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z


zv.to smell badsentir mauvais516A
The root sense of this verb is 'to smell rotten'. The change *z→ⁿdz in Proto-Daba is irregular.
1Proto-Daba*ⁿdzɨ ʸsmellsentir1.1GavarViljoenⁿdʒismell (v)sentir1GavarViljoenⁿdʒistink, smell (bad)puer, sentir mauvais1.2DabaLienhardⁿdʒīsentir, répandre une odeur, puer2Proto-Tera*zismellsentir2.1TeraNewmanʒismell1TeraNewmanʒisay2TeraNewmanʒitell3TeraNewmanʒianswer4TeraNewmanʒipour (in)2.2NyimatliHarleyʒistink, smell (bad)1NyimatliHarleyʒismell (v)3Proto-Mandara*z ʸsmellsentir3.1MatalBrangermàʒᶦnàjsmellsentir mal4Proto-Mofuubd stem*zsmellsentir4.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemsmellsentir, odeur, désaccord1OuldemeKinnairdrottenpourrir4.2MuyangSmithzirot, stink, give off a smell (good or bad), of fruit, meat, etc.pourrir, sentir (soit bon, soit mauvais)1MuyangSmithto smell somethingsentir quelque chose4.3MadaNkoumoumezʒeŋasentir4.4MolokoFriesenzesmellsentir1MolokoFriesenzestinkpuer4.5ZulgoHallersentir, exhaler une odeur4.6GemzekSabataimeze suwekekestink, smell (bad)puer, sentir mauvais4.7MereyGravinazestink, smell (bad)puer, sentir mauvais4.8DugworJubumnamazajsmell (v)sentir4.9Mofu NorthBarreteaumézéjsentir1Mofu NorthBarreteaumézéjpourri4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzsentir, pourrir5Proto-Lamangubd stem*zɨjusmellsentir5.1LamangWolffzəjusmell
zajn.faecesselles518Asynɣʷɨviᵑgʷɨ
This root is largely stable, except for the loss of *j in a few languages. It is found in the languages around the Northern Mandara mountains.
1Proto-Mafa*zajfaecesselles1.1MafaBarreteauzajexcrément1.2CuvokGravinazajurineurine2Proto-Hurza*azajfaecesselles2.1MbukoGravinaazajexcrementselles2.2VameKinnairdàzàjexcrement ; faecesexcrément ; défécation ; déchet_d'un_être_humain_ou_d'un_animal3Proto-Mandara*zajfaecesexcrément3.1MatalBrangerzajfaecesexcrément4Proto-Mofu*zajfaecesselles4.1OuldemeKinnairdzàjexcrementexcrément4.2MuyangSmithɑzɑjexcrement, solid part left when liquid is removedexcrément, partie solide qui reste quand un liquide a été enlevé4.3MadaNkoumouzacrotte, kaka, selles1MadaNkoumouazaexcrement4.4MolokoFriesenazajfaeces (feces)excrément; selles4.5ZulgoHallerzaexcrément m.4.6GemzekSabataizaexcrementexcrément4.7MereyGravinazajexcrementexcrément4.8DugworJubumnazajexcrementexcrément4.9Mofu NorthBarreteauzājéxcrément, selles, crotte, bouse1Mofu NorthBarreteauzājd;-echet4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzájexcrément, selles, crotte, bouse1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzájdéchet5Proto-Maroua*zajfaecesselles5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanzajexcrément, faute, déchet etc... résidu5.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzajexcrementexcrément5.3MbazlaTourneuxzajexcrément
zɨɗɨr ʸnm.man, husbandhomme mâle, mari621Bcfⁿdɨw
The basic sense of this root is a male human, and is extended to include the concept 'husband'. The change *z→s in Proto-Margi is regular. There was no *l in Proto-Central Chadic, but there was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch. All the languages where this root is found are from the North sub-branch, so the Proto-Central Chadic root is reconstructed with *r, even though /r/ is not present in the group-level reconstructions. *ɗ has been lost, or has been palatalised to become /j/, except in the Lamang group. These are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Margi*salmanhomme1.1MargiHoffmansalman, husband1.2Margi SouthHarleysalman1.3KilbaSchuhsalhero1KilbaSchuhsalhusband, man, male2KilbaSchuhsalmale, man2Proto-Mandara*zal ʸmanhomme2.1MatalBrangerʒɪ̄lmanhomme2.2MandaraFluckigerʒelehomme (m)1MandaraFluckigerzalahommes (m. pl.)2.3MalgwaLöhrʒiilehusband, man3Proto-Mofu*zal ʸmanhomme3.1MuyangSmithzɑlman ; husband ; malehomme; mari; mâle3.2MadaNkoumouzalahomme3.3MolokoFriesenzarman1MolokoFriesenzarmâle_humain2MolokoFriesenzarmari3.4GemzekSabataizalhusbandmari, époux3.5MereyGravinazalhusbandmari, époux3.6DugworJubumnazelhusbandmari, époux3.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzelhusbandmari, mâle; homme capable de faire et de décider qqch.4Proto-Maroua*zɨl ʸmanhomme4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmiɮiles hommes, les gens, on4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzilman (male)homme (mâle)4.3MbazlaTourneuxzilhomme1MbazlaTourneuxzilmari, homme2MbazlaSILSurveyzə̌lman (male)homme (mâle)5Proto-Lamang*zɨɗalmanhomme5.1LamangWolffzɗàlhusband, man1LamangWolffzɗàlàman2LamangWolffzə̀ɗàlman6Proto-Higi*zalmanhomme6.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzaman, husband6.2KiryaBlenchzàlman6.3PsikyeAngelozaman6.4BanaLienhardzàlhomme, mari, mâle
zɨgʷɨnn.childenfant617C
This root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *z is stable, though it metathesises with *gʷ in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Lamang, which is an unusual process for these consonants. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, though this is not evident in Ouldeme. The final consonant has been lost in Proto-Higi, which is a common sporadic process. The *gʷ has the reflex /g/ in Jimi and Malgwa, and /w/ in Podoko, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Lamang. In many cases it is reanalysed as either /u/ or the labialisation prosody. These are common sporadic processes. The Kirya and Psikye forms are hard to analyse. It appears that the labialisation has separated from the /g/ component of *gʷ, but this process is not noted elsewhere in Central Chadic. There are several roots in other languages which look similar and may be cognate, e.g. Bura /bzər/ and Mbuko /wan/.
