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r


rav.digcreuser1234A
The basic meaning of this verb is 'to dig'. In many languages the meaning extends to burying dead people and digging up peanuts, amongst other things. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch. This change is also expected in Proto-Daba, but two of the three sub-groups retain *r.
1Proto-Bata*radigcreuser1.1BataBoyddig (hole, using iron instrument); dig_up (yams)1.2GudeHoskinsonradig1.3JimiDjibiranCreuser ;2Proto-Daba*radigcreuser2.1BuwalViljoendigcreuser2.2GavarViljoendigcreuser1GavarViljoenharvest, dig up (yams)récolter, déterrer (ignames)2.3MbudumNdokobaïkəradigcreuser1MbudumNdokobaïkərahollow out (log)creuser, évider (rondin)2.4DabaLienhardcreuser, s'installer, habiter, récolter, castrer2.5MazagwayHidiNoussilacreuser3Proto-Tera*radigcreuser3.1TeraNewmanradig1TeraNewmanraplait3.2NyimatliHarleyradig4Proto-Sukur*rɨdigcreuser4.1SukurDaviddig, harvest by digging, to4.2SukurThomasharvesting; is the general term for harvesting of crops that grow under the soil for example groundnut, potato, cassava etc.5Proto-Hurza*radigcreuser5.1MbukoGravinaladigcreuser1MbukoGravinaladig updéterrer (les arachides)5.2VameKinnairdráwādigcreuser1VameKinnairdrā mə̄tskāburyenterrer6Proto-Margi*ladigcreuser6.1BuraBlenchlaTo dig6.2MargiHoffmanladig6.3KilbaSchuhla/adig7Proto-Mandara*ladigcreuser7.1MatalBrangermalajdigcreuser7.2PodokoSwackhammerlahácreuser8Proto-Mofu*ladigcreuser8.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemdigcreuser, enterrement1OuldemeKinnairdubd stementerrer8.2MuyangSmithlidig deeplycreuser profondement8.3MadaNkoumoumélecreuser (récolter les choses en terre)1MadaNkoumoumelecreuser8.4MolokoFriesenlajdigcreuser8.5ZulgoHallerlecreuser8.6GemzekSabataimelehollow out (log)creuser, évider (rondin)1GemzekSabataimeledigcreuser2GemzekSabataimele ᵐburoenterrer8.7MereyGravinaladigcreuser, évider (rondin)8.8DugworJubumnamalij abeddigcreuser1DugworJubumnamalij abeɗhollow out (log)creuser, évider (rondin)2DugworJubumnamala haj abedburyenterrer, ensevelir9Proto-Maroua*lidigcreuser9.1Giziga MarvaHamidouli gʷafdigcreuser10Proto-Lamang*ladigcreuser10.1LamangWolffladig11Proto-Higi*ladigcreuser11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleydig11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleylakədig (hole)11.3KiryaBlenchto dig11.4PsikyeAngelodig11.5BanaLienhardcreuser, déterrer, enlever l'intérieur d'un carquois, etc. qqch. our on ne voit pas l'intérieur12Proto-Kotoko Island*ladigcreuser12.1BudumaMcKonelacreuser.
rajn.fieldchamp512Bsynɣʷɨrgʷɨvɨhsɨka
This is one of several roots found within Central Chadic for 'field'. The Kotoko North languages are distant from the other languages where this root is found, so the forms found there might just be chance similarities. There were regular changes *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch (here Mofu and Kotoko North), in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok.
1Proto-Bata*rɨfieldchamp1.1GudeHoskinsonrá -əfield, farm plot1.2SharwaGravinaChamp1.3TsuvanJohnstonəlele champs2Proto-Daba*lajfieldchamp2.1BuwalViljoenfieldchamp2.2GavarViljoenfieldchamp2.3MbudumNdokobaïlajfieldschamps2.4DabaLienhardlàj bīzle champs3Proto-Mafa*raj ʸfieldchamp3.1CuvokGravinalejfieldschamps4Proto-Mofu*laj ʸfieldchamp4.1Mofu NorthBarreteaulējchamp1Mofu NorthBarreteaulējbrousse2Mofu NorthBarreteaulējsauv"age (eu ....s?)4.2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlejfieldchamp, «brousse» (fr. d'Afrique) ; sauvage (en locution)5Proto-Kotoko North*lalafieldchamp5.1AfadeAllisonlalathe bush, fieldsbrousse, champs5.2MpadeAllisonlàlàthe bush, fieldsbrousse, champs
raᵑgaɬ ʸnm.braincerveau612D
The forms given here can be divided between those that include a prenasalised consonant and those that don't. Those that don't could be reflexes of a form such as *ɗaraɬ ʸ. The *ɗ is lost in Matal, Zulgo Gemzek and Giziga Marva, and has combined with *ɬ in Afade, Maltam and Mser. These are common sporadic processes. The change *ɬ→s in Mser is regular. It is harder to show relatedness for the forms with a prenasalised consonant. It is also not possible to say that all these forms are cognate.
