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v2v.blowsouffler818Bcfpikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸvatsviɮ
The basic sense is 'blowing with the mouth'. The root is not attested in any languages of the South sub-branch. The change *v→f is regular in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko Island, but not in the other groups.
1Proto-Hurza*fɨblowsouffler1.1VameKinnairdfə̄fúwhistlesiffler1VameKinnairdfúwāblowsouffler_(du vent)2Proto-Margi*fiblowsouffler2.1BuraBlenchfjâTo blow Also fî1BuraBlenchTo blow Also fyâ3Proto-Mofu*vblowsouffler3.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemsiffler3.2MuyangSmithvublowingsoufflant3.3MadaNkoumoumeveasouffler3.4MolokoFriesenfeblow in an instrumentsiffler_un_instrument1MolokoFriesenfeplay an instrumentjouer un instrument3.5DugworJubumnamafajwhistle (v)siffler1DugworJubumnamafajhisssiffler (serpent)2DugworJubumnama fajblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)3.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthf ́blow, play a wind instrumentsouffler, siffler, jouer (d'un instrument à vent)4Proto-Maroua*fɨblowsouffler4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfisouffler (avec un instrument)1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfiprendre de l'air, liberté, repos2Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfiannoncer la chasse4.2Giziga MarvaHamidoufi gʷafblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)4.3MbazlaTourneuxfuwisouffler5Proto-Lamang*vɨblowsouffler5.1LamangWolffvijablow1LamangWolffvuxablow2LamangWolffvablow (bellows)5.2HdiBramlettvihajto whistlesiffler6Proto-Higi*viblowsouffler6.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyviblow (of wind)6.2KiryaBlenchto blow as a flute6.3BanaLienhardvijsouffler, siffler7Proto-Kotoko Island*fablowsouffler7.1BudumaMcKonefasouffler, allumer.8Proto-Musgum*vuvuwiblowsouffler8.1MulwiTourneuxvuvuwisouffler (avec un soufflet)
v1v.to givedonner717Asynvɨr
This root is possibly cognate with the longer *vɨr, though there is no known regular process for deleting a final *r. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North is regular.
1Proto-Bata*vɨgivedonner1.1GudeHoskinsongive1.2JimiDjibivənDonner ;1.3SharwaGravinadonner1.4TsuvanJohnstona vekəndonner2Proto-Mafa*vagivedonner2.1MafaBarrreteauvadonner2.2CuvokGravinavagivedonner3Proto-Mandara*vagivedonner3.1MatalBrangermavajgivedonner3.2PodokoSwackhammervadonner3.3MandaraFluckigerdonner3.4MalgwaLöhrvagive4Proto-Higi*vɨgivedonner4.1PsikyeAngelogive5Proto-Kotoko North*figivedonner5.1AfadeAllisonfigivedonner5.2MpadeAllisongivedonner5.3MalgbeAllisonfidɨ; figivedonner6Proto-Kotoko Centre*vawgivedonner6.1LagwanAllisonvawun (va)givedonner6.2MserAllisonvo (ri)givedonner7Proto-Gidar*ɨvajagivedonner7.1GidarSchuhəvajadonner
vatsv.to blowsouffler612Bcfpikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸv2viɮ
The basic sense of this root is 'to blow' or 'to breathe' with a human agent. There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North. There is a change *ts→s in Sukur, Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Kotoko Centre. In Sukur this change is regular.
1Proto-Bataubd stem*vatsblowsouffler1.1TsuvanJohnstona vatskənsouffler2Proto-Sukur*vusblowsouffler2.1SukurThomasvusblow;- blowing either flute or fire wood3Proto-Mofuubd stem*vatsblowsouffler3.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemvàtsàjat the forgesouffler; activer le feu de la fonderie3.2GemzekSabataimevətseblow (of wind) (v)souffler (vent)4Proto-Higiubd stem*visɨblowsouffler4.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvəsə́blow4.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvisiblow (with mouth)5Proto-Kotoko Northubd stem*fasblowsouffler5.1AfadeAllisonɬe fti; ɬel fti; ɬʼe fti ?breatherespirer5.2MpadeAllisonʃá fàsɨ́blowsouffler1MpadeAllisonlà fàsɨ́breatherespirer5.3MalgbeAllisonledɨ fasɨbreatherespirer1MalgbeAllisonkidɨ fasɨblowsouffler6Proto-Kotoko Centreubd stem*vasblowsouffler6.1LagwanAllisonɬel vìʃì (ɬe)blowsouffler1LagwanAllisonxɬel vìʃì (xɬe)breatherespirer6.2MserAllisonsali vasblowsouffler1MserAllisonse vasbreatherespirer7Shoa Arabicfasa; fasi; fasublowsouffler7.1Shoa Arabicfasa; fasi; fasubreatherespirer
viɗnf.nightnuit1745B
This root is attested in all groups except for Kotoko Island. *v is realised as *f in Proto-Kotoko North as a regular reflex, and in Proto-Gidar where *b is expected. *f is also expected in Proto-Musgum, but *v is present. *ɗ is unusually stable. In Mbuko and Zina we find /n/ where we would expect a reflex of *ɗ. Many languages have an initial consonant on the root, which can be /l/, /h/, /s/, /t/, /r/ or /d/. Often an initial consonant is appended when an original consonant was lost. This may have been *hʷ, with the labialisation accounting for the forms in Proto-Daba, Proto-Hurza, Proto-Margi and Proto-Maroua. However, each language has a particular consonant that is used to compensate for lost material, and the consonants found here don't match the compensatory consonants. Until a good explanation is available, we will assume that the original root had no initial consonant.
1Proto-Bata*vɨɗɨnightnuit1.1GudeHoskinsonvə̀ɗá -ənight1.2JimiDjibivəɗənLa nuit1.3SharwaGravinavɨɗənuit2Proto-Daba*vɨɗɨʔ ʷnightnuit2.1DabaLienhardvùɗūʼla nuit3Proto-Mafa*vaɗ, lɨvaŋnightnuit3.1MafaNdokobaivaɗnightnuit3.2CuvokGravinavaɗnightnuit1CuvokGravinaləvaŋnightnuit4Proto-Tera*viɗkinightnuit4.1TeraNewmanviɗkinight4.2NyimatliHarleyvirkirinight4.3HwanaHarleyfɨ̀ɗìgɹ̝ánight5Proto-Sukur*vɨɗnightnuit5.1SukurDavidvəɗnight5.2SukurDavidvajnight5.3SukurThomasvəɗnight; the time between one day and next when it is dark, when people usually sleep.6Proto-Hurza*luvaɗnightnuit6.1MbukoGravinaluvonnight, darknuit6.2VameKinnairdlùváɗnightnuit7Proto-Margi*vʷɨɗinightnuit7.1MargiHoffmanviʼinight7.2Margi SouthHarleyvʷiʼinight7.3KilbaSchuhvuʼinight7.4BuraBlenchviriNight1BuraBlenchvirDay (24 hours)8Proto-Mandara*vɨɗinightnuit8.1MatalBrangervəɗnightnuit8.2PodokoSwackhammervə́ɗa,-ənuit8.3MandaraFluckigervajíánuit (f)8.4GlavdaNghagyivaàvᵊɗanight1GlavdaOwensávdnight2GlavdaOwensavəď, k-avəď-áananight, this night8.5DghwedeFrickvɨtʼenight1DghwedeFrickvitʼenight9Proto-Mofu*hɨvɨɗnightnuit9.1OuldemeKinnairdlāvàɗnightnuit9.2MuyangSmithvɑɗthe period of a dayla journée, y compris la nuit ; la nuit9.3ZulgoHallerhə̀və̀ɗnuit f.9.4GemzekSabataihəvaɗnightnuit9.5Mofu NorthBarreteausévàdla nuit9.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthtaváɗnuit10Proto-Maroua*avɨɗ ʷnightnuit10.1MbazlaTourneuxavuɗnuit1MbazlaSILSurveyāvūtnightnuit11Proto-Lamang*rɨviɗinightnuit11.1LamangWolffrvìɗìnight1LamangWolffrvíɗínight11.2HdiBramlettrəviɗiknightla nuit12Proto-Higi*viɗnightnuit12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvərənight1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvəɹənight12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyviɗinight12.3KiryaBlenchvə̀lènight12.4PsikyeAngelovíɗinight13Proto-Kotoko North*faɗenightnuit13.1AfadeAllisonfaɗenightnuit13.2MpadeAllisonfàɗènightnuit13.3MalgbeAllisonfaɗenightnuit14Proto-Kotoko Centre*nvaɗenightnuit14.1LagwanAllisonnvaɗe; mvaɗenightnuit14.2MserAllisonnvaɗenightnuit15Proto-Kotoko South*lɨvinnightnuit15.1ZinaOddenlə̀vìnnightnuit16Proto-Musgum*dɨvɨɗ ʸnightnuit16.1MulwiTourneuxdiviknuit16.2VulumTourneuxdɨvɨknuit16.3MbaraTourneuxdiviʼdajnight16.4MuskumTourneuxarvɨlnuit17Proto-Gidar*ɗɨfɗɨnightnuit17.1GidarHungerforddəfɗanuit17.2GidarSchuhdəfɗa/0nuit