1Proto-Bata*zɨgɨnchildenfant1.1JimiDjibizegənEnfant2Proto-Mandara*gʷɨzɨrchildenfant2.1PodokoSwackhammerudzəra,-ə 1enfant1PodokoSwackhammerudzəra,-ə 2fruit2.2MalgwaLöhrəgzachild2.3GlavdaNghagyivazɾachild1GlavdaOwenschild2.4DghwedeFrickvdʒirechild3Proto-Mofu*zazaŋ ʸchildenfant3.1OuldemeKinnairdzèzéŋbabybébé4Proto-Maroua*zɨn ʷchildenfant4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanzuŋ, plr - ziri1) enfant, petit enfant des deux sexes, 2) fille, fillette1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanziri, ziraj, zirenfants4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzunchildenfant4.3MbazlaTourneuxziŋenfant1MbazlaSILSurveynzílchildenfant5Proto-Lamang*wɨzaŋchildenfant5.1LamangWolffúzàŋàson, child, boy5.2HdiBramlettzwaŋchildl'enfant6Proto-Higi*zɨgʷichildenfant6.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzəgʷichild6.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyzəgʷichild6.3KiryaBlenchzwə̀gàchild6.4PsikyeAngelowuzəgə́child6.5BanaLienhardz(ə)ɣʷə̀enfant
zɨjɨln.lionlion46Bsynlɨvarimabor
This is one of several roots for 'lion'. *l is reconstructed even though *l did not exist in Proto-Central Chadic. The word must be a comparatively recent coinage. *j has been reanalysed as /i/ in Mafa and as the palatalisation prosody in Gemzek and Zulgo. This is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Mafa*zala ʸlionlion1.1MafaBarreteaumarij-ʒélélion2Proto-Hurza*zɨjal ʸlionlion2.1MbukoGravinazijellionlion3Proto-Mofu*zal ʸlionlion3.1ZulgoHallerazíllion m.3.2GemzekSabataizellionlion3.3MereyGravinazɨllionlion4Proto-Higi*zillionlion4.1BanaLienhardʒìllion
zɨmv.to eatmanger1538Bcfhʷɨpɨɗ
This is the generic verb for eating. There is a regular change *z→s in Proto-Margi, and separately in the North Kotoko-Musgum major group (consisting of the Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Musgum groups). There was a subsequent change *s→h in Kotoko Island. The Zina form is not the result of a regular change. There was also a regular word-final change *m→w in Proto-Mandara. This change may also have taken place as a sporadic change in Proto-Lamang. There is weak evidence from Bata, Mbudum and Mbara for the existence of *w in the root, but it is not included until more evidence becomes available.
1Proto-Bata*zɨmeatmanger1.1BataBoydsùmeat1.2JimiDjibizəmənManger ;2Proto-Daba*zɨmeatmanger2.1BuwalViljoenzɑmeatmanger2.2GavarViljoenzəmeatmanger1GavarViljoenzəmconquer, defeatvaincre2.3MbudumNdokobaïzumeatmanger3Proto-Tera*zɨmeatmanger3.1TeraNewmanzəmieat (e.g. cooked grain)3.2NyimatliHarleyzu̱mieat1NyimatliHarleyzu̱meat3.3GaʼandaGwajisǝmⁿdato eat4Proto-Margi*simeatmanger4.1BuraBlenchsimTo eat (general term)4.2MargiHoffmansəmto eat4.3KilbaSchuhsəma//eat (food in general)1KilbaSchuhsəma//be sharp (blade)5Proto-Mandara*zɨwaeatmanger5.1MatalBrangermazəwaj, mazuwajeatmanger5.2MandaraFluckigerzamanger5.3MalgwaLöhrzaeat5.4GlavdaNghagyivazᵊgaeat5.5DghwedeFrickwuzato eat6Proto-Mofu*zɨmeatmanger6.1MadaNkoumoumazmamanger6.2MolokoFriesenzomeatfoods like boule, not nuts or meat.; nouritture comme la boule, pas des noix ni de la viande6.3ZulgoHallerzə́mmanger1ZulgoHallerzə́mêtre tranchant, e6.4GemzekSabataimezəmemanger6.5Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjmanger (boule de mil)1Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjse détruire (pour les grains)2Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjêtre tranchant (couteau-rasoir)3Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjhériter6.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzammanger1Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmmanger (boule de mil)2Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmêtre tranchant (couteau, rasoir)3Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmhériter4Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmmanger par sorcellerie ; faire un éclair (assimilé à un sorcier qui mange les gens)5Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmronger, bouffer, grignoter (souris, termites, etc.)6Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmbrûler (feu)7Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmfaire un bon marché (achat)7Proto-Maroua*zuma, zimieatmanger7.1Giziga MarvaHamidouzuma goɗeatmanger7.2MbazlaTourneuxʒimimanger1MbazlaSILSurveyzìmíʼeatmanger8Proto-Lamang*zaeatmanger8.1LamangWolffzaeat8.2HdiBramlettzajto eatmanger9Proto-Higi*zɨmɨeatmanger9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzəmə1.eat.2.twin9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyzimoeat9.3PsikyeAngelozəmə́eat9.4BanaLienhardzə̀mə̀manger10Proto-Kotoko Island*hɨmeatmanger10.1BudumaMcKonehəmmanger.11Proto-Kotoko North*sɨmeatmanger11.1AfadeAllisonsɨm; sɨmuneatmanger11.2MpadeAllisonsɨ̀meatmanger12Proto-Kotoko Centre*zɨmeatmanger12.1LagwanAllisonzɨmun achewmâcher1LagwanAllisonzɨmwun (zɨmi, zɨm)eatmanger12.2MserAllisondʒim matechewmâcher1MserAllisondʒimeatmanger13Proto-Kotoko South*hʷɨmaeatmanger13.1ZinaOddenhùmà + afáchewmâcher14Proto-Musgum*simi, zumeatmanger14.1MulwiTourneuxsimimanger14.2MbaraTourneuxzumeatmanger15Proto-Gidar*ɨzɨmaeatmanger15.1GidarHungerfordwəzəmamanger15.2GidarSchuhəzəmamanger (général)
