one of the other root consonants.
Proto-Central Chadic *p had the allophone [p] in word-initial position and [f] in word-final position. The initial *p has the reflex *b in several groups. The final *p
f has the irregular reflex *v in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko South.
*kʷ has the reflex *gʷ in Gude, Proto-Margi, Proto-Maroua, Proto-Higi and Proto-Musgum, which is regular only in Proto-Higi. In Proto-Tera it has the unestablished reflex *hʷ. The labialisation component has been lost in Proto-Mofu, and has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Tera and Proto-Musgum, along with several individual languages, which are common sporadic processes. The *kʷ has been lost completely in several groups, probably through the sporadic changes *kʷ→hʷ→h→0.
The *
ɗ is retained only in Daba, and has the reflex /ʔ/ in Giziga Marva. Elsewhere its existence can be deduced from compensatory reduplication. Where either *kʷ or *ɗ is lost, many languages have compensated for the lost material by reduplicating a syllable. In Gude, Proto-Tera, Proto-Hurza, Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi, there is reduplication, though this could be triggered by the loss of either the initial *p or the *ɗ. However, in Mofu-Gudur and Proto-Maroua, the *p, *kʷ and *f are still present, implying that another consonant has been lost. The evidence for *ɗ is indirect, but cannot be ignored.
1Proto-Bata*bɨfi ʸ, *gʷɨgʷɨfilungspoumon1.1GudeHoskinsongùgùfínəlungs1.2SharwaGravinabjəfipoumon2Proto-Daba*pakʷaɗɨflungpoumon2.1BuwalViljoenɣɑmpɑflungpoumon2.2GavarViljoenɣɑlɑ kɑmpɑflungpoumon2.3MbudumNdokobaïbahaflungpoumon2.4DabaLienhardpòkòɗūfle poumon3Proto-Mafa*baflungpoumon3.1MafaBarreteaubafpoumon3.2CuvokGravinabeflungpoumon4Proto-Tera*huhuplungpoumon4.1NyimatliHarleykhukhuplung5Proto-Sukur*bɨflungspoumon5.1SukurThomasbəflung in inside the stomach6Proto-Hurza*baf, *kʷɨkʷɨfalungpoumon6.1MbukoGravinabaflungspoumon6.2VameKinnairdkùkùfàlungpoumon7Proto-Margi*gʷagʷavilungspoumon7.1Margi SouthHarleygʷagʷavilungs7.2KilbaSchuhguguvilungs8Proto-Mandara*pɨfalungspoumon8.1MatalBrangerpafaflungspoumon8.2PodokoSwackhammerbə́fa,-əpoumon9Proto-Mofu*abahaflungspoumon9.1OuldemeKinnairdᵐbèflungpoumon9.2MadaNkoumouamᵐbahaflungpoumon9.3MolokoFriesenpahavlungpoumon9.4ZulgoHallerabaflungpoumon m.9.5GemzekSabataiabaflungpoumon9.6MereyGravinabaᵐbaflungle poumon9.7DugworJubumnaboᵐboflungpoumon9.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthbabəkaflungpoumon (Gudur)10Proto-Maroua*babagʷaflungpoumon10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanboboᵑgof(Mt), bofoko(Mj)poumons10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoububuʼoflungpoumon10.3MbazlaTourneuxbaagafpoumons11Proto-Lamang*bɨflungpoumon11.1HdiBramlettbəflungle poumon12Proto-Higi*gʷɨgʷɨfilungpoumon12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygugufəlung12.2KiryaBlenchgùgùfílungs12.3BanaLienhardbə̀fìpoumons13Proto-Kotoko North*kafolungpoumon13.1AfadeAllisongafolungpoumon13.2MpadeAllisonkófolungpoumon14Proto-Kotoko South*ɣʷavɨlungpoumon14.1MazeraAllisonɣʷavɣʷavɨlungpoumon15Proto-Musgum*bubugaflungpoumon15.1VulumTourneuxbaagafpoumon15.2MbaraTourneuxbubugaflung
paɮan.upper armavant-bras610Crel. tohɨpaɬ ʸsyndzɨvɨ ʸhɨra
This root is probably related to the root *hɨpaɬ ʸ 'shoulder'. In three of the groups the *p is realised as /b/, and in two groups the initial consonant has been prenasalised. In all except two of the groups, the *ɮ is realised as /l/, which is an unestablished change.