vidanf.harelièvre616Csynhʷaⁿdav
This is one of two possibly related roots for 'hare', the other being *hʷaⁿdav. There was a regular intervocalic change *d→r in the North sub-branch, and there were subsequent regular changes *r→l in various languages. However, these changes do not account for all the surface forms. In particular, the Margi form appears cognate but does not conform with established rules. There is no known rule that would predict the presence of *p as the initial consonant. There is good evidence for *i from all groups, though in Sukur /i/ would be expected rather than the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Bata*vidɨharelièvre1.1GudeHoskinsonpítjárabbit, harelièvre1.2JimiDjibividənLapin1.3TsuvanJohnstonvitikənle lapin2Proto-Sukur*vilaharelièvre2.1SukurDavidvəljaharelièvre2.2SukurThomasviljahare3Proto-Margi*pitaharelièvre3.1BuraBlenchptiHare or rabbitlièvre3.2MargiHoffmanpitərabbitlièvre3.3Margi SouthHarleypiturabbitlièvre3.4KilbaSchuhpitahare4Proto-Mandara*vidaharelièvre4.1PodokoSwackhammervíra,-alapin4.2MandaraFluckigernavírélapin (m), lièvre (m)4.3MalgwaLöhrnaviira ŋaharelièvre1MalgwaLöhrnaviirehare, wildlièvre4.4GlavdaOwensviiharelièvre1GlavdaNghagyivavìːdaharelièvre5Proto-Lamang*vilaharelièvre5.1HdiBramlettvilakʷhare, rabbitle lièvre, le lapin6Proto-Higi*viraharelièvre6.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyviraharelièvre6.2KiryaBlenchpítə̀hare, rabbitlièvre6.3BanaLienhardv(ə̀)lèlapin
vɨdɨjnm.monkeysinge516C
There are three species of monkey indigenous to the Central Chadic region, the patas, the vervet and the baboon. This term was probably generic. The changes *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North and *v→b in Gidar are both regular. The quality of the medial consonant is unclear. There was a general regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch (which encompasses all groups represented here except for Tera) and also a medial change *d→r. The data is most consistent with *d as the medial consonant, even though *d is only present in one language. There are possible cognates of the form [vɨdze] in the Lamang and Hurza groups.
1Proto-Tera*viɗimonkeysinge1.1TeraNewmanviɗimonkey (general term and esp. red patas)1.2NyimatliHarleyvitimonkey2Proto-Mandara*vɨrimonkeysinge2.1MatalBrangervədajmonkeysinge2.2MandaraFluckigervérésinge (m)2.3MalgwaLöhrvəremonkey gen., ape2.4GlavdaOwensbírimonkey3Proto-Mofu*vɨrɨjmonkeysinge3.1OuldemeKinnairdvə̀ràjsinge3.2MuyangSmithviriPatas monkeysinge rouge3.3ZulgoHallerbìrècynocéphale m.3.4GemzekSabataibəremonkeysinge3.5MereyGravinabəremonkeysinge3.6DugworJubumnabəremonkeysinge4Proto-Kotoko North*fɨlimonkeysinge4.1AfadeAllisonfɨlimonkeysinge4.2MpadeAllisonflìmonkeysinge4.3MalgbeAllisonflimonkeysinge5Proto-Gidar*bɨrɨjamonkeysinge5.1GidarSchuhbərja/asinge5.2GidarHungerfordbrijasinge5.3GidarHungerfordbrijababouin
vɨgɨɗ ʸn.holetrou620Csyngɨʔʷ
There was a regular change *v
→b in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. The medial *g has been lost in all groups except for Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua, probably via an intermediate change to *ɣ, both of which are unestablished changes. (The Mofu-Gudur form may be borrowed from Giziga Marva.) In Proto-Mafa and Gidar the loss of *g has been compensated for by the reduplication of the first syllable, which is a common sporadic process. The labialisation prosody in Gidar and the /u/ in Sukur may indicate that *gʷ should be reconstructed instead of *g. The final *ɗ has been lost in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Gidar. Within the Mofu group, several languages have /j/ as a result of the palatalisation prosody causing *ɗʲ→j. These are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Mafa*vavaɗ ʸholetrou1.1MafaNdokobaiveveɗtrou2Proto-Sukur*vuɗholetrou2.1SukurDavidvuɗhole2.2SukurThomasvuɗHole: is a hollow space in a something solid or in the surfaceof something.3Proto-Mandara*vɨgɨ ʸholetrou3.1MatalBrangerafikholetrou3.2PodokoSwackhammervɨ́getrou3.3MandaraFluckigerévegetrou (m)3.4MalgwaLöhrəvəgehole3.5GlavdaOwensaafhole1GlavdaNghagyivaàfkahole3.6DghwedeFrickfkehole4Proto-Mofu*vɨɗ ʸholetrou4.1OuldemeKinnairdāvìholetrou4.2MadaBarreteauvvèɗtrou4.3MolokoFriesenpəɗeholetrou4.4ZulgoHallerbìjetrou m.4.5GemzekSabataibijeholetrou4.6MereyGravinabəɗholetrou4.7DugworJubumnaabedhole; pittrou; fosse4.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́vəgeɗtrou, orifice ; tombe5Proto-Maroua*vɨgɨɗ ʸholetrou5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvigiɗ(i)trou, tombe5.2Giziga MarvaHamidouvigeɗholetrou5.3MbazlaTourneuxveɗtrou6Proto-Gidar*vɨva ʷholetrou6.1GidarHungerfordvovutrou6.2GidarSchuhvomvutrou
vɨhʷn.beerbière412Dsynɣʷɨzɨmᵐbaɮa
This is one of several roots for beer. It is not certain that the Hurza roots presented here are cognate. The labialisation has transferred from *hʷ to *vʷ in Proto-Bata. *hʷ has the reflex *h in Proto-Mandara and *w in Proto-Daba. All these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*vʷɨhbeerbière1.1BataBoydvʷebeer1.2GudeHoskinsonə̀nvʷábeer1.3JimiDjibiᵑgəvunVin1.4SharwaGravinavʷəhBière1SharwaGravinavʷəhVin1.5TsuvanJohnstonəvʷele vin, la bière2Proto-Daba*mavɨwbeerbière2.1BuwalViljoenmɑvɑwbeer (traditional)bière (traditionnelle)2.2GavarViljoenmɑvəbeer (traditional)bière (traditionnelle)2.3MbudumNdokobaïmavumillet beerbière de mil1MbudumNdokobaïmavubeerbière2.4DabaLienhardmòvūle vin filtré, la bière claire3Proto-Hurza*mɨhajbeerbière3.1MbukoGravinamahajmillet_beerbière de mil3.2VameKinnairdmə̄hájbeer (made from millet)bière de mil4Proto-Mandara*pɨhibeerbière4.1PodokoSwackhammerpɨhe,-ibière de mil
vɨjanf.rainy seasonsaison pluvieuse1238A