zɨᵐbʷiɗnm.navelnombril823B
This root is attested in a wide distribution of languages. In most respects, this root behaves in a regular fashion. The changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko North are regular. *ɗ is lost in many cases (a common sporadic process), and has the regular reflex *r in part of the Higi group. A similar change, followed by an irregular change *r→l would account for the forms in Mafa, Ouldeme and Muyang. The difficulty lies in accounting for the presence of back vowels and labialisation in the Bata, Margi, Higi and Kotoko North groups, since there were no labialised labial phonemes in Proto-Central Chadic. The phoneme *ᵐbʷ was created in the Bata, Margi and Higi groups by the reanalysis of *w as labialisation, or the transfer of the labialisation component from a labialised velar. It is possible that this root is a compound such as *zɨᵐbɨ-hʷiɗ, with *hʷiɗ being the Proto-Central Chadic root for 'belly' and *zɨᵐbɨ being a root of unknown meaning. This would also account for the variation between the presence of the palatalisation prosody and *i in the group-level reconstructions.
1Proto-Bata*zɨᵐbʷɨɗɨ ʸnavelnombril1.1BataBoydsùᵐbuɗenavel1.2JimiDjibiʒəmbʷəɗənNombil1.3SharwaGravinazɨᵐbuɗənombril2Proto-Mafa*zɨmal ʸnavelnombril2.1MafaNdokobaizɨmelnombril3Proto-Margi*sɨᵐbʷɨɗɨw ʸnavelnombril3.1Margi SouthHarleyʃəᵐbuɗunavel3.2KilbaSchuhʃiᵐbuɗunavel4Proto-Mandara*zɨᵐbɨ ʸnavelnombril4.1PodokoSwackhammerʒɨᵐba,-ənombril4.2MandaraFluckigerʒaᵐbanombril (m)4.3MalgwaLöhrʒaᵐbanavel4.4GlavdaNghagyivaʒàm͡banavel4.5DghwedeFrickʒiᵐbenavel5Proto-Mofu*zɨᵐbal ʸnavelnombril5.1OuldemeKinnairdzìᵐbèlnavelnombril5.2MuyangSmithzìᵐbèlnavelnombril1MuyangSmithmezimezimnavelnombril6Proto-Lamang*ziᵐbiɗnavelnombril6.1LamangWolffzaᵐbənavel6.2HdiBramlettziᵐbiɗnavalle nombril7Proto-Higi*zʲɨᵐbʷiɗnavelnombril7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʒìmbʷíNavel7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyʒembʷinavel7.3KiryaBlenchʒìᵐbúrnavel7.4BanaLienhardʒìᵐbérnombril8Proto-Kotoko North*saᵐbunavelnombril8.1AfadeAllisontsɨmtsɨmnavelnombril8.2MpadeAllisonsàᵐbùbelly buttonnombril1MpadeAllisonsɨ́msɨ̀mnavelnombril8.3MalgbeAllisonsɨmsɨmnavelnombril8.4MaltamAllisonsɨmsɨmnavelnombril
ziᵑgʷan.donkeyâne822Bsynkoroᵐburi
This is one of three common roots for 'donkey'. It is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains. It is one of the few roots reconstructed with *ᵑgʷ.
1Proto-Daba*zaᵑga ʷdonkeyâne1.1MbudumNdokobaïzoŋɡodonkeyâne2Proto-Mafa*zaᵑgʷadonkeyâne2.1CuvokGravinazaŋgʷadonkeyâne3Proto-Sukur*zɨᵑgʷadonkeyâne3.1SukurDavidzungʷadonkey3.2SukurThomaszəgʷadonkey; an animal of the horse family, with short legs and long ears people ride donkeys, or used them to carry heavy loads.4Proto-Hurza*ziᵑgʷadonkeyâne4.1MbukoGravinazuᵑgodonkeyâne4.2VameKinnairdáʒìŋʷàdonkeyâne5Proto-Mandara*ziᵑgʷadonkeyâne5.1MatalBrangerʒaŋʷəw, ʒaŋəw, ʒaŋu, zeŋu, zeŋəwdonkeyâne5.2PodokoSwackhammerʒəŋʷá,-aâne5.3MandaraFluckigerézeŋʷaâne (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrəzuŋʷadonkey, ass5.5GlavdaOwensaÿiŋdonkey1GlavdaNghagyivaàʝúŋʷadonkey5.6DghwedeFrickzuŋgʷedonkey6Proto-Mofu*azɨᵑgʷadonkeyâne6.1OuldemeKinnairdázìŋʷàdonkeyâne6.2MuyangSmithɑzoŋɡudonkeyâne6.3MolokoFriesenozəᵑgodonkey, assâne6.4ZulgoHallerhézwèŋèâne m.6.5GemzekSabataizuᵑgodonkeyâne6.6MereyGravinazəᵑgawdonkeyâne6.7DugworJubumnazuᵑgodonkeyâne6.8Mofu NorthBarreteauzáᵑgáw"ane6.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzəŋgʷáwâne7Proto-Maroua*zɨᵑgɨ ʷdonkeyâne7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanzuᵑguâne7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzuᵑgodonkeyâne8Proto-Lamang*zuŋadonkeyâne8.1LamangWolffzuŋadonkey
zɨrwa ʸn.shamehonte610Bsynhʷaraj
This is one of two widespread roots for 'shame'. It is found primarily in languages of the North sub-branch. The changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and Proto-Musgum are regular, but the Sukur /s/ is not. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, so *l is expected, except in Sukur, which is part of the South sub-branch. The data does not match this expectation. The root may therefore have entered the North sub-branch after this change took place, but at a time when *r had re-entered the phonemic inventory, and before the later *r→l change in Proto-Margi. The Sukur word must be a borrowing from the Margi group.
