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w


wahajv.to give birthnaître1643Csynᵐbɨw
This is the most widely attested root for 'to give birth'. All three consonants in the root are prone to sporadic deletion or reanalysis, and only in a few cases are all three consonants preserved in the reflexes of individual languages.
1Proto-Mafa*hajagive birthnaître1.1MafaBarreteaujaaccoucher1.2CuvokGravinahajabear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance1CuvokGravinahaja(be) bornnaître2Proto-Tera*xagive birthnaitre2.1TeraNewmanxagive birth2.2NyimatliHarleyxa(be) born1NyimatliHarleykhabear (child), give birth3Proto-Sukur*jigive birthnaitre3.1SukurDavidjiihagive birth, to3.2SukurThomasjito give birth;4Proto-Hurza*wahgive birthnaître4.1MbukoGravinawahajgive birthdonner naissance4.2VameKinnairdwáhā 1give birth ; deliveraccoucher1VameKinnairdwáhā 2give birthnaître2VameKinnairdwáh kīnéproducenaître5Proto-Margi*jagive birthnaître5.1BuraBlenchìjàTo give birth5.2BuraBlenchjiaTo give birth5.3MargiHoffmanjato give birth5.4Margi SouthHarleyjato give birth5.5KilbaSchuhja/a(give) birth6Proto-Mandara*hajɨgive birthnaitre6.1PodokoSwackhammerha 1produire des fruits1PodokoSwackhammerha 2naître, accoucher6.2MalgwaLöhrjadeliver, give birth6.3GlavdaNghagyivajìgabear (child), give birth1GlavdaNghagyivajàjāna(be) born6.4DghwedeFrickjigeto give birth7Proto-Mofu*wajgive birthnaître7.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stembear many childrendonner naissance; enfanter7.2MolokoFriesenwegive birth, be bornaccoucher; naître1MolokoFriesenweengendrer7.3ZulgoHallerwaaccoucher, enfanter, engendrer, produire7.4GemzekSabataimewe(be) bornnaître1GemzekSabataimawa kəlabear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance7.5MereyGravinawa(be) bornnaître1MereyGravinawa wawabear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance7.6DugworJubumnamawaj(be) bornnaître1DugworJubumnamawajbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance7.7Mofu NorthBarreteauméjèjaccoucher1Mofu NorthBarreteaumájàwáaccouchement2Mofu NorthBarreteaumájàwánaissance7.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́jbe bornaccoucher, naître, mettre bas, pondre, donner des fruits ; se multiplier1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmajawaaccouchement, naissance8Proto-Maroua*jigive birthnaître8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouji zuŋbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouje(be) bornnaître8.3MbazlaTourneuxjimettre au monde, donner naissance1MbazlaSILSurveyjɛ́jiʼgive birthengendrer9Proto-Lamang*jagive birthnaître9.1LamangWolffjabeget, give birth9.2HdiBramlettjajto give birthdonner naissance10Proto-Higi*jɨgive birthnaître10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygive birth/deliver10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyjekəbear (child); give birth1Kamwe-FutuHarleyjekəgʷobe born10.3KiryaBlenchto give birth (born), bear10.4BanaLienhardaccoucher, naître, naissance11Proto-Kotoko Island*wɨjgive birthnaitre11.1BudumaMcKonewujengendrer, accoucher.11.2BudumaMcKonewuəjbear (child)accoucher (enfant)12Proto-Kotoko North*wagive birthnaître12.1AfadeAllisonwe si(be) bornnaître1AfadeAllisonwan; webear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance12.2MpadeAllisonbear (child)accoucher (enfant)1MpadeAllisonwè sì(be) bornnaître12.3MalgbeAllisonwawun (wa, we)(be) bornnaître1MalgbeAllisonwawunbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance13Proto-Kotoko Centre*wagive birthnaître13.1LagwanAllisonwel zi(be) bornnaître1LagwanAllisonwawun (wa)bear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance13.2MserAllisonwe zi(be) bornnaître1MserAllisonwebear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance14Proto-Kotoko South*wɨjagive birthnaître14.1ZinaOddenwìjàbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance15Proto-Musgum*wigive birthnaître15.1MulwiTourneuxwimettre, naître, mettre au monde15.2MbaraTourneuxwiigive birth, bring forthdonner naissance, mettre au monde16Proto-Gidar*ɨwagive birthnaitre16.1GidarHungerforduuwaaccoucher16.2GidarHungerforduuwanaître, (donner) naissance, accoucher16.3GidarSchuhuwanaitre16.4GidarHungerfordwiinadonner naissance
wɨpaɗnum.fourquatre1547B