This word denotes the time of year when rain falls and crops can be grown, now roughly May to October. There is no widespread term for 'dry season'. The word can also be used as a measure of years. The change *v→p in Proto-Musgum and the Mofu languages is not regular. In Bata the *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*va ʸrainy seasonsaison pluvieuse1.1GudeHoskinsonvjánərainy season1.2JimiDjibivjanSaison pluvieuse1.3SharwaGravinavjasaison pluvieuse2Proto-Daba*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse2.1BuwalViljoenvəjɑrainy seasonsaison de pluies2.2GavarViljoenvijɑrainy seasonsaison de pluies2.3MbudumNdokobaïvijarainy seasonsaison de pluies2.4DabaLienhardvìjàla saison de pluie, l'année3Proto-Mafa*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse3.1MafaBarreteauvijasaison des pluies3.2CuvokGravinavijarainy seasonsaison de pluies4Proto-Sukur*virainy seasonsaison pluvieuse4.1SukurDavidviseason, rainy4.2SukurThomasvirainy season; the season of heavy continuous rain.5Proto-Hurza*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse5.1MbukoGravinavijarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse1MbukoGravinavijasaison pluvieuse6Proto-Margi*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse6.1BuraBlenchvijaRainy season1BuraBlenchavijaIn the rainy season6.2MargiHoffmanvijarainy season6.3Margi SouthHarleyvʷijarainy season1Margi SouthHarleyvujarainy season6.4KilbaSchuhuvujarainy season7Proto-Mandara*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse7.1MatalBrangervⁱ̄jārainy seasonsaison pluvieuse7.2PodokoSwackhammervíja,-əsaison pluvieuse7.3MandaraFluckigervíásaison de pluies (f), moule (f)7.4MalgwaLöhrvijaseason, rainy7.5GlavdaOwensviakRainy season1GlavdaNghagyivavìjàksarainy season8Proto-Mofu*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse8.1OuldemeKinnairdwə̄lām lə̄vìjòrainy seasonsaison de pluie8.2MuyangSmithmilevirainy seasonsaison de pluies8.3MolokoFriesenvəjarainy seasonsaison de pluie8.4ZulgoHallervijesaison (f.) des pluies8.5GemzekSabataivijerainy seasonsaison de pluies8.6DugworJubumnavijarainy seasonsaison de pluies8.7Mofu NorthBarreteaupijasaison des pluies8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpijásaison des pluies1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpijámaladie de peau, provoqué par la pluie9Proto-Maroua*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvijasaison des pluies ( mai, juin, juillet, août, septembre)1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvijapleine saison de pluies juillet, août9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouvijarainy seasonsaison de pluies9.3MbazlaTourneuxvijasaison des pluies10Proto-Lamang*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse10.1LamangWolffvijarainy season10.2HdiBramlettvijarainy seasonla saison des pluies11Proto-Higi*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyvijarainy season11.2KiryaBlenchvìjárainy season between April and September11.3BanaLienhardvíjàsaison de pluies12Proto-Musgum*pɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse12.1VulumTourneuxapijasaison des pluies12.2MbaraTourneuxpijarainy season
vɨjawn.milletmil46Asyndawhɨjɨ
The change *v to *f in Kotoko North and Island is regular. The final /o/ in several languages is the reflex of the sequence *aw, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Hurza*vɨjawmilletmil1.1VameKinnairdvìjàwmilletmil2Proto-Kotoko Island*fɨjowmilletmil2.1BudumaMcKonefijowmillet (rainy season)mil (saison de pluies)2.2BudumaMcKonefijowsorghum (rainy season)sorgho (saison des pluies)3Proto-Kotoko North*fɨjomilletmil3.1AfadeAllisonfejomillet (rainy season)mil (saison de pluies)3.2MpadeAllisonfìòsorghum (rainy season)sorgho (saison des pluies)1MpadeAllisonmfòmillet (rainy season)mil (saison de pluies)3.3MalgbeAllisonfijoguinea cornmillet de Guinée, petit mil4Proto-Kotoko Centre*viomilletmil4.1LagwanAllisonvioguinea cornmillet de Guinée, petit mil
viɮv.to blowsouffler611Bcfpikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸv2vats
This root is found in a diverse collection of languages. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North is regular, as is the change *ɮ→l in Bata. The other changes affecting *ɮ are not known to be regular, but data is limited.
1Proto-Bata*filblowsouffler1.1BataBoydfílwhistle2Proto-Hurza*vɨɮa ʸblowsouffler2.1MbukoGravinavəɮebreathesouffler, respirer3Proto-Mofu*vɨɮblowsouffler3.1ZulgoHallerviɮsouffler1ZulgoHallerviɮ(-ér)souffler, donner un coup d'air pour enlever, éloigner, éteindre etc.3.2GemzekSabataimevəɮesouffler1GemzekSabataimevəɬe a dukblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)3.3MereyGravinavəɮblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)1MereyGravinavəɮblowsouffler3.4DugworJubumnaməvəɮejblow (of wind) (v)souffler (vent)1DugworJubumnaməvəɮejblowsouffler4Proto-Lamang*vuɬblowsouffler4.1HdiBramlettvuɬajto blowsouffler5Proto-Kotoko North*fɨlblowsouffler5.1MpadeAllisonfɨ̀lblow aways'envoler5.2MalgbeAllisonfɨleblow aways'envoler6Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨlblowsouffler6.1LagwanAllisonvɨlwunblow aways'envoler6.2MserAllisonvɨlblow aways'envoler
vɨnnm.rainpluie925B
This root is widespread within Central Chadic, and is found elsewhere in Chadic. Surprisingly many languages do not have a term for 'rain' and use the term for 'water' instead. There was a regular change *v→b in Gidar. The change *v→p in Proto-Margi is not established. There was a regular change *n→r word-finally in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. There is evidence of labialisation in Proto-Bata, Giziga Marva and Gidar, which may imply that there was *w in the original root, or possible a lost initial
*hʷ, though there is insufficient evidence to include this in the reconstruction.
1Proto-Bata*vʷinɨrainpluie1.1GudeHoskinsonvə̀ná -ərainpluie1.2JimiDjibivuunənPluie1.3SharwaGravinavʷənəpluie1.4TsuvanJohnstonvʷenela pluie2Proto-Daba*vanrainpluie2.1BuwalViljoenvɑnrainpluie2.2GavarViljoenmɑnɑvɑnrainpluie2.3MbudumNdokobaïvaŋrainpluie2.4DabaLienhardvànla pluie3Proto-Hurza*avan ʸrainpluie3.1MbukoGravinaivenrainpluie3.2VameKinnairdàvèŋ 1rainpluie4Proto-Margi*parrainpluie4.1MargiHoffmanpaɗərainpluie4.2KilbaSchuhparrainpluie5Proto-Mofu*avɨrrainpluie5.1OuldemeKinnairdāvə̀rrainpluie5.2MuyangSmithɑvərrainpluie5.3MolokoFriesenvárrainpluie5.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthvárrainpluie, nuage6Proto-Maroua*van ʷrainpluie6.1Giziga MarvaHamidouvonrainpluie7Proto-Higi*vanrainpluie7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyva1.year.2.rain7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvarainpluie7.3KiryaBlenchvànrainpluie7.4PsikyeAngelorainpluie7.5BanaLienhardvànpluie8Proto-Musgum*faŋrainpluie8.1MulwiTourneuxfaŋpluie8.2VulumTourneuxfaŋpluie9Proto-Gidar*bunarainpluie9.1GidarHungerfordbunapluie
vɨn ʸnf.hutcase1429Brel. toɣaj
This root refers to an individual building for living in, rather than the compound as a whole. There was a regular change *v→b in Gidar and in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. *b is also found in Proto-Daba and in the Mandara subgroup of the Mandara group, but here the change is irregular. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Musgum is also regular. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is limited, but favours including the prosody in the reconstruction.