1Proto-Sukur*sɨlɨjshamehonte1.1SukurThomassələishy;- shame2Proto-Margi*silishamehonte2.1BuraBlenchsiliShame, embarrassment sili ali I am ashamed sili akwa nci I am ashamed hara sili aka To shame kili silir mda To humiliate vu mda alwa sili To put to shame3Proto-Mandara*zɨrɨwɨ ʸshamehonte3.1MatalBrangerʒɪ̀rʉ̀wìshamehonte3.2PodokoSwackhammerʒɨ́rəwa,-ə 1honte1PodokoSwackhammerʒɨ́rəwa,-ə 2respect3.3MandaraFluckigerʒéréwéautruche (f) - honte (f), respect (f)3.4MalgwaLöhrʒirweshame3.5GlavdaNghagyivaʒìrwashame (n)1GlavdaOwensžirostrich, shame, shyness4Proto-Mofu*zɨrwɨ ʸshamehonte4.1MuyangSmithzirwishame ; respect ; benefithonte, respect, bienfait1MuyangSmithzirwishame ; respect ; benefithonte, respect, bienfait5Proto-Lamang*zɨrushamehonte5.1LamangWolffzə́rùfeeling of shame6Proto-Musgum*sɨjar ʸshamehonte6.1VulumTourneuxsijerhonte
zɨwɨɗ ʸn.stringcorde1230A
The basic meaning of this root is string or rope made from the bark of a sapling or another natural substance. There were regular changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and in the North Kotoko-Musgum major group (here, the Kotoko North group). The same change took place in Proto-Kotoko Centre but this was irregular here. The *ɗ has been lost in several languages, or been realised as /j/ due to palatalisation. In other languages it has merged with *w, forming *ʔʷ in Proto-Bata, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi, and /ɓ/ in Sukur. These are all common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*zaʔʷɨstringfil1.1GudeHoskinsonzàʼwá -ərope1.2SharwaGravinazəʼəCorde2Proto-Tera*zoostringfil2.1TeraNewmanzorope2.2NyimatliHarleyzoorope1NyimatliHarleyzoostring (n)3Proto-Sukur*zɨɓɨ ʸstringcorde3.1SukurDavidʒiɓistring3.2SukurThomasʒiɓirope: very srong thick string made by twisting thinnerstrings together.4Proto-Hurza*zawajstringfil4.1MbukoGravinazawajthread from a tree, used for repairing calabashesfil (m) d'un arbre, pour réparer des calebasses4.2VameKinnairdázə̀wájrope ; string ??simple fil en coton ou encore avec quelques plantes.5Proto-Margi*sɨwiɗstringfil5.1BuraBlenchsuwaRope1BuraBlenchsuaRope5.2KilbaSchuhsiʼirope6Proto-Mandara*zawaɗstringfil6.1MandaraFluckigerzawacorde (f)6.2MalgwaLöhrzawarope6.3GlavdaNghagyivazàwarope1GlavdaOwenszaw rope6.4DghwedeFrickzapʼarope7Proto-Mofu*zɨwaɗ ʸstringfil7.1MolokoFriesenezeweɗropecorde7.2MereyGravinazuweɗstring (n)ficelle1MereyGravinazuweɗwirefil, ligne de pêche7.3DugworJubumnaazewedrope; wire; string (n)corde; fil; ficelle7.4Mofu NorthBarreteauzə́wèɗcorde en fibre végétale machée, ficelle7.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zewéɗfil en fibre végétale mâchée, ficelle8Proto-Maroua*zɨwɨɗ ʸstringfil8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouazeweɗropecorde1Giziga MarvaHamidouazeweɗstring (n)ficelle8.2MbazlaTourneuxʒiwiŋcorde1MbazlaSILSurvey̌zwíwiŋropecorde9Proto-Lamang*zɨʔʷistringfil9.1LamangWolffzə̀wìrope9.2HdiBramlettzuʼithreadle fil10Proto-Higi*ziʔʷɨstringfil10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzəwərope1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzə̀wə́Rope10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyziwəthread1Kamwe-FutuHarleyziwerope10.3KiryaBlenchzə́wrope10.4PsikyeAngelozəwə́rope10.5BanaLienhardzə̀ʼwə̀corde11Proto-Kotoko North*sɨrestringfil11.1MpadeAllisonsàrèthread (n)fil11.2MalgbeAllisonsestring (n)ficelle1MalgbeAllisonjirethread (n)fil12Proto-Kotoko Centre*saɗɨstringfil12.1MserAllisonsaɗɨwirefil1MserAllisonsaɗestring (n)ficelle2MserAllisonsaɗɨthread (n)fil


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z


zv.to smell badsentir mauvais516A
The root sense of this verb is 'to smell rotten'. The change *z→ⁿdz in Proto-Daba is irregular.