This is a widespread root, and has also been reconstructed for Proto-Chadic. Proto-Central Chadic *p had the allophone [p] in medial position, and we would expect this to be reflected by the presence of *p in the group proto-languages. However *p has the reflex *f in all groups except for Gidar and Musgum, which is not expected. One of the features of this root is the widespread occurrence of *u, labialisation or the labialisation prosody. In order to account for this, *w has been reconstructed as the initial consonant. In the consonant prosody groups (Bata, Margi and Higi), *w has usually merged with *f to give *fʷ. In some of the vowel prosody groups (here Daba, Musgum and Gidar), *w has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. These are both common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*fʷaɗfourquatre1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀nfʷáɗafour1.2JimiDjibifʷaɗQuatre 42Proto-Daba*wɨfaɗfourquatre2.1BuwalViljoenŋfɑɗfour (4)quatre (4)s2.2GavarViljoenŋfɑɗfour (4)quatre (4)s2.3MbudumNdokobaïn̩faɗfour (4)quatre (4)s2.4DabaLienhardfōɗquatre3Proto-Mafa*faɗfourquatre3.1MafaBarreteaufáɗquatre3.2CuvokGravinafaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s4Proto-Tera*foɗafourquatre4.1TeraNewmanvatfour4.2NyimatliHarleyvatfour (4)4.3GaʼandaGwajifoɗafour5Proto-Sukur*fwaɗfourquatre5.1SukurDavidfwaɗfour5.2SukurThomasfwaɗfour6Proto-Hurza*fuɗawfourquatre6.1MbukoGravinafuɗofourquatre6.2VameKinnairdfúɗāwfourquatre7Proto-Margi*fʷaɗufourquatre7.1MargiHoffmanfoɗəfour7.2Margi SouthHarleyfʷaɗufour1Margi SouthHarleyfoɗufour7.3KilbaSchuhfʷaɗu/əfour7.4BuraBlenchnfʷarFour8Proto-Mandara*ufaɗɨfourquatre8.1MatalBrangerufaɗfourquatre8.2PodokoSwackhammerufaɗa,-əquatre8.3MalgwaLöhrufaɗefour8.4GlavdaNghagyivaùfàɗafour (4)8.5DghwedeFrickfitʼefour9Proto-Mofu*wɨfaɗfourquatre9.1OuldemeKinnairdmə̄fáɗfourquatre9.2MuyangSmithfɑɗfourquatre9.3MolokoFriesenwəfaɗfourquatre9.4ZulgoHallerəfáɗquatre9.5GemzekSabataiəfaɗfourquatre1GemzekSabataifaɗfourquatre9.6MereyGravinafaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s9.7DugworJubumnaməfaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaufàɗquatre9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthməfaɗfourquatre ; chiffre pair (dans la divination)10Proto-Maroua*mufaɗfourquatre10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmufaɗquatre, radical faë commun à presque tout le groupe Mandara.10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumufaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s10.3MbazlaSILSurveymòfótfourquatre11Proto-Lamang*wɨfaɗfourquatre11.1LamangWolffùfáɗáfour11.2HdiBramlettfwaɗfourquatre12Proto-Higi*wɨfaɗɨfourquatre12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷarəfour1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷàrə́Four12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyfʷaɗofour12.3KiryaBlenchfʷàrfour1KiryaBlenchfʷàdə̀four12.4PsikyeAngelowufáɗə́four1PsikyeAngelowufáʼfour12.5BanaLienhardfáɗ(ə́)quatre13Proto-Kotoko South*foɗifourquatre13.1ZinaOddenfóɗífour (4)quatre (4)14Proto-Musgum*pɨɗɨ ʷfourquatre14.1VulumTourneuxpuɗuquatre14.2MbaraTourneuxpuʼdufourquatre14.3MuskumTourneuxfuuɗiquatre15Proto-Gidar*paɗa ʷfourquatre15.1GidarSchuhpoɗoquatre15.2GidarHungerfordpodoquatre, 4
wɨrajnm.neckcou1229Asynɣɨwaj
This is a widespread root with a complex history. The final *j has been lost in a number of groups, and in the Margi, Higi and Musgum groups it has been reanalysed as palatalisation. These are common sporadic processes. The *r has the regular reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, and also the Daba group. However there was an irregular change *r to *ɗ in Proto-Mafa, which spread to Proto-Maroua, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Sukur. There was then a further change to *ʔ in Proto-Sukur and Proto-Maroua, and to /d/ in Mafa, which are unestablished changes. The initial *w has been lost in several groups, and in Sukur has fused with the /ʔ/. These are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*wɨraneckcou1.1GudeHoskinsonùurá(inher. poss., body part); neck, throat1GudeHoskinsonùurávoice, language (reg. poss.)1.2JimiDjibiwuran1 - Cou; 2 - Langue parlée; 3 - Gorge1.3SharwaGravinawuraCou1.4TsuvanJohnstonwulale cou2Proto-Daba*wɨlaneckcou2.1BuwalViljoenulɑneckcou1BuwalViljoenulɑvoicevoix2BuwalViljoenulɑcrycri2.2GavarViljoenwəlɑneckcou1GavarViljoenwəlɑvoicevoix2GavarViljoenwəlɑcrycri2.3MbudumNdokobaïwulaneckcou2.4DabaLienhardwə̀làle cou ; appeler3Proto-Mafa*ɗajaneckcou3.1MafaBarreteaudájácou4Proto-Sukur*ʔʷajneckcou4.1SukurDavidʼojneck5Proto-Margi*wɨla ʸneckcou5.1BuraBlenchwuljaNeck (general term) Neck of a musical instrumnent such as gulum or yakandi5.2Margi SouthHarleygjulijaneck5.3KilbaSchuhwuljaneck6Proto-Mofu*ɗajneckcou6.1ZulgoHallerɗacou m.6.2GemzekSabataibijɗale cou1GemzekSabataibijɗavoicevoix6.3MereyGravinaɗajcou1MereyGravinaɗajneckcou, voix6.4DugworJubumnaɗajvoicevoix1DugworJubumnaɗajthroatgorge2DugworJubumnaɗajneckcou6.