1Proto-Bata*vɨnihutcase1.1BataBoydvɨ̀neroom1.2SharwaGravinavɨramaison2Proto-Daba*bɨŋhutcase2.1MbudumNdokobaïbəŋhutcase1MbudumNdokobaïbəŋroompièce (de maison)3Proto-Mafa*van ʸhutcase3.1CuvokGravinaveŋroompièce (de maison)1CuvokGravinaveŋhutcase2CuvokGravinaveŋbedroomchambre (à dormir)4Proto-Sukur*vahutcase4.1SukurThomasvahome; the house that you live, especially with your family.5Proto-Margi*vihutcase5.1KilbaSchuhvihut6Proto-Mandara*bɨrɨ, vɨjhutcase6.1MandaraFluckigerberemaison, chambre (f)6.2MalgwaLöhrbəreroom, hut6.3GlavdaOwenshouse, area, quarter of a town (cf. Å‚al)1GlavdaOwensvhouse7Proto-Mofu*vɨr ʸhutcase7.1OuldemeKinnairdvə̀rwoman's bedroomchambre d'une femme7.2MolokoFriesenverbedroomchambre7.3ZulgoHallerbirchambre (f.) du fils7.4GemzekSabataibirchambre1GemzekSabataibərahousechez7.5MereyGravinaberhutcase, chambre à coucher, pièce8Proto-Maroua*vɨn ʸhutcase8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋroompièce (de maison)1Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋhutcase2Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋhousemaison3Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋbedroomchambre (à dormir)8.2MbazlaTourneuxviŋmaison9Proto-Lamang*ivɨŋhutcase9.1LamangWolffívə̀ŋhut1LamangWolffívə̀ŋìhut9.2HdiBramlettviŋboy's roomla chambre du garcãon10Proto-Higi*vihutcase10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvjìsleeping room.10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvibedroom11Proto-Kotoko North*fɨnhutcase11.1AfadeAllisonfɨnhutcase11.2MpadeAllisonfɨ̀nhutcase11.3MalgbeAllisonfɨnhutcase12Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨnihutcase12.1LagwanAllisonvɨni; guamahɨhutcase1LagwanAllisonvɨni e mɨsanebedroomchambre (à dormir)12.2MserAllisonvriohutcase1MserAllisonvɨr a havɨnbedroomchambre (à dormir)13Proto-Musgum*funɨjhutcase13.1VulumTourneuxfuniimaison13.2MulwiTourneuxfuniimaison1MulwiTourneuxfuniipetite poterie à sauce13.3MbaraTourneuxfiŋajhousemaison14Proto-Gidar*biinahutcase14.1GidarHungerfordbiinacase, maison
vɨnahv.to vomitvomir1332A
There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Musgum. There was also a regular change *n→r word-medially in Proto-Mandara. The final *h has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*vɨnavomitvomir1.1GudeHoskinsonvaanavomit1.2JimiDjibivənan1 - Vomir ;; 2 - Vomissement2Proto-Daba*vɨnavomitvomir2.1BuwalViljoenvənɑvomit (v)vomir2.2GavarViljoenvənɑvomit (v)vomir2.3MbudumNdokobaïvənvomit (v)vomir2.4DabaLienhardvə̀nàvomir ; déteindre3Proto-Mafa*vɨnaha ʸvomitvomir3.1MafaNdokobain vənehevomir1MafaBarreteauvínéh-vomir3.2CuvokGravinavənahavomit (v)vomir4Proto-Tera*vɨnahvomitvomir4.1NyimatliHarleyvu̱nakhvomit (v)5Proto-Sukur*vinahvomitvomir5.1SukurThomasvinahvomit; to bring food from the stomach back out through the mouth.6Proto-Hurza*vɨnah ʸvomitvomir6.1MbukoGravinavənevomitvomir6.2VameKinnairdvə̀nàhàvomitvomir7Proto-Mandara*vɨrahavomitvomir7.1MatalBrangermàvlàhàjvomitvomir7.2PodokoSwackhammervə́raha 1vomir1PodokoSwackhammervə́raha 2se fondre (teinte)7.3GlavdaNghagyivavrɛː̄gɛvomit (v)7.4DghwedeFrickvraxavomit8Proto-Mofu*vɨnahavomitvomir8.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemvə̀nàhàjvomitvomir8.2MadaNkoumoumavnahavomir8.3MolokoFriesenvənahvomitvomir8.4ZulgoHallervə̀nahávomir8.5GemzekSabataimevənehevomir8.6MereyGravinavənahavomit (v)vomir8.7DugworJubumnaməvənehejvomit (v)vomir8.8Mofu NorthBarreteaumévə̀nhèjvomir9Proto-Lamang*vɨnahvomitvomir9.1LamangWolffvanaahʷavomit9.2HdiBramlettvənihajto vomitvomir1HdiBramlettvənihivomitle vomissement10Proto-Higi*vɨnɨhʷɨvomitvomir10.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyvineɣoto vomit; puke10.2KiryaBlenchvə̀nə̀húto vomit10.3BanaLienhardvə̀nə̀xʷə̀vomir, spitting image of11Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨnahɨvomitvomir11.1LagwanAllisonvɨnahɨwun (vɨnahɨ)vomit (v)vomir12Proto-Kotoko South*vɨnahavomitvomir12.1ZinaOddenvə̀nàhàvomit (v)vomir13Proto-Musgum*fɨna ʸvomitvomir13.1MbaraTourneuxfinevomitvomir
vɨrv.to flyvoler712A
This word has the basic meaning of 'to fly', but can also mean 'to jump' in some languages. There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North, and the same change has taken place in Gude, where it was irregular, and in Proto-Margi, where the change is found elsewhere but is unestablished. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, though in this case we find /r/ in Zina.
1Proto-Bata*fɨrflyvoler1.1GudeHoskinsonfə́rflying away (of bird).voler2Proto-Sukur*vwarjumpsauter2.1SukurThomasvwarjump:- to move quikly off the ground or away from a surface by pushing your s your legs and feet.3Proto-Margi*fɨlflyvoler3.1BuraBlenchfilaTo jump; to flyvoler3.2MargiHoffmanvəlto jump, flyvoler3.3KilbaSchuhfəla//fly (v)voler1KilbaSchuhfəla//jump4Proto-Mandara*valto flyvoler4.1MatalBrangermavalajjumpsauter5Proto-Kotoko North*fɨlflyvoler5.1AfadeAllisonfɨl; fɨlunfly (v)voler5.2MpadeAllisonfɨ̀lfly (v)voler5.3MalgbeAllisonfɨlwunfly (v)voler6Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨlflyvoler6.1LagwanAllisonvɨlwun (vɨl)fly (v)voler6.2MserAllisonvɨlfly (v)voler7Proto-Kotoko South*veraflyvoler7.1ZinaOddenvèràfly (v)voler8Kanurifәfәnᵑgîn, fәfәttʃînfly (v)voler
vɨrv.to givedonner819Asynv1
There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba. In all other respects this root is stable in these groups.
1Proto-Daba*vɨlgivedonner1.1BuwalViljoenvɑlgivedonner1BuwalViljoenvɑlofferoffrir1.2GavarViljoenvəlgivedonner1GavarViljoenvəlofferoffrir2GavarViljoenvəlreturnrendre, renvoyer1.3MbudumNdokobaïvəlgivedonner1.4DabaLienhardvə̄ldonner2Proto-Tera*vɨrgivedonner2.1TeraNewmanvərigive2.2NyimatliHarleyvu̱rgive3Proto-Hurza*vargivedonner3.1MbukoGravinavarto givedonner3.2VameKinnairdvə̀ràgivedonner4Proto-Mandara*vɨlgivedonner4.1MalgwaLöhrvəlagive4.2GlavdaNghagyivavɨ́lgagive5Proto-Mofu*vɨlgivedonner5.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemvə̄làrgivedonner5.2MolokoFriesenvalgivedonner1MolokoFriesenvərdonner5.3ZulgoHallervə́ldonner, faire don5.4GemzekSabataimevəlegivedonner5.5DugworJubumnamə vəlejgivedonner6Proto-Maroua*vɨlgivedonner6.1Giziga MarvaHamidouvulgivedonner6.2MbazlaTourneuxvilidonner1MbazlaSILSurveyvìlíʼgivedonner7Proto-Lamang*vlagivedonner7.1LamangWolffvlagive8Proto-Kotoko South*valagivedonner8.1ZinaOddenvàlàgivedonner


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v


v2v.blowsouffler818Bcfpikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸvatsviɮ
The basic sense is 'blowing with the mouth'. The root is not attested in any languages of the South sub-branch. The change *v→f is regular in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko Island, but not in the other groups.