1Proto-Daba*palalaŋ ʸarmbras1.1GavarViljoenmɑpeleleŋarmsbras2Proto-Hurza*baɮaupper armavant-bras2.1MbukoGravinabaɮaupper armpartie supérieure du bras3Proto-Maroua*baɮaarmbras3.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanhirbaɮamuscle du bras, bras, suprérieur humérus4Proto-Higi*pɨlahandmain4.1KiryaBlenchpə̀làhand5Proto-Kotoko North*ᵐbalaarmbras5.1AfadeAllisonᵐbɨlaarmbras5.2MpadeAllisonᵐbalaarmbras1MpadeAllisonᵐbalaforearmavant-bras2MpadeAllisonᵐbalaupper armbras supérieur5.3MalgbeAllisonᵐbalaarmbras5.4MaltamAllisonᵐbalaarmbras6Proto-Kotoko Centre*mpalaforearmavant-bras6.1LagwanAllisonmpalaarmbras6.2MserAllisonmpalaarmbras
pɨɗakʷ ʸnm.razorrasoir913Acfbeli
It is not possible to determine whether this root was present in Proto-Central Chadic, or whether it was an early technological innovation that spread through the langauges at a later point. The regularity of the root is consistent with an early origin. *ɗ has the regular reflex /r/ in Bura, Kirya and Bana.
1Proto-Bata*pɨɗɨkʷa ʸrazorrasoir1.1GudeHoskinsonpíɗə̀kʷátype of razor with triangular shaped iron blade2Proto-Daba*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir2.1BuwalViljoenpədekʷrazorrasoir2.2MbudumNdokobaïpjɗeɗrazorrasoir2.3DabaLienhardpìdēkle rasoir indigène3Proto-Mafa*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir3.1CuvokGravinapəɗekʷrazorrasoir4Proto-Sukur*pɨɗakʼʷ ʸrazorrasoir4.1SukurDavidpidoekʼrazor4.2SukurThomaspiɗikʼurazor5Proto-Hurza*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir5.1MbukoGravinapəɗœkrazorrasoir6Proto-Margi*parkʷɨ ʸrazorrasoir6.1BuraBlenchpjerkuRazor blade1BuraBlenchperkuRazor blade7Proto-Mandara*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir7.1MatalBrangerpᵊ̀ɗʲɛ́kʷrazorrasoir8Proto-Mofu*pɨɗakʷ ʸrazorrasoir8.1Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́pəɗekʷrasoir (pointe effilée en fer)9Proto-Higi*pɨɗikʷrazorrasoir9.1Kamwe-FutuHarleypəɗirazor9.2KiryaBlenchpìrúkúrazor9.3BanaLienhardpìrə̀rasoir, lame
pikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸv.whistlesiffler618Bcfv2vatsviɮ
Two alternative roots are proposed due to the contradictory evidence. The data from the Daba, Mafa and Mofu groups supports reconstructing the palatalisation prosody, whilst the data from the other groups indicates that the vowel *i should be reconstructed. *p has the reflex *f in all groups, which is not expected in word-initial position. The word may therefore have an onomatapoeic origin.