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗajneckcou 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗajvoix7Proto-Maroua*ʔajneckcou7.1Giziga MarvaHamidouajneckcou7.2MbazlaTourneuxʼajcou1MbazlaSILSurveyājīʼneck (front & back)cou (nuque et gorge)8Proto-Lamang*ulekneckcou8.1LamangWolffulekneck9Proto-Higi*wɨlɨjneckcou9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleywuljəneck9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleywuljineck9.3KiryaBlenchwúɽíneck, voice9.4BanaLienhardwə́rícou, voix10Proto-Kotoko South*ɣʷɨreneckcou10.1ZinaOddenwùnineckcou10.2MazeraAllisonɣuleneckcou11Proto-Musgum*wɨla ʸneckcou11.1MulwiTourneuxwilecou12Proto-Gidar*wɨlaneckcou12.1GidarSchuhwula, acou12.2GidarHungerfordwəlaʼcou
wɨrɨɗ ʸnf.puspus1339A
This root is extremely complex to reconstruct, with many phonological processes taking place. There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, Proto-Daba and Cuvok, which is consistently realised here. Metathesis of root consonants has taken place in Proto-Bata, Sukur and Proto-Mofu, and in Proto-Hurza the three consonants appear in reverse order. *ɗ has been lost in several languages. The loss has been compensated for in Sukur by the addition of a prefix /m-/, and in Mafa by the prefix /v-/. Elsewhere the loss of *ɗ has been compensated for by the reduplication of a syllable, as in Cuvok, several Mofu group languages and the Giziga languages. In several cases *ɗ and *w have fused, creating either /ʔʷ/ or /ɓ/. In some languages *w has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. In Gemzek and Merey, this has combined with the palatalisation prosody to produce front-rounded vowels. All of these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*rɨwɨɗ ʸpuspus1.1BataBoydrèètopus1.2GudeHoskinsonrə́ʼúnəpuss1.3JimiDjibiruʼunPus1.4SharwaGravinarjəɓʷəkpus2Proto-Daba*wɨlaɗ ʸpuspus2.1BuwalViljoenuleɗpuspus2.2GavarViljoenwəleɗpuspus2.3MbudumNdokobaïwiliɓpuspus2.4DabaLienhardwìlēɗ ́le pus3Proto-Mafa*wɨrɨɗ ʸpuspus3.1MafaBarreteauvoroɓpus3.2CuvokGravinaleleɓpuspus4Proto-Tera*rapuspus4.1NyimatliHarleyrapus5Proto-Sukur*mɨrupuspus5.1SukurDavidmərupus5.2SukurThomasmərəupus:- is a thick yellowish or greenish liquid that is produced in an effected wound.6Proto-Hurza*ɗɨrɨw ʸpuspus6.1MbukoGravinaɗərewpuspus6.2PelaslaKinnaridɗirawpus6.3VameKinnairdɗīrūpuspus7Proto-Margi*lɨʔʷɨpuspus7.1BuraBlenchluPus7.2MargiHoffmanluʼupus7.3KilbaSchuhluʼu/upus8Proto-Mandara*lɨwɨɗpuspus8.1MatalBrangeràlàw míkpuspus8.2PodokoSwackhammerləɓa,-əpus8.3MandaraFluckigerluapus (m)8.4MalgwaLöhrluwa, əluwepus8.5GlavdaNghagyivalùwapus1GlavdaOwensluclay, mud, pus9Proto-Mofu*walɨɗ ʸpuspus9.1OuldemeKinnairdālə̄lpuspus ; glaires9.2MuyangSmithɑlupuspus9.3MadaNkoumouóllòpus9.4MolokoFriesenorohpuspus9.5GemzekSabataialœɓ, aləɓpuspus; le pus9.6MereyGravinaloloɓ, lelœɓpuspus9.7DugworJubumnaloloɓpuspus9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaulálàwpus9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlaláɓpus10Proto-Maroua*lɨlɨɓ ʷpuspus10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanlulupus1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanlulutoponyme10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoululoɓpuspus11Proto-Higi*lɨʔʷɨpuspus11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleylə̀ʼuwə́Pus (in a wound)1Kamwe-NkafaHarleylə́ɠwə́pus11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyləuopus11.3BanaLienhardlə̀ʼwə́pus, sève12Proto-Musgum*alupuspus12.1MulwiTourneuxalupus13Proto-Gidar*wɨlɨ ʸpuspus13.1GidarHungerfordwilipus
wɨvɨnn.grinding stonemeule1430B
This root denotes the large stone with a flat top upon which food ingredients are ground. The changes *v→f in Musgum and *v→b in Gidar and the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group are regular, but the other instances of *b are not. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. There is evidence for *w in the Margi, Mandara, Maroua, Lamang, Kotoko South and Musgum groups, in the form either of the vowel /u/ or the labialisation prosody.