1Proto-Daba*ⁿdzɨ ʸsmellsentir1.1GavarViljoenⁿdʒismell (v)sentir1GavarViljoenⁿdʒistink, smell (bad)puer, sentir mauvais1.2DabaLienhardⁿdʒīsentir, répandre une odeur, puer2Proto-Tera*zismellsentir2.1TeraNewmanʒismell1TeraNewmanʒisay2TeraNewmanʒitell3TeraNewmanʒianswer4TeraNewmanʒipour (in)2.2NyimatliHarleyʒistink, smell (bad)1NyimatliHarleyʒismell (v)3Proto-Mandara*z ʸsmellsentir3.1MatalBrangermàʒᶦnàjsmellsentir mal4Proto-Mofuubd stem*zsmellsentir4.1OuldemeKinnairdubd stemsmellsentir, odeur, désaccord1OuldemeKinnairdrottenpourrir4.2MuyangSmithzirot, stink, give off a smell (good or bad), of fruit, meat, etc.pourrir, sentir (soit bon, soit mauvais)1MuyangSmithto smell somethingsentir quelque chose4.3MadaNkoumoumezʒeŋasentir4.4MolokoFriesenzesmellsentir1MolokoFriesenzestinkpuer4.5ZulgoHallersentir, exhaler une odeur4.6GemzekSabataimeze suwekekestink, smell (bad)puer, sentir mauvais4.7MereyGravinazestink, smell (bad)puer, sentir mauvais4.8DugworJubumnamazajsmell (v)sentir4.9Mofu NorthBarreteaumézéjsentir1Mofu NorthBarreteaumézéjpourri4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzsentir, pourrir5Proto-Lamangubd stem*zɨjusmellsentir5.1LamangWolffzəjusmell
zajn.faecesselles518Asynɣʷɨviᵑgʷɨ
This root is largely stable, except for the loss of *j in a few languages. It is found in the languages around the Northern Mandara mountains.
1Proto-Mafa*zajfaecesselles1.1MafaBarreteauzajexcrément1.2CuvokGravinazajurineurine2Proto-Hurza*azajfaecesselles2.1MbukoGravinaazajexcrementselles2.2VameKinnairdàzàjexcrement ; faecesexcrément ; défécation ; déchet_d'un_être_humain_ou_d'un_animal3Proto-Mandara*zajfaecesexcrément3.1MatalBrangerzajfaecesexcrément4Proto-Mofu*zajfaecesselles4.1OuldemeKinnairdzàjexcrementexcrément4.2MuyangSmithɑzɑjexcrement, solid part left when liquid is removedexcrément, partie solide qui reste quand un liquide a été enlevé4.3MadaNkoumouzacrotte, kaka, selles1MadaNkoumouazaexcrement4.4MolokoFriesenazajfaeces (feces)excrément; selles4.5ZulgoHallerzaexcrément m.4.6GemzekSabataizaexcrementexcrément4.7MereyGravinazajexcrementexcrément4.8DugworJubumnazajexcrementexcrément4.9Mofu NorthBarreteauzājéxcrément, selles, crotte, bouse1Mofu NorthBarreteauzājd;-echet4.10Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzájexcrément, selles, crotte, bouse1Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzájdéchet5Proto-Maroua*zajfaecesselles5.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanzajexcrément, faute, déchet etc... résidu5.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzajexcrementexcrément5.3MbazlaTourneuxzajexcrément
zɨɗɨr ʸnm.man, husbandhomme mâle, mari621Bcfⁿdɨw
The basic sense of this root is a male human, and is extended to include the concept 'husband'. The change *z→s in Proto-Margi is regular. There was no *l in Proto-Central Chadic, but there was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch. All the languages where this root is found are from the North sub-branch, so the Proto-Central Chadic root is reconstructed with *r, even though /r/ is not present in the group-level reconstructions. *ɗ has been lost, or has been palatalised to become /j/, except in the Lamang group. These are common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Margi*salmanhomme1.1MargiHoffmansalman, husband1.2Margi SouthHarleysalman1.3KilbaSchuhsalhero1KilbaSchuhsalhusband, man, male2KilbaSchuhsalmale, man2Proto-Mandara*zal ʸmanhomme2.1MatalBrangerʒɪ̄lmanhomme2.2MandaraFluckigerʒelehomme (m)1MandaraFluckigerzalahommes (m. pl.)2.3MalgwaLöhrʒiilehusband, man3Proto-Mofu*zal ʸmanhomme3.1MuyangSmithzɑlman ; husband ; malehomme; mari; mâle3.2MadaNkoumouzalahomme3.3MolokoFriesenzarman1MolokoFriesenzarmâle_humain2MolokoFriesenzarmari3.4GemzekSabataizalhusbandmari, époux3.5MereyGravinazalhusbandmari, époux3.6DugworJubumnazelhusbandmari, époux3.7Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzelhusbandmari, mâle; homme capable de faire et de décider qqch.4Proto-Maroua*zɨl ʸmanhomme4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanmiɮiles hommes, les gens, on4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzilman (male)homme (mâle)4.3MbazlaTourneuxzilhomme1MbazlaTourneuxzilmari, homme2MbazlaSILSurveyzə̌lman (male)homme (mâle)5Proto-Lamang*zɨɗalmanhomme5.1LamangWolffzɗàlhusband, man1LamangWolffzɗàlàman2LamangWolffzə̀ɗàlman6Proto-Higi*zalmanhomme6.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzaman, husband6.2KiryaBlenchzàlman6.3PsikyeAngelozaman6.4BanaLienhardzàlhomme, mari, mâle
zɨgʷɨnn.childenfant617C
This root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *z is stable, though it metathesises with *gʷ in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Lamang, which is an unusual process for these consonants. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, though this is not evident in Ouldeme. The final consonant has been lost in Proto-Higi, which is a common sporadic process. The *gʷ has the reflex /g/ in Jimi and Malgwa, and /w/ in Podoko, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Lamang. In many cases it is reanalysed as either /u/ or the labialisation prosody. These are common sporadic processes. The Kirya and Psikye forms are hard to analyse. It appears that the labialisation has separated from the /g/ component of *gʷ, but this process is not noted elsewhere in Central Chadic. There are several roots in other languages which look similar and may be cognate, e.g. Bura /bzər/ and Mbuko /wan/.