1Proto-Hurza*fɨblowsouffler1.1VameKinnairdfə̄fúwhistlesiffler1VameKinnairdfúwāblowsouffler_(du vent)2Proto-Margi*fiblowsouffler2.1BuraBlenchfjâTo blow Also fî1BuraBlenchTo blow Also fyâ3Proto-Mofu*vblowsouffler3.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemsiffler3.2MuyangSmithvublowingsoufflant3.3MadaNkoumoumeveasouffler3.4MolokoFriesenfeblow in an instrumentsiffler_un_instrument1MolokoFriesenfeplay an instrumentjouer un instrument3.5DugworJubumnamafajwhistle (v)siffler1DugworJubumnamafajhisssiffler (serpent)2DugworJubumnama fajblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)3.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthf ́blow, play a wind instrumentsouffler, siffler, jouer (d'un instrument à vent)4Proto-Maroua*fɨblowsouffler4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfisouffler (avec un instrument)1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfiprendre de l'air, liberté, repos2Giziga MoutourwaMichielanfiannoncer la chasse4.2Giziga MarvaHamidoufi gʷafblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)4.3MbazlaTourneuxfuwisouffler5Proto-Lamang*vɨblowsouffler5.1LamangWolffvijablow1LamangWolffvuxablow2LamangWolffvablow (bellows)5.2HdiBramlettvihajto whistlesiffler6Proto-Higi*viblowsouffler6.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyviblow (of wind)6.2KiryaBlenchto blow as a flute6.3BanaLienhardvijsouffler, siffler7Proto-Kotoko Island*fablowsouffler7.1BudumaMcKonefasouffler, allumer.8Proto-Musgum*vuvuwiblowsouffler8.1MulwiTourneuxvuvuwisouffler (avec un soufflet)
v1v.to givedonner717Asynvɨr
This root is possibly cognate with the longer *vɨr, though there is no known regular process for deleting a final *r. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North is regular.
1Proto-Bata*vɨgivedonner1.1GudeHoskinsongive1.2JimiDjibivənDonner ;1.3SharwaGravinadonner1.4TsuvanJohnstona vekəndonner2Proto-Mafa*vagivedonner2.1MafaBarrreteauvadonner2.2CuvokGravinavagivedonner3Proto-Mandara*vagivedonner3.1MatalBrangermavajgivedonner3.2PodokoSwackhammervadonner3.3MandaraFluckigerdonner3.4MalgwaLöhrvagive4Proto-Higi*vɨgivedonner4.1PsikyeAngelogive5Proto-Kotoko North*figivedonner5.1AfadeAllisonfigivedonner5.2MpadeAllisongivedonner5.3MalgbeAllisonfidɨ; figivedonner6Proto-Kotoko Centre*vawgivedonner6.1LagwanAllisonvawun (va)givedonner6.2MserAllisonvo (ri)givedonner7Proto-Gidar*ɨvajagivedonner7.1GidarSchuhəvajadonner
vatsv.to blowsouffler612Bcfpikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸv2viɮ
The basic sense of this root is 'to blow' or 'to breathe' with a human agent. There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North. There is a change *ts→s in Sukur, Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Kotoko Centre. In Sukur this change is regular.
1Proto-Bataubd stem*vatsblowsouffler1.1TsuvanJohnstona vatskənsouffler2Proto-Sukur*vusblowsouffler2.1SukurThomasvusblow;- blowing either flute or fire wood3Proto-Mofuubd stem*vatsblowsouffler3.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemvàtsàjat the forgesouffler; activer le feu de la fonderie3.2GemzekSabataimevətseblow (of wind) (v)souffler (vent)4Proto-Higiubd stem*visɨblowsouffler4.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvəsə́blow4.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvisiblow (with mouth)5Proto-Kotoko Northubd stem*fasblowsouffler5.1AfadeAllisonɬe fti; ɬel fti; ɬʼe fti ?breatherespirer5.2MpadeAllisonʃá fàsɨ́blowsouffler1MpadeAllisonlà fàsɨ́breatherespirer5.3MalgbeAllisonledɨ fasɨbreatherespirer1MalgbeAllisonkidɨ fasɨblowsouffler6Proto-Kotoko Centreubd stem*vasblowsouffler6.1LagwanAllisonɬel vìʃì (ɬe)blowsouffler1LagwanAllisonxɬel vìʃì (xɬe)breatherespirer6.2MserAllisonsali vasblowsouffler1MserAllisonse vasbreatherespirer7Shoa Arabicfasa; fasi; fasublowsouffler7.1Shoa Arabicfasa; fasi; fasubreatherespirer
viɗnf.nightnuit1745B
This root is attested in all groups except for Kotoko Island. *v is realised as *f in Proto-Kotoko North as a regular reflex, and in Proto-Gidar where *b is expected. *f is also expected in Proto-Musgum, but *v is present. *ɗ is unusually stable. In Mbuko and Zina we find /n/ where we would expect a reflex of *ɗ. Many languages have an initial consonant on the root, which can be /l/, /h/, /s/, /t/, /r/ or /d/. Often an initial consonant is appended when an original consonant was lost. This may have been *hʷ, with the labialisation accounting for the forms in Proto-Daba, Proto-Hurza, Proto-Margi and Proto-Maroua. However, each language has a particular consonant that is used to compensate for lost material, and the consonants found here don't match the compensatory consonants. Until a good explanation is available, we will assume that the original root had no initial consonant.
1Proto-Bata*vɨɗɨnightnuit1.1GudeHoskinsonvə̀ɗá -ənight1.2JimiDjibivəɗənLa nuit1.3SharwaGravinavɨɗənuit2Proto-Daba*vɨɗɨʔ ʷnightnuit2.1DabaLienhardvùɗūʼla nuit3Proto-Mafa*vaɗ, lɨvaŋnightnuit3.1MafaNdokobaivaɗnightnuit3.2CuvokGravinavaɗnightnuit1CuvokGravinaləvaŋnightnuit4Proto-Tera*viɗkinightnuit4.1TeraNewmanviɗkinight4.2NyimatliHarleyvirkirinight4.3HwanaHarleyfɨ̀ɗìgɹ̝ánight5Proto-Sukur*vɨɗnightnuit5.1SukurDavidvəɗnight5.2SukurDavidvajnight5.3SukurThomasvəɗnight; the time between one day and next when it is dark, when people usually sleep.6Proto-Hurza*luvaɗnightnuit6.1MbukoGravinaluvonnight, darknuit6.2VameKinnairdlùváɗnightnuit7Proto-Margi*vʷɨɗinightnuit7.1MargiHoffmanviʼinight7.2Margi SouthHarleyvʷiʼinight7.3KilbaSchuhvuʼinight7.4BuraBlenchviriNight1BuraBlenchvirDay (24 hours)8Proto-Mandara*vɨɗinightnuit8.1MatalBrangervəɗnightnuit8.2PodokoSwackhammervə́ɗa,-ənuit8.3MandaraFluckigervajíánuit (f)8.4GlavdaNghagyivaàvᵊɗanight1GlavdaOwensávdnight2GlavdaOwensavəď, k-avəď-áananight, this night8.5DghwedeFrickvɨtʼenight1DghwedeFrickvitʼenight9Proto-Mofu*hɨvɨɗnightnuit9.1OuldemeKinnairdlāvàɗnightnuit9.2MuyangSmithvɑɗthe period of a dayla journée, y compris la nuit ; la nuit9.3ZulgoHallerhə̀və̀ɗnuit f.9.4GemzekSabataihəvaɗnightnuit9.5Mofu NorthBarreteausévàdla nuit9.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthtaváɗnuit10Proto-Maroua*avɨɗ ʷnightnuit10.1MbazlaTourneuxavuɗnuit1MbazlaSILSurveyāvūtnightnuit11Proto-Lamang*rɨviɗinightnuit11.1LamangWolffrvìɗìnight1LamangWolffrvíɗínight11.2HdiBramlettrəviɗiknightla nuit12Proto-Higi*viɗnightnuit12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvərənight1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvəɹənight12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyviɗinight12.3KiryaBlenchvə̀lènight12.4PsikyeAngelovíɗinight13Proto-Kotoko North*faɗenightnuit13.1AfadeAllisonfaɗenightnuit13.2MpadeAllisonfàɗènightnuit13.3MalgbeAllisonfaɗenightnuit14Proto-Kotoko Centre*nvaɗenightnuit14.1LagwanAllisonnvaɗe; mvaɗenightnuit14.2MserAllisonnvaɗenightnuit15Proto-Kotoko South*lɨvinnightnuit15.1ZinaOddenlə̀vìnnightnuit16Proto-Musgum*dɨvɨɗ ʸnightnuit16.1MulwiTourneuxdiviknuit16.2VulumTourneuxdɨvɨknuit16.3MbaraTourneuxdiviʼdajnight16.4MuskumTourneuxarvɨlnuit17Proto-Gidar*ɗɨfɗɨnightnuit17.1GidarHungerforddəfɗanuit17.2GidarSchuhdəfɗa/0nuit
vidanf.harelièvre616Csynhʷaⁿdav
This is one of two possibly related roots for 'hare', the other being *hʷaⁿdav. There was a regular intervocalic change *d→r in the North sub-branch, and there were subsequent regular changes *r→l in various languages. However, these changes do not account for all the surface forms. In particular, the Margi form appears cognate but does not conform with established rules. There is no known rule that would predict the presence of *p as the initial consonant. There is good evidence for *i from all groups, though in Sukur /i/ would be expected rather than the palatalisation prosody.