1Proto-Hurza*mɨkɨlaᵑgaɬ ʸbraincerveau1.1MbukoGravinaməkəliᵑgeɬbraincerveau2Proto-Mandara*ariɬbraincerveau2.1MatalBrangerariɬbraincerveau3Proto-Mofu*aⁿdɨɬ ʸ, araɮ ʸ, ɗaᵑgaɬ ʸbraincerveau3.1OuldemeKinnairdāⁿdéɬbrainscerveaux3.2MuyangSmitheⁿdiɬbraincerveau3.3ZulgoHallerareɮcerveau m.3.4GemzekSabataiareɮbraincerveau3.5MereyGravinaɗeᵑgeɬbraincerveau3.6DugworJubumnaaleᵑgeɬbraincerveau4Proto-Maroua*alaɬ ʸbraincerveau4.1Giziga MarvaHamidoualeɬbraincerveau5Proto-Kotoko North*erɬʼibraincerveau5.1AfadeAllisonerɬʼibraincerveau5.2MaltamAllisoneriɬʼibraincerveau6Proto-Kotoko Centre*meresʼɨbraincerveau6.1MserAllisonmeresʼɨbraincerveau
rigɨn.crocodilecrocodile47Bsynkɨdɨm
This root is only found within the Kotoko languages. *kɨdɨm is the Proto-Chadic root.
1Proto-Kotoko Island*ligɨcrocodilecrocodile1.1BudumaMcKoneligəcrocodilecrocodile2Proto-Kotoko North*ligɨcrocodilecrocodile2.1AfadeAllisonligocrocodilecrocodile2.2MpadeAllisonligɨcrocodilecrocodile2.3MalgbeAllisonligɨcrocodilecrocodile3Proto-Kotoko Centre*mɨrɨgecrocodilecrocodile3.1LagwanAllisonmɨdɨgecrocodilecrocodile3.2MserAllisonmɨrgecrocodilecrocodile4Proto-Kotoko South*liɣecrocodilecrocodile4.1MazeraAllisonliɣecrocodilecrocodile
rɨgɨɗ ʸnm.bowarc1236A
This word denotes the bow used for hunting or warfare. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch and Cuvok. Here we also find /l/ in Mafa where /r/ is expected. The *g has the reflex *k in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua. It has the reflex *ɣ in Proto-Lamang, and has been lost in Proto-Tera and Proto-Sukur, possibly following an earlier *g→ɣ. These are unestablished changes. *ɗ has been lost in most groups. This may be due to interaction with the palatalisation prosody, i.e. *ɗ ʸ→j, with *j being lost or reanalysed in some groups. This is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*ragɨbowarc1.1BataBoydràgébow1.2GudeHoskinsonràgá -əbow1.3JimiDjibiragənArc2Proto-Mafa*lakaɗ ʸ, lalaŋbowarc2.1MafaBarreteatlekeɗarc2.2CuvokGravinalalaŋbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)3Proto-Tera*ribowarc3.1TeraNewmanribow3.2NyimatliHarleyribow (hunting)4Proto-Sukur*rajbowarc4.1SukurDavidrajbow4.2SukurThomasraibow: is to used with arrow for shooting things of people.5Proto-Hurza*lɨga ʸbowarc5.1MbukoGravinaliᵑgebowarc5.2VameKinnairdlə́kábow ; archarc6Proto-Margi*lagabowarc6.1BuraBlenchlàlìBow (weapon)6.2MargiHoffmanlagabow6.3Margi SouthHarleylaggabow6.4KilbaSchuhlagabow7Proto-Mandara*likabowarc7.1MatalBrangerālàkbowarc7.2PodokoSwackhammerliká,-aarc7.3MandaraFluckigerelkearc (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrəlkebow7.5GlavdaNghagyivalàːːʁabow (hunting)8Proto-Mofu*hɨlɨgɨɗ ʸbowarc8.1OuldemeKinnairdàlàkbowarc8.2MadaNkoumouelekeɗ/elegeɗarc8.3MolokoFriesenmeᵑgelekbowarc8.4ZulgoHallerlìkíɗarc m.8.5GemzekSabataihalaŋbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)8.6MereyGravinalalaŋarc8.7DugworJubumnahəlekbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)8.8Mofu NorthBarreteaulálàŋarc8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthleléŋarc 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthleléŋhumidité (après la pluie)9Proto-Maroua*halak ʸbowarc9.1Giziga MarvaHamidouhelekbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)9.2MbazlaTourneuxhelekarc10Proto-Lamang*lɨɣeɗbowarc10.1LamangWolffleɣebow10.2HdiBramlettləɣeɗbowl'arc11Proto-Higi*lɨgɨjbowarc11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleylìgjíBow1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyligjibow11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyregibow (for hunting)11.3BanaLienhardrə̀gìarc (pour chasser)12Proto-Musgum*gɨⁿdɨlɨŋ ʸbowarc12.1MbaraTourneuxgiⁿdiliŋbow