1Proto-Bata*fikʷwhistlesiffler1.1GudeHoskinsonfikuwhistle1.2JimiDjibifikʷənSiffler avec la bouche ;2Proto-Daba*fɨfakʷ ʸwhistlesiffler2.1BuwalViljoenfefekʷwhistle (v)siffler2.2MbudumNdokobaïfəfekwhistle (v)siffler1MbudumNdokobaïfəfəkwhistle (v)siffler3Proto-Mafa*fɨkʷ ʸwhistlesiffler3.1MafaBarreteaufʉkʷsiffler3.2CuvokGravinafəfkʷahisssiffler (serpent)1CuvokGravinafafkʷablowsouffler2CuvokGravinafafkʷawhistle (v)siffler4Proto-Mandara*fikʷawhistlesiffler4.1PodokoSwackhammerfikʷásiffler4.2MandaraFluckigerfikʷasiffler4.3MalgwaLöhrfiikʷawhistle4.4GlavdaNghagyivafàfíkʷawhistle (v)4.5DghwedeFrickfəgeto blow5Proto-Mofu*fɨkʷ ʸwhistlesiffler5.1MuyangSmithfikʷejwhistlesiffler5.2MolokoFriesenfokajwhistle with your lipssiffler avec les lèvres5.3ZulgoHallerfèfekʷésiffler5.4GemzekSabataimefukʷe dədœhisssiffler (serpent)1GemzekSabataimefukʷesiffler2GemzekSabataifukblowsouffler5.5MereyGravinafəfəkʷblow, hisssiffler (serpent), souffler5.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthfáfákʷsiffler1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthfáfákʷwhistle (with mouth, without instrument), call by whistling (a dog, goat)siffler (avec la bouche, sans instrument), appeler en sifflant (un chien, chèvre) 6Proto-Higi*figʷewhistlesiffler6.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyfigʷewhistle
pɨnv.itchdémanger411A
The basic meaning is to scratch an itch. The change *n to *r in the Mofu group is regular. This change is also found in Cuvok, but is a borrowing from Mofu-Gudur. (Apart from the Cuvok borrowing, the root is not found in languages of the South sub-branch.) There is reduplication in several languages, which can indicate that an initial consonant, such as *h, has been lost. Proto-Central Chadic *p has the reflex *f in all groups, which is not expected in this position.
1Proto-Mafa*fafɨritchdémanger1.1CuvokGravinamefefrejitch (the itch)démangeaison2Proto-Hurza*fɨfɨnitchdémanger2.1MbukoGravinafəfanscratch; itchgratter; démanger2.2VameKinnairdfə̄fə́nàitch ; scratch_oneselfgratter_se3Proto-Mofu*fɨritchdémanger3.1MadaNkoumoumóffordémanger (causer des démangeaisons)3.2MolokoFriesenfarscratchgratter3.3GemzekSabataifərscrape (v)gratter, racler3.4MereyGravinafəfargratter3.5DugworJubumnaməferej baitch (the itch)démangeaison3.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthfáfər(se) gratter, frotter4Proto-Maroua*funitchdémanger4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfun vúse gratter le corps, démanger4.2Giziga MarvaHamidoufuna voitch (the itch)démangeaison
pɨrav.to untiedénouer1532A
Proto-Central Chadic *p has the irregular reflex *f in Proto-Kotoko Island and Proto-Kotoko North, and *v as an irregular development of *f in Proto-Kotoko Centre. *r has the reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba due to a regular change.
1Proto-Bata*pɨrɨuntiedélier1.1BataBoydpə́rmelt; untie1.2GudeHoskinsonpərəuntie, unfold, unwrap1GudeHoskinsonpərə1.3JimiDjibipərənDétacher ;2Proto-Daba*pɨluntiedélier2.1BuwalViljoenpɑ̀l lɑ́xɑ̀ɾɮɑ̀kuntiedénouer2.2GavarViljoenpəluntiedénouer1GavarViljoenpəlloosendesserrer2GavarViljoenpəlreleaserelâcher2.3DabaLienhardpə̄ldétacher, déplier3Proto-Mafa*pɨruntiedélier3.1MafaBarreteaúpə́rdélier3.2CuvokNdokobaïmepəlejdélier4Proto-Tera*pɨriuntiedélier4.1TeraNewmanpəriuntie5Proto-Sukur*pɨruntiedétacher5.1SukurThomaspəruntie6Proto-Hurza*parauntiedélier6.1VameKinnairdpárā 1untie ; let loosedétacher1VameKinnairdpárā 2untiedélier7Proto-Margi*piliuntiedélier7.1BuraBlenchmpiliTo loose, untie7.2KilbaSchuhpəlija/auntie8Proto-Mandara*pɨlauntiedélier8.1MatalBrangermàpᵊl ə̀wdáuntiedélier8.2PodokoSwackhammerpəladétacher, relâcher8.3MandaraFluckigerpálédétacher, libérer, détacher en parlant d'une corde ou d'une ficelle, défaire, dénouer - voir * pele1MandaraFluckigerpélédétacher - v. int. = pálé8.4MalgwaLöhrpəlauntie, loosen, eg. goat8.5GlavdaNghagyivapɨlgauntie9Proto-Mofu*pɨluntiedélier9.