1Proto-Daba*ŋvɨngrinding stonemeule1.1BuwalViljoenŋvɑngrinding stonepierre moudre1BuwalViljoenmɑ̄n ŋ̀vɑ̄nupper grinding stonemeule supérieure1.2GavarViljoenŋvən tɑsɑɗgrinding stonepierre à moudre2Proto-Tera*vɨnagrinding stonemeule2.1NyimatliHarleyvu̱nagrinding stone1NyimatliHarleyvu̱naupper grinding stone2NyimatliHarleyvu̱nargrinding stone3Proto-Sukur*bangrinding stonemeule3.1SukurDavidbangrinding table3.2SukurThomasbangrinding stone; the stone that is used to grind the guineacorn, maize, etc.4Proto-Hurza*vangrinding stonemeule4.1MbukoGravinavanstone upon which food is groundmeule, pierre sur laquelle on écrase4.2VameKinnairdvànmillstonepierre à écraser, meule pour moudre les graines du mil, haricot etc .sous forme de la farine. Il est placé typiquement dans la cuisine5Proto-Margi*buragrinding stonemeule5.1BuraBlenchbur, buraLower grinding stone5.2KilbaSchuhbəra/agrinding quern6Proto-Mandara*uvɨragrinding stonemeule6.1MatalBrangervəlgrinding stonemeule6.2PodokoSwackhammermavára,-əmeule6.3MandaraFluckigeruvérápierre plate qui servait autrefois à écraser le mil (f), pierre à écraser (f)6.4MalgwaLöhrugvəragrinding stone, lower part6.5GlavdaOwensváagrinding stone1GlavdaNghagyivavàːɾalower grinding stone2GlavdaNghagyivavàːɾagrinding stone6.6DghwedeFrickvəragrinding stone7Proto-Mofu*var ʸgrinding stonemeule7.1OuldemeKinnairdāvárpierre pour écraser le mil7.2MuyangSmithɑvɑrlower grinding stonemeule, pierre sur laquelle on écrase la farine7.3MolokoFriesenverpierre taillé à écraser dessus7.4GemzekSabataiborgrinding stonepierre à moudre**1GemzekSabataibergrinding stonepierre à moudre**7.5MereyGravinabergrinding stonepierre à moudre1MereyGravinaberupper grinding stonemeule supérieure8Proto-Maroua*vangrinding stonemeule8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouᵑgurvoŋgrinding stonepierre à moudre8.2MbazlaTourneuxvaŋmeule9Proto-Lamang*bunagrinding stonemeule9.1LamangWolffbùnàgrinding stone9.2HdiBramlettbunamortor stonela meule10Proto-Higi*vɨnagrinding stonemeule10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvə̀nàGrindingstone-lower.10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvənamillstone; grinding stone10.3KiryaBlenchvə̀nàmillstone11Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨngrinding stonemeule11.1LagwanAllisonvɨngrinding stonepierre à moudre1LagwanAllisonvɨnupper grinding stonemeule supérieure12Proto-Kotoko South*vunagrinding stonemeule12.1MazeraAllisonvunagrinding stonepierre à moudre13Proto-Musgum*funajgrinding stonemeule13.1MbaraTourneuxfunajmillstonemeule14Proto-Gidar*bwɨngrinding stonemeule14.1GidarHungerfordbuə̀n nawsərameule, pierre, (à) écraser, moudre
wɨzimnm.rambélier612C
This root for 'ram' is far less widespread than the root for 'sheep'. There is a regular word-final change *m→w in Proto-Mandara, which may be behind the Matal form, if it is truly cognate. There was a regular change *z
→s in Proto-Kotoko North, and a regular subsequent change *s→j in Malgbe.
1Proto-Mafa*zam ʸrambélier1.1CuvokGravinazemrambélier2Proto-Mandara*magadzawrambélier2.1MatalBrangermāɡādzàwrambélier3Proto-Mofu*azam ʸrambélier3.1DugworJubumnaAzemrambélier3.2Mofu NorthBarreteauzèm-tə̄ɓāŋbélier3.3Mofu-GudurHollingsworthézembélier4Proto-Maroua*ɨzɨm ʸrambélier4.1Giziga MarvaHamidouizimrambélier4.2MbazlaTourneuxʼeʒem, ʼaʒembélier5Proto-Kotoko North*wɨsʼamrambélier5.1AfadeAllisonsʼɨmrambélier5.2MpadeAllisonsàmrambélier5.3MalgbeAllisonwijamrambélier6Proto-Kotoko Centre*wɨzɨmirambélier6.1LagwanAllisonuzɨmirambélier6.2MserAllisonuzamrambélier


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w


wahajv.to give birthnaître1643Csynᵐbɨw
This is the most widely attested root for 'to give birth'. All three consonants in the root are prone to sporadic deletion or reanalysis, and only in a few cases are all three consonants preserved in the reflexes of individual languages.