1Proto-Bata*vidɨharelièvre1.1GudeHoskinsonpítjárabbit, harelièvre1.2JimiDjibividənLapin1.3TsuvanJohnstonvitikənle lapin2Proto-Sukur*vilaharelièvre2.1SukurDavidvəljaharelièvre2.2SukurThomasviljahare3Proto-Margi*pitaharelièvre3.1BuraBlenchptiHare or rabbitlièvre3.2MargiHoffmanpitərabbitlièvre3.3Margi SouthHarleypiturabbitlièvre3.4KilbaSchuhpitahare4Proto-Mandara*vidaharelièvre4.1PodokoSwackhammervíra,-alapin4.2MandaraFluckigernavírélapin (m), lièvre (m)4.3MalgwaLöhrnaviira ŋaharelièvre1MalgwaLöhrnaviirehare, wildlièvre4.4GlavdaOwensviiharelièvre1GlavdaNghagyivavìːdaharelièvre5Proto-Lamang*vilaharelièvre5.1HdiBramlettvilakʷhare, rabbitle lièvre, le lapin6Proto-Higi*viraharelièvre6.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyviraharelièvre6.2KiryaBlenchpítə̀hare, rabbitlièvre6.3BanaLienhardv(ə̀)lèlapin
vɨdɨjnm.monkeysinge516C
There are three species of monkey indigenous to the Central Chadic region, the patas, the vervet and the baboon. This term was probably generic. The changes *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North and *v→b in Gidar are both regular. The quality of the medial consonant is unclear. There was a general regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch (which encompasses all groups represented here except for Tera) and also a medial change *d→r. The data is most consistent with *d as the medial consonant, even though *d is only present in one language. There are possible cognates of the form [vɨdze] in the Lamang and Hurza groups.
1Proto-Tera*viɗimonkeysinge1.1TeraNewmanviɗimonkey (general term and esp. red patas)1.2NyimatliHarleyvitimonkey2Proto-Mandara*vɨrimonkeysinge2.1MatalBrangervədajmonkeysinge2.2MandaraFluckigervérésinge (m)2.3MalgwaLöhrvəremonkey gen., ape2.4GlavdaOwensbírimonkey3Proto-Mofu*vɨrɨjmonkeysinge3.1OuldemeKinnairdvə̀ràjsinge3.2MuyangSmithviriPatas monkeysinge rouge3.3ZulgoHallerbìrècynocéphale m.3.4GemzekSabataibəremonkeysinge3.5MereyGravinabəremonkeysinge3.6DugworJubumnabəremonkeysinge4Proto-Kotoko North*fɨlimonkeysinge4.1AfadeAllisonfɨlimonkeysinge4.2MpadeAllisonflìmonkeysinge4.3MalgbeAllisonflimonkeysinge5Proto-Gidar*bɨrɨjamonkeysinge5.1GidarSchuhbərja/asinge5.2GidarHungerfordbrijasinge5.3GidarHungerfordbrijababouin
vɨgɨɗ ʸn.holetrou620Csyngɨʔʷ
There was a regular change *v
→b in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. The medial *g has been lost in all groups except for Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua, probably via an intermediate change to *ɣ, both of which are unestablished changes. (The Mofu-Gudur form may be borrowed from Giziga Marva.) In Proto-Mafa and Gidar the loss of *g has been compensated for by the reduplication of the first syllable, which is a common sporadic process. The labialisation prosody in Gidar and the /u/ in Sukur may indicate that *gʷ should be reconstructed instead of *g. The final *ɗ has been lost in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Gidar. Within the Mofu group, several languages have /j/ as a result of the palatalisation prosody causing *ɗʲ→j. These are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Mafa*vavaɗ ʸholetrou1.1MafaNdokobaiveveɗtrou2Proto-Sukur*vuɗholetrou2.1SukurDavidvuɗhole2.2SukurThomasvuɗHole: is a hollow space in a something solid or in the surfaceof something.3Proto-Mandara*vɨgɨ ʸholetrou3.1MatalBrangerafikholetrou3.2PodokoSwackhammervɨ́getrou3.3MandaraFluckigerévegetrou (m)3.4MalgwaLöhrəvəgehole3.5GlavdaOwensaafhole1GlavdaNghagyivaàfkahole3.6DghwedeFrickfkehole4Proto-Mofu*vɨɗ ʸholetrou4.1OuldemeKinnairdāvìholetrou4.2MadaBarreteauvvèɗtrou4.3MolokoFriesenpəɗeholetrou4.4ZulgoHallerbìjetrou m.4.5GemzekSabataibijeholetrou4.6MereyGravinabəɗholetrou4.7DugworJubumnaabedhole; pittrou; fosse4.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́vəgeɗtrou, orifice ; tombe5Proto-Maroua*vɨgɨɗ ʸholetrou5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvigiɗ(i)trou, tombe5.2Giziga MarvaHamidouvigeɗholetrou5.3MbazlaTourneuxveɗtrou6Proto-Gidar*vɨva ʷholetrou6.1GidarHungerfordvovutrou6.2GidarSchuhvomvutrou
vɨhʷn.beerbière412Dsynɣʷɨzɨmᵐbaɮa
This is one of several roots for beer. It is not certain that the Hurza roots presented here are cognate. The labialisation has transferred from *hʷ to *vʷ in Proto-Bata. *hʷ has the reflex *h in Proto-Mandara and *w in Proto-Daba. All these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*vʷɨhbeerbière1.1BataBoydvʷebeer1.2GudeHoskinsonə̀nvʷábeer1.3JimiDjibiᵑgəvunVin1.4SharwaGravinavʷəhBière1SharwaGravinavʷəhVin1.5TsuvanJohnstonəvʷele vin, la bière2Proto-Daba*mavɨwbeerbière2.1BuwalViljoenmɑvɑwbeer (traditional)bière (traditionnelle)2.2GavarViljoenmɑvəbeer (traditional)bière (traditionnelle)2.3MbudumNdokobaïmavumillet beerbière de mil1MbudumNdokobaïmavubeerbière2.4DabaLienhardmòvūle vin filtré, la bière claire3Proto-Hurza*mɨhajbeerbière3.1MbukoGravinamahajmillet_beerbière de mil3.2VameKinnairdmə̄hájbeer (made from millet)bière de mil4Proto-Mandara*pɨhibeerbière4.1PodokoSwackhammerpɨhe,-ibière de mil
vɨjanf.rainy seasonsaison pluvieuse1238A
This word denotes the time of year when rain falls and crops can be grown, now roughly May to October. There is no widespread term for 'dry season'. The word can also be used as a measure of years. The change *v→p in Proto-Musgum and the Mofu languages is not regular. In Bata the *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*va ʸrainy seasonsaison pluvieuse1.1GudeHoskinsonvjánərainy season1.2JimiDjibivjanSaison pluvieuse1.3SharwaGravinavjasaison pluvieuse2Proto-Daba*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse2.1BuwalViljoenvəjɑrainy seasonsaison de pluies2.2GavarViljoenvijɑrainy seasonsaison de pluies2.3MbudumNdokobaïvijarainy seasonsaison de pluies2.4DabaLienhardvìjàla saison de pluie, l'année3Proto-Mafa*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse3.1MafaBarreteauvijasaison des pluies3.2CuvokGravinavijarainy seasonsaison de pluies4Proto-Sukur*virainy seasonsaison pluvieuse4.1SukurDavidviseason, rainy4.2SukurThomasvirainy season; the season of heavy continuous rain.5Proto-Hurza*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse5.1MbukoGravinavijarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse1MbukoGravinavijasaison