rɨwɨts ʸnm.hearthfoyer1130A
This word refers to the fireplace with three stones that is used for cooking. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok (separately). There was a regular change *ts→t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang. The same change in Proto-Mofu and Proto-Higi is irregular. It is expected that *ts would have the reflex /s/ in Sukur, but this is not the case. *w has been reanalysed as a vowel in Sukur, and has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process. The palatalisation prosody is found in all groups where it exists, except for Sukur. The front vowels in Proto-Lamang are reflexes of the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Bata*rɨtɨ ʸhearthfoyer1.1SharwaGravinarjətifoyer2Proto-Daba*lɨwɨts ʸhearthfoyer2.1BuwalViljoenləwetʃfireplacefoyer2.2MbudumNdokobaïluwitʃfireplacefoyer3Proto-Mafa*rɨwats ʸhearthfoyer3.1MafaNdokobairuwetʃfoyer à marmite3.2CuvokGravinaluwetʃcooking stonepierre à cuire1CuvokGravinaluwetʃfireplacefoyer4Proto-Sukur*rutshearthfoyer4.1SukurThomasrutsfireplace5Proto-Hurza*rɨwats ʸhearthfoyer5.1MbukoGravinaruwetʃfirefoyer6Proto-Mandara*lɨwtsɨ ʸhearthfoyer6.1MatalBrangerlətsfireplacefoyer6.2PodokoSwackhammerlutʃe,-əfoyer6.3MandaraFluckigereltʃafoyer (m)6.4MalgwaLöhrəltʃastove, fireplace, hearth6.5GlavdaNghagyivaɨ̀lt͡safireplace7Proto-Mofu*lɨwɨt ʸhearthfoyer7.1OuldemeKinnairdlīwīthearthfoyer7.2MuyangSmithlʉwithearthfoyer7.3MolokoFriesenləwtehearth, fireplacelieu pour cuire la nourriture7.4ZulgoHallerlíwítfoyer m.7.5GemzekSabatailuwetfireplacefoyer7.6MereyGravinaluwetsfeu de la cuisine7.7DugworJubumnaLuwetcooking stonepierre à cuire1DugworJubumnaluwetfireplacefoyer7.8Mofu NorthBarreteaulə̀wètsfoyer7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́ləwetʃfoyer8Proto-Maroua*lɨwɨts ʸhearthfoyer8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanliwis(i)âtre, foyer1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanliwis(i)pierre du foyer8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouliwescooking stonepierre à cuire1Giziga MarvaHamidouliwesfireplacefoyer8.3MbazlaTourneuxlutʃifoyer9Proto-Lamang*litihearthfoyer9.1LamangWolfflitifireplace9.2HdiBramlettlitik3-stone cooking areale foyer à 3 pièrres10Proto-Higi*lɨtwɨhearthfoyer10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyrə̀twə́Fireplace.10.2BanaLienhardlə̀t(ə)foyer à cuire11Proto-Musgum*lɨwɨt ʸhearthfoyer11.1MbaraTourneuxliwitfire-place, hearth11.2MuskumTourneuxwitfoyer


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r


rav.digcreuser1234A
The basic meaning of this verb is 'to dig'. In many languages the meaning extends to burying dead people and digging up peanuts, amongst other things. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch. This change is also expected in Proto-Daba, but two of the three sub-groups retain *r.