1Proto-Mafa*hajagive birthnaître1.1MafaBarreteaujaaccoucher1.2CuvokGravinahajabear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance1CuvokGravinahaja(be) bornnaître2Proto-Tera*xagive birthnaitre2.1TeraNewmanxagive birth2.2NyimatliHarleyxa(be) born1NyimatliHarleykhabear (child), give birth3Proto-Sukur*jigive birthnaitre3.1SukurDavidjiihagive birth, to3.2SukurThomasjito give birth;4Proto-Hurza*wahgive birthnaître4.1MbukoGravinawahajgive birthdonner naissance4.2VameKinnairdwáhā 1give birth ; deliveraccoucher1VameKinnairdwáhā 2give birthnaître2VameKinnairdwáh kīnéproducenaître5Proto-Margi*jagive birthnaître5.1BuraBlenchìjàTo give birth5.2BuraBlenchjiaTo give birth5.3MargiHoffmanjato give birth5.4Margi SouthHarleyjato give birth5.5KilbaSchuhja/a(give) birth6Proto-Mandara*hajɨgive birthnaitre6.1PodokoSwackhammerha 1produire des fruits1PodokoSwackhammerha 2naître, accoucher6.2MalgwaLöhrjadeliver, give birth6.3GlavdaNghagyivajìgabear (child), give birth1GlavdaNghagyivajàjāna(be) born6.4DghwedeFrickjigeto give birth7Proto-Mofu*wajgive birthnaître7.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stembear many childrendonner naissance; enfanter7.2MolokoFriesenwegive birth, be bornaccoucher; naître1MolokoFriesenweengendrer7.3ZulgoHallerwaaccoucher, enfanter, engendrer, produire7.4GemzekSabataimewe(be) bornnaître1GemzekSabataimawa kəlabear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance7.5MereyGravinawa(be) bornnaître1MereyGravinawa wawabear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance7.6DugworJubumnamawaj(be) bornnaître1DugworJubumnamawajbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance7.7Mofu NorthBarreteauméjèjaccoucher1Mofu NorthBarreteaumájàwáaccouchement2Mofu NorthBarreteaumájàwánaissance7.8Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́jbe bornaccoucher, naître, mettre bas, pondre, donner des fruits ; se multiplier1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthmajawaaccouchement, naissance8Proto-Maroua*jigive birthnaître8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouji zuŋbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance8.2Giziga MarvaHamidouje(be) bornnaître8.3MbazlaTourneuxjimettre au monde, donner naissance1MbazlaSILSurveyjɛ́jiʼgive birthengendrer9Proto-Lamang*jagive birthnaître9.1LamangWolffjabeget, give birth9.2HdiBramlettjajto give birthdonner naissance10Proto-Higi*jɨgive birthnaître10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleygive birth/deliver10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyjekəbear (child); give birth1Kamwe-FutuHarleyjekəgʷobe born10.3KiryaBlenchto give birth (born), bear10.4BanaLienhardaccoucher, naître, naissance11Proto-Kotoko Island*wɨjgive birthnaitre11.1BudumaMcKonewujengendrer, accoucher.11.2BudumaMcKonewuəjbear (child)accoucher (enfant)12Proto-Kotoko North*wagive birthnaître12.1AfadeAllisonwe si(be) bornnaître1AfadeAllisonwan; webear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance12.2MpadeAllisonbear (child)accoucher (enfant)1MpadeAllisonwè sì(be) bornnaître12.3MalgbeAllisonwawun (wa, we)(be) bornnaître1MalgbeAllisonwawunbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance13Proto-Kotoko Centre*wagive birthnaître13.1LagwanAllisonwel zi(be) bornnaître1LagwanAllisonwawun (wa)bear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance13.2MserAllisonwe zi(be) bornnaître1MserAllisonwebear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance14Proto-Kotoko South*wɨjagive birthnaître14.1ZinaOddenwìjàbear (child), give birthaccoucher, donner naissance15Proto-Musgum*wigive birthnaître15.1MulwiTourneuxwimettre, naître, mettre au monde15.2MbaraTourneuxwiigive birth, bring forthdonner naissance, mettre au monde16Proto-Gidar*ɨwagive birthnaitre16.1GidarHungerforduuwaaccoucher16.2GidarHungerforduuwanaître, (donner) naissance, accoucher16.3GidarSchuhuwanaitre16.4GidarHungerfordwiinadonner naissance
wɨpaɗnum.fourquatre1547B