pluvieuse6Proto-Margi*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse6.1BuraBlenchvijaRainy season1BuraBlenchavijaIn the rainy season6.2MargiHoffmanvijarainy season6.3Margi SouthHarleyvʷijarainy season1Margi SouthHarleyvujarainy season6.4KilbaSchuhuvujarainy season7Proto-Mandara*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse7.1MatalBrangervⁱ̄jārainy seasonsaison pluvieuse7.2PodokoSwackhammervíja,-əsaison pluvieuse7.3MandaraFluckigervíásaison de pluies (f), moule (f)7.4MalgwaLöhrvijaseason, rainy7.5GlavdaOwensviakRainy season1GlavdaNghagyivavìjàksarainy season8Proto-Mofu*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse8.1OuldemeKinnairdwə̄lām lə̄vìjòrainy seasonsaison de pluie8.2MuyangSmithmilevirainy seasonsaison de pluies8.3MolokoFriesenvəjarainy seasonsaison de pluie8.4ZulgoHallervijesaison (f.) des pluies8.5GemzekSabataivijerainy seasonsaison de pluies8.6DugworJubumnavijarainy seasonsaison de pluies8.7Mofu NorthBarreteaupijasaison des pluies8.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpijásaison des pluies1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthpijámaladie de peau, provoqué par la pluie9Proto-Maroua*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse9.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvijasaison des pluies ( mai, juin, juillet, août, septembre)1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanvijapleine saison de pluies juillet, août9.2Giziga MarvaHamidouvijarainy seasonsaison de pluies9.3MbazlaTourneuxvijasaison des pluies10Proto-Lamang*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse10.1LamangWolffvijarainy season10.2HdiBramlettvijarainy seasonla saison des pluies11Proto-Higi*vɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse11.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyvijarainy season11.2KiryaBlenchvìjárainy season between April and September11.3BanaLienhardvíjàsaison de pluies12Proto-Musgum*pɨjarainy seasonsaison pluvieuse12.1VulumTourneuxapijasaison des pluies12.2MbaraTourneuxpijarainy season
vɨjawn.milletmil46Asyndawhɨjɨ
The change *v to *f in Kotoko North and Island is regular. The final /o/ in several languages is the reflex of the sequence *aw, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Hurza*vɨjawmilletmil1.1VameKinnairdvìjàwmilletmil2Proto-Kotoko Island*fɨjowmilletmil2.1BudumaMcKonefijowmillet (rainy season)mil (saison de pluies)2.2BudumaMcKonefijowsorghum (rainy season)sorgho (saison des pluies)3Proto-Kotoko North*fɨjomilletmil3.1AfadeAllisonfejomillet (rainy season)mil (saison de pluies)3.2MpadeAllisonfìòsorghum (rainy season)sorgho (saison des pluies)1MpadeAllisonmfòmillet (rainy season)mil (saison de pluies)3.3MalgbeAllisonfijoguinea cornmillet de Guinée, petit mil4Proto-Kotoko Centre*viomilletmil4.1LagwanAllisonvioguinea cornmillet de Guinée, petit mil
viɮv.to blowsouffler611Bcfpikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸv2vats
This root is found in a diverse collection of languages. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North is regular, as is the change *ɮ→l in Bata. The other changes affecting *ɮ are not known to be regular, but data is limited.
1Proto-Bata*filblowsouffler1.1BataBoydfílwhistle2Proto-Hurza*vɨɮa ʸblowsouffler2.1MbukoGravinavəɮebreathesouffler, respirer3Proto-Mofu*vɨɮblowsouffler3.1ZulgoHallerviɮsouffler1ZulgoHallerviɮ(-ér)souffler, donner un coup d'air pour enlever, éloigner, éteindre etc.3.2GemzekSabataimevəɮesouffler1GemzekSabataimevəɬe a dukblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)3.3MereyGravinavəɮblow (horn)souffler dans (un cor)1MereyGravinavəɮblowsouffler3.4DugworJubumnaməvəɮejblow (of wind) (v)souffler (vent)1DugworJubumnaməvəɮejblowsouffler4Proto-Lamang*vuɬblowsouffler4.1HdiBramlettvuɬajto blowsouffler5Proto-Kotoko North*fɨlblowsouffler5.1MpadeAllisonfɨ̀lblow aways'envoler5.2MalgbeAllisonfɨleblow aways'envoler6Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨlblowsouffler6.1LagwanAllisonvɨlwunblow aways'envoler6.2MserAllisonvɨlblow aways'envoler
vɨnnm.rainpluie925B
This root is widespread within Central Chadic, and is found elsewhere in Chadic. Surprisingly many languages do not have a term for 'rain' and use the term for 'water' instead. There was a regular change *v→b in Gidar. The change *v→p in Proto-Margi is not established. There was a regular change *n→r word-finally in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. There is evidence of labialisation in Proto-Bata, Giziga Marva and Gidar, which may imply that there was *w in the original root, or possible a lost initial
*hʷ, though there is insufficient evidence to include this in the reconstruction.
1Proto-Bata*vʷinɨrainpluie1.1GudeHoskinsonvə̀ná -ərainpluie1.2JimiDjibivuunənPluie1.3SharwaGravinavʷənəpluie1.4TsuvanJohnstonvʷenela pluie2Proto-Daba*vanrainpluie2.1BuwalViljoenvɑnrainpluie2.2GavarViljoenmɑnɑvɑnrainpluie2.3MbudumNdokobaïvaŋrainpluie2.4DabaLienhardvànla pluie3Proto-Hurza*avan ʸrainpluie3.1MbukoGravinaivenrainpluie3.2VameKinnairdàvèŋ 1rainpluie4Proto-Margi*parrainpluie4.1MargiHoffmanpaɗərainpluie4.2KilbaSchuhparrainpluie5Proto-Mofu*avɨrrainpluie5.1OuldemeKinnairdāvə̀rrainpluie5.2MuyangSmithɑvərrainpluie5.3MolokoFriesenvárrainpluie5.4Mofu-GudurHollingsworthvárrainpluie, nuage6Proto-Maroua*van ʷrainpluie6.1Giziga MarvaHamidouvonrainpluie7Proto-Higi*vanrainpluie7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyva1.year.2.rain7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvarainpluie7.3KiryaBlenchvànrainpluie7.4PsikyeAngelorainpluie7.5BanaLienhardvànpluie8Proto-Musgum*faŋrainpluie8.1MulwiTourneuxfaŋpluie8.2VulumTourneuxfaŋpluie9Proto-Gidar*bunarainpluie9.1GidarHungerfordbunapluie
vɨn ʸnf.hutcase1429Brel. toɣaj
This root refers to an individual building for living in, rather than the compound as a whole. There was a regular change *v→b in Gidar and in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. *b is also found in Proto-Daba and in the Mandara subgroup of the Mandara group, but here the change is irregular. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Musgum is also regular. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is limited, but favours including the prosody in the reconstruction.