1Proto-Bata*radigcreuser1.1BataBoyddig (hole, using iron instrument); dig_up (yams)1.2GudeHoskinsonradig1.3JimiDjibiranCreuser ;2Proto-Daba*radigcreuser2.1BuwalViljoendigcreuser2.2GavarViljoendigcreuser1GavarViljoenharvest, dig up (yams)récolter, déterrer (ignames)2.3MbudumNdokobaïkəradigcreuser1MbudumNdokobaïkərahollow out (log)creuser, évider (rondin)2.4DabaLienhardcreuser, s'installer, habiter, récolter, castrer2.5MazagwayHidiNoussilacreuser3Proto-Tera*radigcreuser3.1TeraNewmanradig1TeraNewmanraplait3.2NyimatliHarleyradig4Proto-Sukur*rɨdigcreuser4.1SukurDaviddig, harvest by digging, to4.2SukurThomasharvesting; is the general term for harvesting of crops that grow under the soil for example groundnut, potato, cassava etc.5Proto-Hurza*radigcreuser5.1MbukoGravinaladigcreuser1MbukoGravinaladig updéterrer (les arachides)5.2VameKinnairdráwādigcreuser1VameKinnairdrā mə̄tskāburyenterrer6Proto-Margi*ladigcreuser6.1BuraBlenchlaTo dig6.2MargiHoffmanladig6.3KilbaSchuhla/adig7Proto-Mandara*ladigcreuser7.1MatalBrangermalajdigcreuser7.2PodokoSwackhammerlahácreuser8Proto-Mofu*ladigcreuser8.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemdigcreuser, enterrement1OuldemeKinnairdubd stementerrer8.2MuyangSmithlidig deeplycreuser profondement8.3MadaNkoumoumélecreuser (récolter les choses en terre)1MadaNkoumoumelecreuser8.4MolokoFriesenlajdigcreuser8.5ZulgoHallerlecreuser8.6GemzekSabataimelehollow out (log)creuser, évider (rondin)1GemzekSabataimeledigcreuser2GemzekSabataimele ᵐburoenterrer8.7MereyGravinaladigcreuser, évider (rondin)8.8DugworJubumnamalij abeddigcreuser1DugworJubumnamalij abeɗhollow out (log)creuser, évider (rondin)2DugworJubumnamala haj abedburyenterrer, ensevelir9Proto-Maroua*lidigcreuser9.1Giziga MarvaHamidouli gʷafdigcreuser10Proto-Lamang*ladigcreuser10.1LamangWolffladig11Proto-Higi*ladigcreuser11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleydig11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleylakədig (hole)11.3KiryaBlenchto dig11.4PsikyeAngelodig11.5BanaLienhardcreuser, déterrer, enlever l'intérieur d'un carquois, etc. qqch. our on ne voit pas l'intérieur12Proto-Kotoko Island*ladigcreuser12.1BudumaMcKonelacreuser.
rajn.fieldchamp512Bsynɣʷɨrgʷɨvɨhsɨka
This is one of several roots found within Central Chadic for 'field'. The Kotoko North languages are distant from the other languages where this root is found, so the forms found there might just be chance similarities. There were regular changes *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch (here Mofu and Kotoko North), in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok.
1Proto-Bata*rɨfieldchamp1.1GudeHoskinsonrá -əfield, farm plot1.2SharwaGravinaChamp1.3TsuvanJohnstonəlele champs2Proto-Daba*lajfieldchamp2.1BuwalViljoenfieldchamp2.2GavarViljoenfieldchamp2.3MbudumNdokobaïlajfieldschamps2.4DabaLienhardlàj bīzle champs3Proto-Mafa*raj ʸfieldchamp3.1CuvokGravinalejfieldschamps4Proto-Mofu*laj ʸfieldchamp4.1Mofu NorthBarreteaulējchamp1Mofu NorthBarreteaulējbrousse2Mofu NorthBarreteaulējsauv"age (eu ....s?)4.2Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlejfieldchamp, «brousse» (fr. d'Afrique) ; sauvage (en locution)5Proto-Kotoko North*lalafieldchamp5.1AfadeAllisonlalathe bush, fieldsbrousse, champs5.2MpadeAllisonlàlàthe bush, fieldsbrousse, champs
raᵑgaɬ ʸnm.braincerveau612D
The forms given here can be divided between those that include a prenasalised consonant and those that don't. Those that don't could be reflexes of a form such as *ɗaraɬ ʸ. The *ɗ is lost in Matal, Zulgo Gemzek and Giziga Marva, and has combined with *ɬ in Afade, Maltam and Mser. These are common sporadic processes. The change *ɬ→s in Mser is regular. It is harder to show relatedness for the forms with a prenasalised consonant. It is also not possible to say that all these forms are cognate.