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stempə̄lse détacher1OuldemeKinnairdubd stempēléŋdetach ; untiedétacher ; dénouer2OuldemeKinnairdməpəleŋdétacher ; aplanir3OuldemeKinnairdməpəlájse détacher4OuldemeKinnairdubd stempə̄léŋdétacher un objet9.2ZulgoHallerpə̀lse détacher, se lâcher9.3GemzekSabataimepəla didetacher9.4MereyGravinapəlauntiedénouer, délier10Proto-Lamang*pɨluntiedélier10.1LamangWolffpəluntie10.2HdiBramlettpəlajto untiedétacher11Proto-Higi*pɨluntiedélier11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleypələntəuntie11.2KiryaBlenchmpə́lto untie, loose11.3BanaLienhardp(ə́)lídéplier, détacher, suspendre, étaler, déballer12Proto-Kotoko Island*feluuntiedénouer12.1BudumaMcKonefeluuntiedénouer13Proto-Kotoko North*faluntiedélier13.1MpadeAllisonfàl jountiedénouer13.2MalgbeAllisonfal jauntiedénouer14Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨluntiedéllier14.1LagwanAllisonvɨlun he (vɨl)untiedénouer14.2MserAllisonval jountiedénouer15Proto-Gidar*ɨppɨlauntiedétacher15.1GidarSchuhəppəladétacher15.2GidarHungerfordəpɨladélier, détacher, dénouer
pɨrin.butterflypapillon1117
In many cases, this root is reduplicated, and in some cases there is a prefix, which implies that there may have been more material at the start of this root, or else that the word was a nominalisation of a root with a different meaning. *r has the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba as part of a regular change. The final *i is reconstructed from its presence in the three Consonant Prosody groups, Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi.
1Proto-Bata*pɨributterflypapillon1.1GudeHoskinsonpə́rípə̀rínəbutterfly, moth2Proto-Daba*pulabutterflypapillon2.1MbudumNdokobaïməpulpulabutterflypapillon3Proto-Tera*pɨrbutterflypapillon3.1NyimatliHarleypu̱rmapu̱rbutterfly4Proto-Sukur*pɨrbutterflypapillon4.1SukurDavidmuɮəpərpərbutterfly4.2SukurThomasməɮəpərpərbutterfly; a fling insect with a long thin body and four large, usually brightly coloured and wings.5Proto-Hurza*pala ʸ, pɨrabutterflypapillon5.1MbukoGravinamapərokpapillon5.2VameKinnairdpélpélēbutterflypapillon6Proto-Margi*pirbutterflypapillon6.1BuraBlenchpirpirButterfly or moth6.2KilbaSchuhpərpərbutterfly7Proto-Mandara*palabutterflypapillon7.1MalgwaLöhrnapalapalabutterfly gen.1MalgwaLöhrmaləm madʒaᵐbalabutterfly gen.2MalgwaLöhrmalampalapalabutterfly7.2GlavdaNghagyivaàpàlàpàjáʒɨ̀glabutterfly8Proto-Mofu*pɨlabutterflypapillon8.1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmapəla-pəlapapillon (nom gén.)9Proto-Maroua*pɨlabutterflypapillon9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmapalapalapapillon1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmiplapla (Mt) mapalapalapapillon9.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumuplaplabutterflypapillon10Proto-Higi*pɨlibutterflypapillon10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleykʷápàlpàButterfly.10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleypaləpabutterfly10.3BanaLienhardpə́lpə́lìpapillon11Proto-Gidar*pala ʷbutterflypapillon11.1GidarHungerfordmotopolo-polopapillon
pɨrɨs ʸn.horsecheval1032Asynbɨskʷantakʷ
This root is a borrowing from the Arabic 'FRS', denoting a mare. The Arabic /f/ appears as a Proto-Central Chadic *p, since there was no *p/*f contrast in the early stages of Central Chadic, and [p] was the word-inital allophone. Likewise, the *r has the regular reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba. However, it is also realised as *l in Proto-Mafa and Proto-Hurza, where *r is expected. The palatalisation prosody is present in all groups where it is expected, except for Gidar.