This is a widespread root, and has also been reconstructed for Proto-Chadic. Proto-Central Chadic *p had the allophone [p] in medial position, and we would expect this to be reflected by the presence of *p in the group proto-languages. However *p has the reflex *f in all groups except for Gidar and Musgum, which is not expected. One of the features of this root is the widespread occurrence of *u, labialisation or the labialisation prosody. In order to account for this, *w has been reconstructed as the initial consonant. In the consonant prosody groups (Bata, Margi and Higi), *w has usually merged with *f to give *fʷ. In some of the vowel prosody groups (here Daba, Musgum and Gidar), *w has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. These are both common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*fʷaɗfourquatre1.1GudeHoskinsonə̀nfʷáɗafour1.2JimiDjibifʷaɗQuatre 42Proto-Daba*wɨfaɗfourquatre2.1BuwalViljoenŋfɑɗfour (4)quatre (4)s2.2GavarViljoenŋfɑɗfour (4)quatre (4)s2.3MbudumNdokobaïn̩faɗfour (4)quatre (4)s2.4DabaLienhardfōɗquatre3Proto-Mafa*faɗfourquatre3.1MafaBarreteaufáɗquatre3.2CuvokGravinafaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s4Proto-Tera*foɗafourquatre4.1TeraNewmanvatfour4.2NyimatliHarleyvatfour (4)4.3GaʼandaGwajifoɗafour5Proto-Sukur*fwaɗfourquatre5.1SukurDavidfwaɗfour5.2SukurThomasfwaɗfour6Proto-Hurza*fuɗawfourquatre6.1MbukoGravinafuɗofourquatre6.2VameKinnairdfúɗāwfourquatre7Proto-Margi*fʷaɗufourquatre7.1MargiHoffmanfoɗəfour7.2Margi SouthHarleyfʷaɗufour1Margi SouthHarleyfoɗufour7.3KilbaSchuhfʷaɗu/əfour7.4BuraBlenchnfʷarFour8Proto-Mandara*ufaɗɨfourquatre8.1MatalBrangerufaɗfourquatre8.2PodokoSwackhammerufaɗa,-əquatre8.3MalgwaLöhrufaɗefour8.4GlavdaNghagyivaùfàɗafour (4)8.5DghwedeFrickfitʼefour9Proto-Mofu*wɨfaɗfourquatre9.1OuldemeKinnairdmə̄fáɗfourquatre9.2MuyangSmithfɑɗfourquatre9.3MolokoFriesenwəfaɗfourquatre9.4ZulgoHallerəfáɗquatre9.5GemzekSabataiəfaɗfourquatre1GemzekSabataifaɗfourquatre9.6MereyGravinafaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s9.7DugworJubumnaməfaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaufàɗquatre9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthməfaɗfourquatre ; chiffre pair (dans la divination)10Proto-Maroua*mufaɗfourquatre10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmufaɗquatre, radical faë commun à presque tout le groupe Mandara.10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoumufaɗfour (4)quatre (4)s10.3MbazlaSILSurveymòfótfourquatre11Proto-Lamang*wɨfaɗfourquatre11.1LamangWolffùfáɗáfour11.2HdiBramlettfwaɗfourquatre12Proto-Higi*wɨfaɗɨfourquatre12.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷarəfour1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyfʷàrə́Four12.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyfʷaɗofour12.3KiryaBlenchfʷàrfour1KiryaBlenchfʷàdə̀four12.4PsikyeAngelowufáɗə́four1PsikyeAngelowufáʼfour12.5BanaLienhardfáɗ(ə́)quatre13Proto-Kotoko South*foɗifourquatre13.1ZinaOddenfóɗífour (4)quatre (4)14Proto-Musgum*pɨɗɨ ʷfourquatre14.1VulumTourneuxpuɗuquatre14.2MbaraTourneuxpuʼdufourquatre14.3MuskumTourneuxfuuɗiquatre15Proto-Gidar*paɗa ʷfourquatre15.1GidarSchuhpoɗoquatre15.2GidarHungerfordpodoquatre, 4
wɨrajnm.neckcou1229Asynɣɨwaj
This is a widespread root with a complex history. The final *j has been lost in a number of groups, and in the Margi, Higi and Musgum groups it has been reanalysed as palatalisation. These are common sporadic processes. The *r has the regular reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, and also the Daba group. However there was an irregular change *r to *ɗ in Proto-Mafa, which spread to Proto-Maroua, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Sukur. There was then a further change to *ʔ in Proto-Sukur and Proto-Maroua, and to /d/ in Mafa, which are unestablished changes. The initial *w has been lost in several groups, and in Sukur has fused with the /ʔ/. These are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*wɨraneckcou1.1GudeHoskinsonùurá(inher. poss., body part); neck, throat1GudeHoskinsonùurávoice, language (reg. poss.)1.2JimiDjibiwuran1 - Cou; 2 - Langue parlée; 3 - Gorge1.3SharwaGravinawuraCou1.4TsuvanJohnstonwulale cou2Proto-Daba*wɨlaneckcou2.1BuwalViljoenulɑneckcou1BuwalViljoenulɑvoicevoix2BuwalViljoenulɑcrycri2.2GavarViljoenwəlɑneckcou1GavarViljoenwəlɑvoicevoix2GavarViljoenwəlɑcrycri2.3MbudumNdokobaïwulaneckcou2.4DabaLienhardwə̀làle cou ; appeler3Proto-Mafa*ɗajaneckcou3.1MafaBarreteaudájácou4Proto-Sukur*ʔʷajneckcou4.1SukurDavidʼojneck5Proto-Margi*wɨla ʸneckcou5.1BuraBlenchwuljaNeck (general term) Neck of a musical instrumnent such as gulum or yakandi5.2Margi SouthHarleygjulijaneck5.3KilbaSchuhwuljaneck6Proto-Mofu*ɗajneckcou6.1ZulgoHallerɗacou m.6.2GemzekSabataibijɗale cou1GemzekSabataibijɗavoicevoix6.3MereyGravinaɗajcou1MereyGravinaɗajneckcou, voix6.4DugworJubumnaɗajvoicevoix1DugworJubumnaɗajthroatgorge2DugworJubumnaɗajneckcou6.