1Proto-Bata*zɨgɨnchildenfant1.1JimiDjibizegənEnfant2Proto-Mandara*gʷɨzɨrchildenfant2.1PodokoSwackhammerudzəra,-ə 1enfant1PodokoSwackhammerudzəra,-ə 2fruit2.2MalgwaLöhrəgzachild2.3GlavdaNghagyivazɾachild1GlavdaOwenschild2.4DghwedeFrickvdʒirechild3Proto-Mofu*zazaŋ ʸchildenfant3.1OuldemeKinnairdzèzéŋbabybébé4Proto-Maroua*zɨn ʷchildenfant4.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanzuŋ, plr - ziri1) enfant, petit enfant des deux sexes, 2) fille, fillette1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanziri, ziraj, zirenfants4.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzunchildenfant4.3MbazlaTourneuxziŋenfant1MbazlaSILSurveynzílchildenfant5Proto-Lamang*wɨzaŋchildenfant5.1LamangWolffúzàŋàson, child, boy5.2HdiBramlettzwaŋchildl'enfant6Proto-Higi*zɨgʷichildenfant6.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzəgʷichild6.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyzəgʷichild6.3KiryaBlenchzwə̀gàchild6.4PsikyeAngelowuzəgə́child6.5BanaLienhardz(ə)ɣʷə̀enfant
zɨjɨln.lionlion46Bsynlɨvarimabor
This is one of several roots for 'lion'. *l is reconstructed even though *l did not exist in Proto-Central Chadic. The word must be a comparatively recent coinage. *j has been reanalysed as /i/ in Mafa and as the palatalisation prosody in Gemzek and Zulgo. This is a common sporadic process.
1Proto-Mafa*zala ʸlionlion1.1MafaBarreteaumarij-ʒélélion2Proto-Hurza*zɨjal ʸlionlion2.1MbukoGravinazijellionlion3Proto-Mofu*zal ʸlionlion3.1ZulgoHallerazíllion m.3.2GemzekSabataizellionlion3.3MereyGravinazɨllionlion4Proto-Higi*zillionlion4.1BanaLienhardʒìllion
zɨmv.to eatmanger1538Bcfhʷɨpɨɗ
This is the generic verb for eating. There is a regular change *z→s in Proto-Margi, and separately in the North Kotoko-Musgum major group (consisting of the Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Musgum groups). There was a subsequent change *s→h in Kotoko Island. The Zina form is not the result of a regular change. There was also a regular word-final change *m→w in Proto-Mandara. This change may also have taken place as a sporadic change in Proto-Lamang. There is weak evidence from Bata, Mbudum and Mbara for the existence of *w in the root, but it is not included until more evidence becomes available.
1Proto-Bata*zɨmeatmanger1.1BataBoydsùmeat1.2JimiDjibizəmənManger ;2Proto-Daba*zɨmeatmanger2.1BuwalViljoenzɑmeatmanger2.2GavarViljoenzəmeatmanger1GavarViljoenzəmconquer, defeatvaincre2.3MbudumNdokobaïzumeatmanger3Proto-Tera*zɨmeatmanger3.1TeraNewmanzəmieat (e.g. cooked grain)3.2NyimatliHarleyzu̱mieat1NyimatliHarleyzu̱meat3.3GaʼandaGwajisǝmⁿdato eat4Proto-Margi*simeatmanger4.1BuraBlenchsimTo eat (general term)4.2MargiHoffmansəmto eat4.3KilbaSchuhsəma//eat (food in general)1KilbaSchuhsəma//be sharp (blade)5Proto-Mandara*zɨwaeatmanger5.1MatalBrangermazəwaj, mazuwajeatmanger5.2MandaraFluckigerzamanger5.3MalgwaLöhrzaeat5.4GlavdaNghagyivazᵊgaeat5.5DghwedeFrickwuzato eat6Proto-Mofu*zɨmeatmanger6.1MadaNkoumoumazmamanger6.2MolokoFriesenzomeatfoods like boule, not nuts or meat.; nouritture comme la boule, pas des noix ni de la viande6.3ZulgoHallerzə́mmanger1ZulgoHallerzə́mêtre tranchant, e6.4GemzekSabataimezəmemanger6.5Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjmanger (boule de mil)1Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjse détruire (pour les grains)2Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjêtre tranchant (couteau-rasoir)3Mofu NorthBarreteaumézə̀mèjhériter6.6Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzammanger1Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmmanger (boule de mil)2Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmêtre tranchant (couteau, rasoir)3Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmhériter4Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmmanger par sorcellerie ; faire un éclair (assimilé à un sorcier qui mange les gens)5Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmronger, bouffer, grignoter (souris, termites, etc.)6Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmbrûler (feu)7Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zəmfaire un bon marché (achat)7Proto-Maroua*zuma, zimieatmanger7.1Giziga MarvaHamidouzuma goɗeatmanger7.2MbazlaTourneuxʒimimanger1MbazlaSILSurveyzìmíʼeatmanger8Proto-Lamang*zaeatmanger8.1LamangWolffzaeat8.2HdiBramlettzajto eatmanger9Proto-Higi*zɨmɨeatmanger9.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzəmə1.eat.2.twin9.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyzimoeat9.3PsikyeAngelozəmə́eat9.4BanaLienhardzə̀mə̀manger10Proto-Kotoko Island*hɨmeatmanger10.1BudumaMcKonehəmmanger.11Proto-Kotoko North*sɨmeatmanger11.1AfadeAllisonsɨm; sɨmuneatmanger11.2MpadeAllisonsɨ̀meatmanger12Proto-Kotoko Centre*zɨmeatmanger12.1LagwanAllisonzɨmun achewmâcher1LagwanAllisonzɨmwun (zɨmi, zɨm)eatmanger12.2MserAllisondʒim matechewmâcher1MserAllisondʒimeatmanger13Proto-Kotoko South*hʷɨmaeatmanger13.1ZinaOddenhùmà + afáchewmâcher14Proto-Musgum*simi, zumeatmanger14.1MulwiTourneuxsimimanger14.2MbaraTourneuxzumeatmanger15Proto-Gidar*ɨzɨmaeatmanger15.1GidarHungerfordwəzəmamanger15.2GidarSchuhəzəmamanger (général)
