tip v. to spit cracher (14 groups, 31 languages) A
This common root is almost certainly onomatopoeic in origin. A similar word is found in both Hausa and Kanuri. It is significant though that *i is present in almost all the groups where this vowel is part of the phonemic inventory. This implies that the word may have been adopted as a word rather than as a sound at an early period in the history of Central Chadic. *p was realised as [f] word-finally in Proto-Central Chadic, so the presence of the final *f in all groups does not contradict the early origin of the word.

1Proto-Bata *tif spit cracher 1.1) Bata (Boyd) tə̀f I spit saliva 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) tifi spit. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) tefʷən 1 - Cracher ;; 2 - Depiècer un animal; 3 - Cinquième

2Proto-Daba *tɨf ʸ spit cracher 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtef spit cracher 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtif spit cracher 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) tīf cracher ; bénir

3Proto-Mafa *ⁿdzɨf ʸ spit cracher 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ⁿdʒif cracher

4Proto-Sukur *tifa spit cracher 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) tifa to spit on somebody or something

5Proto-Hurza *tifa spit cracher 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) təfe spit cracher 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) tífā spit cracher

6Proto-Margi *tifa spit cracher 6.1) Bura (Blench) tifu, tifa To spit 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) təfa/a spit

7Proto-Mandara *tifa spit cracher 7.1) Matal (Branger) mæ̀tʲflá spit cracher 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) təfa cracher

8Proto-Mofu *tɨf spit cracher 8.1) Moloko (Friesen) taf spit cracher 8.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) metefe teɮe spit cracher 8.3) Merey (Gravina) təf cracher 8.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətəfej ɬeɬeɓ spit cracher 8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) métə̀fèj cracher 8.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́təf cracher

9Proto-Maroua *tɨf ʷ spit cracher 9.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) tuf cracher

10Proto-Lamang *tɨf spit cracher 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) təf spit 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) təfaj to spit cracher

11Proto-Higi *tifi spit cracher 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ntìví spit 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ntjivi spit 11.3) Kirya (Blench) ntə́fə́ to spit 11.4) Bana (Lienhard) tfə́ cracher, bénir

12Proto-Kotoko North *tafɨ spit cracher 12.1) Mpade (Allison) táfɨ̀ sʼè spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *tɨf spit cracher 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) tɨfɨwun (tɨfu) spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche 13.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) tɨfel nahe spit cracher 13.2) Mser (Allison) tafɨ ɣrej spit cracher

14Proto-Musgum *tɨf ʷ spit cracher 14.1) Mbara (Tourneux) tuf spit cracher

15Hausa tóofèe spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

16Kanuri tәfáᵑgin, tәfádʒin // tә́fáᵑgin, tә́fádʒin spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

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