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗajneckcou 1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthɗajvoix7Proto-Maroua*ʔajneckcou7.1Giziga MarvaHamidouajneckcou7.2MbazlaTourneuxʼajcou1MbazlaSILSurveyājīʼneck (front & back)cou (nuque et gorge)8Proto-Lamang*ulekneckcou8.1LamangWolffulekneck9Proto-Higi*wɨlɨjneckcou9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleywuljəneck9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleywuljineck9.3KiryaBlenchwúɽíneck, voice9.4BanaLienhardwə́rícou, voix10Proto-Kotoko South*ɣʷɨreneckcou10.1ZinaOddenwùnineckcou10.2MazeraAllisonɣuleneckcou11Proto-Musgum*wɨla ʸneckcou11.1MulwiTourneuxwilecou12Proto-Gidar*wɨlaneckcou12.1GidarSchuhwula, acou12.2GidarHungerfordwəlaʼcou
wɨrɨɗ ʸnf.puspus1339A
This root is extremely complex to reconstruct, with many phonological processes taking place. There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, Proto-Daba and Cuvok, which is consistently realised here. Metathesis of root consonants has taken place in Proto-Bata, Sukur and Proto-Mofu, and in Proto-Hurza the three consonants appear in reverse order. *ɗ has been lost in several languages. The loss has been compensated for in Sukur by the addition of a prefix /m-/, and in Mafa by the prefix /v-/. Elsewhere the loss of *ɗ has been compensated for by the reduplication of a syllable, as in Cuvok, several Mofu group languages and the Giziga languages. In several cases *ɗ and *w have fused, creating either /ʔʷ/ or /ɓ/. In some languages *w has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. In Gemzek and Merey, this has combined with the palatalisation prosody to produce front-rounded vowels. All of these are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*rɨwɨɗ ʸpuspus1.1BataBoydrèètopus1.2GudeHoskinsonrə́ʼúnəpuss1.3JimiDjibiruʼunPus1.4SharwaGravinarjəɓʷəkpus2Proto-Daba*wɨlaɗ ʸpuspus2.1BuwalViljoenuleɗpuspus2.2GavarViljoenwəleɗpuspus2.3MbudumNdokobaïwiliɓpuspus2.4DabaLienhardwìlēɗ ́le pus3Proto-Mafa*wɨrɨɗ ʸpuspus3.1MafaBarreteauvoroɓpus3.2CuvokGravinaleleɓpuspus4Proto-Tera*rapuspus4.1NyimatliHarleyrapus5Proto-Sukur*mɨrupuspus5.1SukurDavidmərupus5.2SukurThomasmərəupus:- is a thick yellowish or greenish liquid that is produced in an effected wound.6Proto-Hurza*ɗɨrɨw ʸpuspus6.1MbukoGravinaɗərewpuspus6.2PelaslaKinnaridɗirawpus6.3VameKinnairdɗīrūpuspus7Proto-Margi*lɨʔʷɨpuspus7.1BuraBlenchluPus7.2MargiHoffmanluʼupus7.3KilbaSchuhluʼu/upus8Proto-Mandara*lɨwɨɗpuspus8.1MatalBrangeràlàw míkpuspus8.2PodokoSwackhammerləɓa,-əpus8.3MandaraFluckigerluapus (m)8.4MalgwaLöhrluwa, əluwepus8.5GlavdaNghagyivalùwapus1GlavdaOwensluclay, mud, pus9Proto-Mofu*walɨɗ ʸpuspus9.1OuldemeKinnairdālə̄lpuspus ; glaires9.2MuyangSmithɑlupuspus9.3MadaNkoumouóllòpus9.4MolokoFriesenorohpuspus9.5GemzekSabataialœɓ, aləɓpuspus; le pus9.6MereyGravinaloloɓ, lelœɓpuspus9.7DugworJubumnaloloɓpuspus9.8Mofu NorthBarreteaulálàwpus9.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthlaláɓpus10Proto-Maroua*lɨlɨɓ ʷpuspus10.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanlulupus1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanlulutoponyme10.2Giziga MarvaHamidoululoɓpuspus11Proto-Higi*lɨʔʷɨpuspus11.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleylə̀ʼuwə́Pus (in a wound)1Kamwe-NkafaHarleylə́ɠwə́pus11.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyləuopus11.3BanaLienhardlə̀ʼwə́pus, sève12Proto-Musgum*alupuspus12.1MulwiTourneuxalupus13Proto-Gidar*wɨlɨ ʸpuspus13.1GidarHungerfordwilipus
wɨvɨnn.grinding stonemeule1430B
This root denotes the large stone with a flat top upon which food ingredients are ground. The changes *v→f in Musgum and *v→b in Gidar and the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group are regular, but the other instances of *b are not. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. There is evidence for *w in the Margi, Mandara, Maroua, Lamang, Kotoko South and Musgum groups, in the form either of the vowel /u/ or the labialisation prosody.