zɨᵐbʷiɗnm.navelnombril823B
This root is attested in a wide distribution of languages. In most respects, this root behaves in a regular fashion. The changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko North are regular. *ɗ is lost in many cases (a common sporadic process), and has the regular reflex *r in part of the Higi group. A similar change, followed by an irregular change *r→l would account for the forms in Mafa, Ouldeme and Muyang. The difficulty lies in accounting for the presence of back vowels and labialisation in the Bata, Margi, Higi and Kotoko North groups, since there were no labialised labial phonemes in Proto-Central Chadic. The phoneme *ᵐbʷ was created in the Bata, Margi and Higi groups by the reanalysis of *w as labialisation, or the transfer of the labialisation component from a labialised velar. It is possible that this root is a compound such as *zɨᵐbɨ-hʷiɗ, with *hʷiɗ being the Proto-Central Chadic root for 'belly' and *zɨᵐbɨ being a root of unknown meaning. This would also account for the variation between the presence of the palatalisation prosody and *i in the group-level reconstructions.
1Proto-Bata*zɨᵐbʷɨɗɨ ʸnavelnombril1.1BataBoydsùᵐbuɗenavel1.2JimiDjibiʒəmbʷəɗənNombil1.3SharwaGravinazɨᵐbuɗənombril2Proto-Mafa*zɨmal ʸnavelnombril2.1MafaNdokobaizɨmelnombril3Proto-Margi*sɨᵐbʷɨɗɨw ʸnavelnombril3.1Margi SouthHarleyʃəᵐbuɗunavel3.2KilbaSchuhʃiᵐbuɗunavel4Proto-Mandara*zɨᵐbɨ ʸnavelnombril4.1PodokoSwackhammerʒɨᵐba,-ənombril4.2MandaraFluckigerʒaᵐbanombril (m)4.3MalgwaLöhrʒaᵐbanavel4.4GlavdaNghagyivaʒàm͡banavel4.5DghwedeFrickʒiᵐbenavel5Proto-Mofu*zɨᵐbal ʸnavelnombril5.1OuldemeKinnairdzìᵐbèlnavelnombril5.2MuyangSmithzìᵐbèlnavelnombril1MuyangSmithmezimezimnavelnombril6Proto-Lamang*ziᵐbiɗnavelnombril6.1LamangWolffzaᵐbənavel6.2HdiBramlettziᵐbiɗnavalle nombril7Proto-Higi*zʲɨᵐbʷiɗnavelnombril7.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyʒìmbʷíNavel7.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyʒembʷinavel7.3KiryaBlenchʒìᵐbúrnavel7.4BanaLienhardʒìᵐbérnombril8Proto-Kotoko North*saᵐbunavelnombril8.1AfadeAllisontsɨmtsɨmnavelnombril8.2MpadeAllisonsàᵐbùbelly buttonnombril1MpadeAllisonsɨ́msɨ̀mnavelnombril8.3MalgbeAllisonsɨmsɨmnavelnombril8.4MaltamAllisonsɨmsɨmnavelnombril
ziᵑgʷan.donkeyâne822Bsynkoroᵐburi
This is one of three common roots for 'donkey'. It is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains. It is one of the few roots reconstructed with *ᵑgʷ.
1Proto-Daba*zaᵑga ʷdonkeyâne1.1MbudumNdokobaïzoŋɡodonkeyâne2Proto-Mafa*zaᵑgʷadonkeyâne2.1CuvokGravinazaŋgʷadonkeyâne3Proto-Sukur*zɨᵑgʷadonkeyâne3.1SukurDavidzungʷadonkey3.2SukurThomaszəgʷadonkey; an animal of the horse family, with short legs and long ears people ride donkeys, or used them to carry heavy loads.4Proto-Hurza*ziᵑgʷadonkeyâne4.1MbukoGravinazuᵑgodonkeyâne4.2VameKinnairdáʒìŋʷàdonkeyâne5Proto-Mandara*ziᵑgʷadonkeyâne5.1MatalBrangerʒaŋʷəw, ʒaŋəw, ʒaŋu, zeŋu, zeŋəwdonkeyâne5.2PodokoSwackhammerʒəŋʷá,-aâne5.3MandaraFluckigerézeŋʷaâne (m)5.4MalgwaLöhrəzuŋʷadonkey, ass5.5GlavdaOwensaÿiŋdonkey1GlavdaNghagyivaàʝúŋʷadonkey5.6DghwedeFrickzuŋgʷedonkey6Proto-Mofu*azɨᵑgʷadonkeyâne6.1OuldemeKinnairdázìŋʷàdonkeyâne6.2MuyangSmithɑzoŋɡudonkeyâne6.3MolokoFriesenozəᵑgodonkey, assâne6.4ZulgoHallerhézwèŋèâne m.6.5GemzekSabataizuᵑgodonkeyâne6.6MereyGravinazəᵑgawdonkeyâne6.7DugworJubumnazuᵑgodonkeyâne6.8Mofu NorthBarreteauzáᵑgáw"ane6.9Mofu-GudurHollingsworthzəŋgʷáwâne7Proto-Maroua*zɨᵑgɨ ʷdonkeyâne7.1Giziga MoutourwaMichielanzuᵑguâne7.2Giziga MarvaHamidouzuᵑgodonkeyâne8Proto-Lamang*zuŋadonkeyâne8.1LamangWolffzuŋadonkey
zɨrwa ʸn.shamehonte610Bsynhʷaraj
This is one of two widespread roots for 'shame'. It is found primarily in languages of the North sub-branch. The changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and Proto-Musgum are regular, but the Sukur /s/ is not. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, so *l is expected, except in Sukur, which is part of the South sub-branch. The data does not match this expectation. The root may therefore have entered the North sub-branch after this change took place, but at a time when *r had re-entered the phonemic inventory, and before the later *r→l change in Proto-Margi. The Sukur word must be a borrowing from the Margi group.
1Proto-Sukur*sɨlɨjshamehonte1.1SukurThomassələishy;- shame2Proto-Margi*silishamehonte2.1BuraBlenchsiliShame, embarrassment sili ali I am ashamed sili akwa nci I am ashamed hara sili aka To shame kili silir mda To humiliate vu mda alwa sili To put to shame3Proto-Mandara*zɨrɨwɨ ʸshamehonte3.1MatalBrangerʒɪ̀rʉ̀wìshamehonte3.2PodokoSwackhammerʒɨ́rəwa,-ə 1honte1PodokoSwackhammerʒɨ́rəwa,-ə 2respect3.3MandaraFluckigerʒéréwéautruche (f) - honte (f), respect (f)3.4MalgwaLöhrʒirweshame3.5GlavdaNghagyivaʒìrwashame (n)1GlavdaOwensžirostrich, shame, shyness4Proto-Mofu*zɨrwɨ ʸshamehonte4.1MuyangSmithzirwishame ; respect ; benefithonte, respect, bienfait1MuyangSmithzirwishame ; respect ; benefithonte, respect, bienfait5Proto-Lamang*zɨrushamehonte5.1LamangWolffzə́rùfeeling of shame6Proto-Musgum*sɨjar ʸshamehonte6.1VulumTourneuxsijerhonte
zɨwɨɗ ʸn.stringcorde1230A
The basic meaning of this root is string or rope made from the bark of a sapling or another natural substance. There were regular changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and in the North Kotoko-Musgum major group (here, the Kotoko North group). The same change took place in Proto-Kotoko Centre but this was irregular here. The *ɗ has been lost in several languages, or been realised as /j/ due to palatalisation. In other languages it has merged with *w, forming *ʔʷ in Proto-Bata, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi, and /ɓ/ in Sukur. These are all common sporadic processes.
1Proto-Bata*zaʔʷɨstringfil1.1GudeHoskinsonzàʼwá -ərope1.2SharwaGravinazəʼəCorde2Proto-Tera*zoostringfil2.1TeraNewmanzorope2.2NyimatliHarleyzoorope1NyimatliHarleyzoostring (n)3Proto-Sukur*zɨɓɨ ʸstringcorde3.1SukurDavidʒiɓistring3.2SukurThomasʒiɓirope: very srong thick string made by twisting thinnerstrings together.4Proto-Hurza*zawajstringfil4.1MbukoGravinazawajthread from a tree, used for repairing calabashesfil (m) d'un arbre, pour réparer des calebasses4.2VameKinnairdázə̀wájrope ; string ??simple fil en coton ou encore avec quelques plantes.5Proto-Margi*sɨwiɗstringfil5.1BuraBlenchsuwaRope1BuraBlenchsuaRope5.2KilbaSchuhsiʼirope6Proto-Mandara*zawaɗstringfil6.1MandaraFluckigerzawacorde (f)6.2MalgwaLöhrzawarope6.3GlavdaNghagyivazàwarope1GlavdaOwenszaw rope6.4DghwedeFrickzapʼarope7Proto-Mofu*zɨwaɗ ʸstringfil7.1MolokoFriesenezeweɗropecorde7.2MereyGravinazuweɗstring (n)ficelle1MereyGravinazuweɗwirefil, ligne de pêche7.3DugworJubumnaazewedrope; wire; string (n)corde; fil; ficelle7.4Mofu NorthBarreteauzə́wèɗcorde en fibre végétale machée, ficelle7.5Mofu-GudurHollingsworth́zewéɗfil en fibre végétale mâchée, ficelle8Proto-Maroua*zɨwɨɗ ʸstringfil8.1Giziga MarvaHamidouazeweɗropecorde1Giziga MarvaHamidouazeweɗstring (n)ficelle8.2MbazlaTourneuxʒiwiŋcorde1MbazlaSILSurvey̌zwíwiŋropecorde9Proto-Lamang*zɨʔʷistringfil9.1LamangWolffzə̀wìrope9.2HdiBramlettzuʼithreadle fil10Proto-Higi*ziʔʷɨstringfil10.1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzəwərope1Kamwe-NkafaHarleyzə̀wə́Rope10.2Kamwe-FutuHarleyziwəthread1Kamwe-FutuHarleyziwerope10.3KiryaBlenchzə́wrope10.4PsikyeAngelozəwə́rope10.5BanaLienhardzə̀ʼwə̀corde11Proto-Kotoko North*sɨrestringfil11.1MpadeAllisonsàrèthread (n)fil11.2MalgbeAllisonsestring (n)ficelle1MalgbeAllisonjirethread (n)fil12Proto-Kotoko Centre*saɗɨstringfil12.1MserAllisonsaɗɨwirefil1MserAllisonsaɗestring (n)ficelle2MserAllisonsaɗɨthread (n)fil