1Proto-Bata*vɨnihutcase1.1BataBoydvɨ̀neroom1.2SharwaGravinavɨramaison2Proto-Daba*bɨŋhutcase2.1MbudumNdokobaïbəŋhutcase1MbudumNdokobaïbəŋroompièce (de maison)3Proto-Mafa*van ʸhutcase3.1CuvokGravinaveŋroompièce (de maison)1CuvokGravinaveŋhutcase2CuvokGravinaveŋbedroomchambre (à dormir)4Proto-Sukur*vahutcase4.1SukurThomasvahome; the house that you live, especially with your family.5Proto-Margi*vihutcase5.1KilbaSchuhvihut6Proto-Mandara*bɨrɨ, vɨjhutcase6.1MandaraFluckigerberemaison, chambre (f)6.2MalgwaLöhrbəreroom, hut6.3GlavdaOwenshouse, area, quarter of a town (cf. Å‚al)1GlavdaOwensvhouse7Proto-Mofu*vɨr ʸhutcase7.1OuldemeKinnairdvə̀rwoman's bedroomchambre d'une femme7.2MolokoFriesenverbedroomchambre7.3ZulgoHallerbirchambre (f.) du fils7.4GemzekSabataibirchambre1GemzekSabataibərahousechez7.5MereyGravinaberhutcase, chambre à coucher, pièce8Proto-Maroua*vɨn ʸhutcase8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋroompièce (de maison)1Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋhutcase2Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋhousemaison3Giziga MarvaHamidouveŋbedroomchambre (à dormir)8.2MbazlaTourneuxviŋmaison9Proto-Lamang*ivɨŋhutcase9.1LamangWolffívə̀ŋhut1LamangWolffívə̀ŋìhut9.2HdiBramlettviŋboy's roomla chambre du garcãon10Proto-Higi*vihutcase10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvjìsleeping room.10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvibedroom11Proto-Kotoko North*fɨnhutcase11.1AfadeAllisonfɨnhutcase11.2MpadeAllisonfɨ̀nhutcase11.3MalgbeAllisonfɨnhutcase12Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨnihutcase12.1LagwanAllisonvɨni; guamahɨhutcase1LagwanAllisonvɨni e mɨsanebedroomchambre (à dormir)12.2MserAllisonvriohutcase1MserAllisonvɨr a havɨnbedroomchambre (à dormir)13Proto-Musgum*funɨjhutcase13.1VulumTourneuxfuniimaison13.2MulwiTourneuxfuniimaison1MulwiTourneuxfuniipetite poterie à sauce13.3MbaraTourneuxfiŋajhousemaison14Proto-Gidar*biinahutcase14.1GidarHungerfordbiinacase, maison
vɨnahv.to vomitvomir1332A
There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Musgum. There was also a regular change *n→r word-medially in Proto-Mandara. The final *h has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Bata*vɨnavomitvomir1.1GudeHoskinsonvaanavomit1.2JimiDjibivənan1 - Vomir ;; 2 - Vomissement2Proto-Daba*vɨnavomitvomir2.1BuwalViljoenvənɑvomit (v)vomir2.2GavarViljoenvənɑvomit (v)vomir2.3MbudumNdokobaïvənvomit (v)vomir2.4DabaLienhardvə̀nàvomir ; déteindre3Proto-Mafa*vɨnaha ʸvomitvomir3.1MafaNdokobain vənehevomir1MafaBarreteauvínéh-vomir3.2CuvokGravinavənahavomit (v)vomir4Proto-Tera*vɨnahvomitvomir4.1NyimatliHarleyvu̱nakhvomit (v)5Proto-Sukur*vinahvomitvomir5.1SukurThomasvinahvomit; to bring food from the stomach back out through the mouth.6Proto-Hurza*vɨnah ʸvomitvomir6.1MbukoGravinavənevomitvomir6.2VameKinnairdvə̀nàhàvomitvomir7Proto-Mandara*vɨrahavomitvomir7.1MatalBrangermàvlàhàjvomitvomir7.2PodokoSwackhammervə́raha 1vomir1PodokoSwackhammervə́raha 2se fondre (teinte)7.3GlavdaNghagyivavrɛː̄gɛvomit (v)7.4DghwedeFrickvraxavomit8Proto-Mofu*vɨnahavomitvomir8.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemvə̀nàhàjvomitvomir8.2MadaNkoumoumavnahavomir8.3MolokoFriesenvənahvomitvomir8.4ZulgoHallervə̀nahávomir8.5GemzekSabataimevənehevomir8.6MereyGravinavənahavomit (v)vomir8.7DugworJubumnaməvənehejvomit (v)vomir8.8Mofu NorthBarreteaumévə̀nhèjvomir9Proto-Lamang*vɨnahvomitvomir9.1LamangWolffvanaahʷavomit9.2HdiBramlettvənihajto vomitvomir1HdiBramlettvənihivomitle vomissement10Proto-Higi*vɨnɨhʷɨvomitvomir10.1Kamwe-FutuHarleyvineɣoto vomit; puke10.2KiryaBlenchvə̀nə̀húto vomit10.3BanaLienhardvə̀nə̀xʷə̀vomir, spitting image of11Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨnahɨvomitvomir11.1LagwanAllisonvɨnahɨwun (vɨnahɨ)vomit (v)vomir12Proto-Kotoko South*vɨnahavomitvomir12.1ZinaOddenvə̀nàhàvomit (v)vomir13Proto-Musgum*fɨna ʸvomitvomir13.1MbaraTourneuxfinevomitvomir
vɨrv.to flyvoler712A
This word has the basic meaning of 'to fly', but can also mean 'to jump' in some languages. There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North, and the same change has taken place in Gude, where it was irregular, and in Proto-Margi, where the change is found elsewhere but is unestablished. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, though in this case we find /r/ in Zina.
1Proto-Bata*fɨrflyvoler1.1GudeHoskinsonfə́rflying away (of bird).voler2Proto-Sukur*vwarjumpsauter2.1SukurThomasvwarjump:- to move quikly off the ground or away from a surface by pushing your s your legs and feet.3Proto-Margi*fɨlflyvoler3.1BuraBlenchfilaTo jump; to flyvoler3.2MargiHoffmanvəlto jump, flyvoler3.3KilbaSchuhfəla//fly (v)voler1KilbaSchuhfəla//jump4Proto-Mandara*valto flyvoler4.1MatalBrangermavalajjumpsauter5Proto-Kotoko North*fɨlflyvoler5.1AfadeAllisonfɨl; fɨlunfly (v)voler5.2MpadeAllisonfɨ̀lfly (v)voler5.3MalgbeAllisonfɨlwunfly (v)voler6Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨlflyvoler6.1LagwanAllisonvɨlwun (vɨl)fly (v)voler6.2MserAllisonvɨlfly (v)voler7Proto-Kotoko South*veraflyvoler7.1ZinaOddenvèràfly (v)voler8Kanurifәfәnᵑgîn, fәfәttʃînfly (v)voler
vɨrv.to givedonner819Asynv1
There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba. In all other respects this root is stable in these groups.
1Proto-Daba*vɨlgivedonner1.1BuwalViljoenvɑlgivedonner1BuwalViljoenvɑlofferoffrir1.2GavarViljoenvəlgivedonner1GavarViljoenvəlofferoffrir2GavarViljoenvəlreturnrendre, renvoyer1.3MbudumNdokobaïvəlgivedonner1.4DabaLienhardvə̄ldonner2Proto-Tera*vɨrgivedonner2.1TeraNewmanvərigive2.2NyimatliHarleyvu̱rgive3Proto-Hurza*vargivedonner3.1MbukoGravinavarto givedonner3.2VameKinnairdvə̀ràgivedonner4Proto-Mandara*vɨlgivedonner4.1MalgwaLöhrvəlagive4.2GlavdaNghagyivavɨ́lgagive5Proto-Mofu*vɨlgivedonner5.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemvə̄làrgivedonner5.2MolokoFriesenvalgivedonner1MolokoFriesenvərdonner5.3ZulgoHallervə́ldonner, faire don5.4GemzekSabataimevəlegivedonner5.5DugworJubumnamə vəlejgivedonner6Proto-Maroua*vɨlgivedonner6.1Giziga MarvaHamidouvulgivedonner6.2MbazlaTourneuxvilidonner1MbazlaSILSurveyvìlíʼgivedonner7Proto-Lamang*vlagivedonner7.1LamangWolffvlagive8Proto-Kotoko South*valagivedonner8.1ZinaOddenvàlàgivedonner