1Proto-Hurza*mɨkɨlaᵑgaɬ ʸbraincerveau1.1MbukoGravinaməkəliᵑgeɬbraincerveau2Proto-Mandara*ariɬbraincerveau2.1MatalBrangerariɬbraincerveau3Proto-Mofu*aⁿdɨɬ ʸ, araɮ ʸ, ɗaᵑgaɬ ʸbraincerveau3.1OuldemeKinnairdāⁿdéɬbrainscerveaux3.2MuyangSmitheⁿdiɬbraincerveau3.3ZulgoHallerareɮcerveau m.3.4GemzekSabataiareɮbraincerveau3.5MereyGravinaɗeᵑgeɬbraincerveau3.6DugworJubumnaaleᵑgeɬbraincerveau4Proto-Maroua*alaɬ ʸbraincerveau4.1Giziga MarvaHamidoualeɬbraincerveau5Proto-Kotoko North*erɬʼibraincerveau5.1AfadeAllisonerɬʼibraincerveau5.2MaltamAllisoneriɬʼibraincerveau6Proto-Kotoko Centre*meresʼɨbraincerveau6.1MserAllisonmeresʼɨbraincerveau
rigɨn.crocodilecrocodile47Bsynkɨdɨm
This root is only found within the Kotoko languages. *kɨdɨm is the Proto-Chadic root.
1Proto-Kotoko Island*ligɨcrocodilecrocodile1.1BudumaMcKoneligəcrocodilecrocodile2Proto-Kotoko North*ligɨcrocodilecrocodile2.1AfadeAllisonligocrocodilecrocodile2.2MpadeAllisonligɨcrocodilecrocodile2.3MalgbeAllisonligɨcrocodilecrocodile3Proto-Kotoko Centre*mɨrɨgecrocodilecrocodile3.1LagwanAllisonmɨdɨgecrocodilecrocodile3.2MserAllisonmɨrgecrocodilecrocodile4Proto-Kotoko South*liɣecrocodilecrocodile4.1MazeraAllisonliɣecrocodilecrocodile
rɨgɨɗ ʸnm.bowarc1236A
This word denotes the bow used for hunting or warfare. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch and Cuvok. Here we also find /l/ in Mafa where /r/ is expected. The *g has the reflex *k in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua. It has the reflex *ɣ in Proto-Lamang, and has been lost in Proto-Tera and Proto-Sukur, possibly following an earlier *g→ɣ. These are unestablished changes. *ɗ has been lost in most groups. This may be due to interaction with the palatalisation prosody, i.e. *ɗ ʸ→j, with *j being lost or reanalysed in some groups. This is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*ragɨbowarc1.1BataBoydràgébow1.2GudeHoskinsonràgá -əbow1.3JimiDjibiragənArc2Proto-Mafa*lakaɗ ʸ, lalaŋbowarc2.1MafaBarreteatlekeɗarc2.2CuvokGravinalalaŋbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)3Proto-Tera*ribowarc3.1TeraNewmanribow3.2NyimatliHarleyribow (hunting)4Proto-Sukur*rajbowarc4.1SukurDavidrajbow4.2SukurThomasraibow: is to used with arrow for shooting things of people.5Proto-Hurza*lɨga ʸbowarc5.1MbukoGravinaliᵑgebowarc5.2VameKinnairdlə́kábow ; archarc6Proto-Margi*lagabowarc6.1BuraBlenchlàlìBow (weapon)6.2MargiHoffmanlagabow6.3Margi SouthHarleylaggabow6.4KilbaSchuhlagabow7Proto-Mandara*likabowarc7.1MatalBrangerālàkbowarc7.2PodokoSwackhammerliká,-aarc7.3MandaraFluckigerelkearc (m)7.4MalgwaLöhrəlkebow7.5GlavdaNghagyivalàːːʁabow (hunting)8Proto-Mofu*hɨlɨgɨɗ ʸbowarc8.1OuldemeKinnairdàlàkbowarc8.2MadaNkoumouelekeɗ/elegeɗarc8.3MolokoFriesenmeᵑgelekbowarc8.4ZulgoHallerlìkíɗarc m.8.5GemzekSabataihalaŋbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)8.6MereyGravinalalaŋarc8.7DugworJubumnahəlekbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)8.8Mofu NorthBarreteaulálàŋarc8.