1Proto-Daba*ŋvɨngrinding stonemeule1.1BuwalViljoenŋvɑngrinding stonepierre moudre1BuwalViljoenmɑ̄n ŋ̀vɑ̄nupper grinding stonemeule supérieure1.2GavarViljoenŋvən tɑsɑɗgrinding stonepierre à moudre2Proto-Tera*vɨnagrinding stonemeule2.1NyimatliHarleyvu̱nagrinding stone1NyimatliHarleyvu̱naupper grinding stone2NyimatliHarleyvu̱nargrinding stone3Proto-Sukur*bangrinding stonemeule3.1SukurDavidbangrinding table3.2SukurThomasbangrinding stone; the stone that is used to grind the guineacorn, maize, etc.4Proto-Hurza*vangrinding stonemeule4.1MbukoGravinavanstone upon which food is groundmeule, pierre sur laquelle on écrase4.2VameKinnairdvànmillstonepierre à écraser, meule pour moudre les graines du mil, haricot etc .sous forme de la farine. Il est placé typiquement dans la cuisine5Proto-Margi*buragrinding stonemeule5.1BuraBlenchbur, buraLower grinding stone5.2KilbaSchuhbəra/agrinding quern6Proto-Mandara*uvɨragrinding stonemeule6.1MatalBrangervəlgrinding stonemeule6.2PodokoSwackhammermavára,-əmeule6.3MandaraFluckigeruvérápierre plate qui servait autrefois à écraser le mil (f), pierre à écraser (f)6.4MalgwaLöhrugvəragrinding stone, lower part6.5GlavdaOwensváagrinding stone1GlavdaNghagyivavàːɾalower grinding stone2GlavdaNghagyivavàːɾagrinding stone6.6DghwedeFrickvəragrinding stone7Proto-Mofu*var ʸgrinding stonemeule7.1OuldemeKinnairdāvárpierre pour écraser le mil7.2MuyangSmithɑvɑrlower grinding stonemeule, pierre sur laquelle on écrase la farine7.3MolokoFriesenverpierre taillé à écraser dessus7.4GemzekSabataiborgrinding stonepierre à moudre**1GemzekSabataibergrinding stonepierre à moudre**7.5MereyGravinabergrinding stonepierre à moudre1MereyGravinaberupper grinding stonemeule supérieure8Proto-Maroua*vangrinding stonemeule8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouᵑgurvoŋgrinding stonepierre à moudre8.2MbazlaTourneuxvaŋmeule9Proto-Lamang*bunagrinding stonemeule9.1LamangWolffbùnàgrinding stone9.2HdiBramlettbunamortor stonela meule10Proto-Higi*vɨnagrinding stonemeule10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyvə̀nàGrindingstone-lower.10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyvənamillstone; grinding stone10.3KiryaBlenchvə̀nàmillstone11Proto-Kotoko Centre*vɨngrinding stonemeule11.1LagwanAllisonvɨngrinding stonepierre à moudre1LagwanAllisonvɨnupper grinding stonemeule supérieure12Proto-Kotoko South*vunagrinding stonemeule12.1MazeraAllisonvunagrinding stonepierre à moudre13Proto-Musgum*funajgrinding stonemeule13.1MbaraTourneuxfunajmillstonemeule14Proto-Gidar*bwɨngrinding stonemeule14.1GidarHungerfordbuə̀n nawsərameule, pierre, (à) écraser, moudre
wɨzimnm.rambélier612C
This root for 'ram' is far less widespread than the root for 'sheep'. There is a regular word-final change *m→w in Proto-Mandara, which may be behind the Matal form, if it is truly cognate. There was a regular change *z
→s in Proto-Kotoko North, and a regular subsequent change *s→j in Malgbe.
1Proto-Mafa*zam ʸrambélier1.1CuvokGravinazemrambélier2Proto-Mandara*magadzawrambélier2.1MatalBrangermāɡādzàwrambélier3Proto-Mofu*azam ʸrambélier3.1DugworJubumnaAzemrambélier3.2Mofu NorthBarreteauzèm-tə̄ɓāŋbélier3.3Mofu-GudurHollingsworthézembélier4Proto-Maroua*ɨzɨm ʸrambélier4.1Giziga MarvaHamidouizimrambélier4.2MbazlaTourneuxʼeʒem, ʼaʒembélier5Proto-Kotoko North*wɨsʼamrambélier5.1AfadeAllisonsʼɨmrambélier5.2MpadeAllisonsàmrambélier5.3MalgbeAllisonwijamrambélier6Proto-Kotoko Centre*wɨzɨmirambélier6.1LagwanAllisonuzɨmirambélier6.2MserAllisonuzamrambélier