1Proto-Daba*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval1.1DabaLienhardpìlísle cheval2Proto-Mafa*pɨlas ʸhorsecheval2.1MafaBarreteaupíléʃcheval2.2CuvokGravinapəlezhorsecheval3Proto-Tera*pɨrsi, pirʃahorsecheval3.1TeraNewmanpərsihorse3.2NyimatliHarleypu̱rsihorse1NyimatliHarleypu̱rsaᵑghorse-the3.3GaʼandaGwajipirʃahorse4Proto-Hurza*pɨlas ʸhorsecheval4.1MbukoGravinapəleshorsecheval4.2VameKinnairdpə̄léʃhorsecheval5Proto-Mandara*pɨlɨsa ʸhorsecheval5.1MatalBrangerpəlis, pəliʃhorsecheval5.2PodokoSwackhammerpɨrəʃé,-echeval5.3MandaraFluckigerbélsácheval (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrbəlsahorse5.5GlavdaOwenspəlshorse1GlavdaNghagyivapɨ̀lːʃahorse6Proto-Mofu*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval6.1OuldemeKinnairdpə̀lìshorsecheval6.2MolokoFriesenpəleshorsecheval6.3ZulgoHallerpíríscheval m.6.4GemzekSabataipəleshorsecheval6.5MereyGravinapəleshorsecheval6.6DugworJubumnapəleshorsecheval6.7Mofu NorthBarreteaupéléscheval6.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpəlescheval 7Proto-Maroua*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanpilis(i) Mt:plis ffd: putʃucheval7.2Giziga MarvaHamidoupileshorsecheval7.3MbazlaTourneuxpiliʃcheval8Proto-Lamang*pɨlishorsecheval8.1LamangWolffpə́líshorse1LamangWolffpə́lísíhorse2LamangWolffplíshorse8.2HdiBramlettpəlishorsele cheval9Proto-Musgum*pɨlɨs ʸhorsecheval9.1MulwiTourneuxaplischeval9.2VulumTourneuxaplischeval9.3MbaraTourneuxpilishorse9.4MuskumTourneuxplesekecheval10Proto-Gidar*pɨlsahorsecheval10.1GidarSchuhpəlsacheval10.2GidarHungerfordpɨɨlsacheval
pitsɨnf.sunsoleil1445A
In Proto-Central Chadic [p] and [f] were allophones of *p, but they split into separate phonemes by the time of the group proto-languages. [p] was the word-initial allopohone of *p, and so *p is found in many groups. *f is the reflex in Proto-Bata, Proto-Tera, Proto-Mandara, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Higi *v being a development from *f. There is no known rule to account for this change. *ts has the reflex *s in Proto-Sukur (regular) and in Proto-Maroua (irregular). It has the regular reflex *t in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Tera *ɗ being an unestablished development from *t.
1Proto-Bata*fitɨsunsoleil1.1JimiDjibifitənSoleil, s'emploie aussi pour désigner le jour comme durée.1.2SharwaGravinafətəsoleil, jour1.3TsuvanJohnstonfetele soleil2Proto-Daba*pɨts ʸsunsoleil2.1BuwalViljoenpesdaytimejournée1BuwalViljoenpessunsoleil2.2GavarViljoenpiʃsunsoleil1GavarViljoenpiʃdayjour2.3MbudumNdokobaïpissunsoleil2.4DabaLienhardpītʃle soleil, le jour3Proto-Mafa*patssunsoleil3.1MafaBarreteaupátssoleil, jour (lumière)3.2CuvokGravinapasdayjour1CuvokGravinapassunsoleil4Proto-Tera*fɨɗasunsoleil4.1TeraNewmanfəɗasun1TeraNewmanfəɗaday4.2NyimatliHarleyfu̱ɗaday1NyimatliHarleyfu̱ɗasun2NyimatliHarleyfu̱ɗarday5Proto-Sukur*pissunsoleil5.1SukurDavidpissun5.2SukurThomaspissun; the star that shine in the sky during the day and give the earth heat and light.6Proto-Hurza*patssunsoleil6.1MbukoGravinapatssunsoleil1MbukoGravinapatsdayjour (m)6.2VameKinnairdápāssunsoleil7Proto-Margi*pɨtsisunsoleil7.1BuraBlenchptʃiDay (when counting)1BuraBlenchptʃiSun7.2Margi SouthHarleypətʃisun. day7.3KilbaSchuhpətʃisun8Proto-Mandara*fatsɨ ʸsunsoleil8.1MatalBrangerāfàtssunsoleil8.2PodokoSwackhammerpatsa,-ajour1PodokoSwackhammerpatsa,-əsoleil8.3MalgwaLöhrvatʃijasun, daylight8.4GlavdaOwensfačday, sun1GlavdaNghagyivafàt͡ʃíjasun2GlavdaNghagyivadvàt͡ʃījaday8.5DghwedeFrickfitʃesun, day9Proto-Mofu*patssunsoleil9.1OuldemeKinnairdfatsunsoleil1OuldemeKinnairdfatl´heure du jour9.2MuyangSmithfɑtsun ; daysoleil; jour9.3MolokoFriesenfatsunsoleil1MolokoFriesenfatdayjour; moment9.4ZulgoHallerpatsoleil m.9.5GemzekSabataipatsunsoleil1GemzekSabataihəpətdayjour9.6MereyGravinapatsoleil1MereyGravinahəpatdayjour, journée, midi9.7DugworJubumnapatsunsoleil9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaupassoleil1Mofu NorthBarreteaupasjour2Mofu NorthBarreteaupasmoment, heure3Mofu NorthBarreteaupassoleil9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpasday, sunsoleil1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpasjour, lumière2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpasmoment, heure3Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpapasjour10Proto-Maroua*passunsoleil10.1Giziga MarvaHamidoupassunsoleil10.2MbazlaTourneuxpassoleil1MbazlaSILSurveypǎssunsoleil11Proto-Lamang*fitisunsoleil11.1LamangWolfffítísun1LamangWolffvítáday11.2HdiBramlettfitikday, sunle jour, le soleil12Proto-Higi*vɨtsisunsoleil12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvetʃisun12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvitʃisun12.3KiryaBlenchvə̀tʃísun12.4PsikyeAngelovətʃiday12.5BanaLienhardv(ə)tʃísoleil, jour1BanaLienhardftʃàjour13Proto-Kotoko South*fatsasunsoleil13.1ZinaOddenávàtʃásunsoleil13.2MazeraAllisonfatʃasunsoleil14Proto-Musgum*futɨjsunsoleil14.1VulumTourneuxfutiisoleil14.2MulwiTourneuxfutiisoleil14.3MbaraTourneuxfutajsun14.4MuskumTourneuxfasasoleil
pɨtsiɗn.ashcendres717B
The *p has the reflex *f in several groups, even though *p is expected. In Proto-Mofu this has become *v, which is an irregular change. The subsequent change *v→b in Zulgo and Dugwor is regular. *ts has the reflex *t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Mofu, which is a regular process, and the *t has developed into /d/ in Buduma, which is an unestablished process. The Mofu North form may be a borrowing.There is no clear explanation for the presence of *u in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. The *ɗ has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*fɨtiɗashcendres1.1BataBoydfɨ́téash; I rubbed ash on my face; salt1.2BachamaSkinnerfitœɗijeashes2Proto-Tera*pɨsiɗashcendres2.1TeraNewmanpədʒitashes2.2NyimatliHarleypu̱ʒitashes2.3HwanaHarleyfíʃèashes3Proto-Margi*pɨtsɨɗuashcendres3.1KilbaSchuhpətsəɗuashes4Proto-Mandara*fɨtsuɗashcendres4.1GlavdaOwensáftashes1GlavdaNghagyivaàft͡saashes4.2DghwedeFrickftsutʼeash5Proto-Mofu*vɨta ʸashcendres5.1MuyangSmithvitiashes (powdery and cold)cendres poudreuses et froides5.2MolokoFriesenvəteashesceindre5.3ZulgoHallerbìtécendre (f.) dans laquelle on conserve des haricots etc.5.4DugworJubumnabətaashescendres5.5Mofu NorthBarreteaupə́tsáwfumée, cendre6Proto-Maroua*pɨtsɨ ʷashcendres6.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfútʃúcendre6.2Giziga MarvaHamidouaftʃoashescendres6.3MbazlaTourneuxfutʃucendre1MbazlaSILSurveypútʃúʼashcendre7Proto-Kotoko Island*fɨdɨnashescendres7.1BudumaMcKonefədəncendres.