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthleléŋarc 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthleléŋhumidité (après la pluie)9Proto-Maroua*halak ʸbowarc9.1Giziga MarvaHamidouhelekbow (hunting)arc (de chasse)9.2MbazlaTourneuxhelekarc10Proto-Lamang*lɨɣeɗbowarc10.1LamangWolffleɣebow10.2HdiBramlettləɣeɗbowl'arc11Proto-Higi*lɨgɨjbowarc11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleylìgjíBow1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyligjibow11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyregibow (for hunting)11.3BanaLienhardrə̀gìarc (pour chasser)12Proto-Musgum*gɨⁿdɨlɨŋ ʸbowarc12.1MbaraTourneuxgiⁿdiliŋbow
rɨwɨts ʸnm.hearthfoyer1130A
This word refers to the fireplace with three stones that is used for cooking. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok (separately). There was a regular change *ts→t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang. The same change in Proto-Mofu and Proto-Higi is irregular. It is expected that *ts would have the reflex /s/ in Sukur, but this is not the case. *w has been reanalysed as a vowel in Sukur, and has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process. The palatalisation prosody is found in all groups where it exists, except for Sukur. The front vowels in Proto-Lamang are reflexes of the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Bata*rɨtɨ ʸhearthfoyer1.1SharwaGravinarjətifoyer2Proto-Daba*lɨwɨts ʸhearthfoyer2.1BuwalViljoenləwetʃfireplacefoyer2.2MbudumNdokobaïluwitʃfireplacefoyer3Proto-Mafa*rɨwats ʸhearthfoyer3.1MafaNdokobairuwetʃfoyer à marmite3.2CuvokGravinaluwetʃcooking stonepierre à cuire1CuvokGravinaluwetʃfireplacefoyer4Proto-Sukur*rutshearthfoyer4.1SukurThomasrutsfireplace5Proto-Hurza*rɨwats ʸhearthfoyer5.1MbukoGravinaruwetʃfirefoyer6Proto-Mandara*lɨwtsɨ ʸhearthfoyer6.1MatalBrangerlətsfireplacefoyer6.2PodokoSwackhammerlutʃe,-əfoyer6.3MandaraFluckigereltʃafoyer (m)6.4MalgwaLöhrəltʃastove, fireplace, hearth6.5GlavdaNghagyivaɨ̀lt͡safireplace7Proto-Mofu*lɨwɨt ʸhearthfoyer7.1OuldemeKinnairdlīwīthearthfoyer7.2MuyangSmithlʉwithearthfoyer7.3MolokoFriesenləwtehearth, fireplacelieu pour cuire la nourriture7.4ZulgoHallerlíwítfoyer m.7.5GemzekSabatailuwetfireplacefoyer7.6MereyGravinaluwetsfeu de la cuisine7.7DugworJubumnaLuwetcooking stonepierre à cuire1DugworJubumnaluwetfireplacefoyer7.8Mofu NorthBarreteaulə̀wètsfoyer7.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́ləwetʃfoyer8Proto-Maroua*lɨwɨts ʸhearthfoyer8.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanliwis(i)âtre, foyer1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanliwis(i)pierre du foyer8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouliwescooking stonepierre à cuire1Giziga MarvaHamidouliwesfireplacefoyer8.3MbazlaTourneuxlutʃifoyer9Proto-Lamang*litihearthfoyer9.1LamangWolfflitifireplace9.2HdiBramlettlitik3-stone cooking areale foyer à 3 pièrres10Proto-Higi*lɨtwɨhearthfoyer10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyrə̀twə́Fireplace.10.2BanaLienhardlə̀t(ə)foyer à cuire11Proto-Musgum*lɨwɨt ʸhearthfoyer11.1MbaraTourneuxliwitfire-place, hearth11.2MuskumTourneuxwitfoyer