Semantic Fields

(Groups of words based on their meanings)

Body Parts ( = gupnin)

[first person plural forms]

   aamnin – face

   afaa – shoulder

   ambunin – body hair; fur; feathers

   andelak – pinky finger

   angguangguknin ankle or wrist bone

   baanin – thigh

   benefe – palm (of hand or foot); sole

   benep kungkumiing – heart

   benepnin – liver

   benepnin faa – lungs

   biik – blood

   buanin – nape of the neck

   bupnin torso

   dafunin eye

   dafunin miam eyebrow

   dalang nail (of finger or toe); claw

   dalapnin rib

   damaninforehead

   dolo armpit

   donomnin – mouth

   dunin ear

   fafalangcockatoo feathers

   feet – urine

   fli wing; fin

   gadungninhip

   galammi – fish scales

   gebemembele buttocks

   gengninjaw

   gibee tail feathers

   gibek faeces

   gigili gums

   gulangi object that protrudes from an animal's head, like a tusk or horn

   gupninskin

   kaitnin arm

   kaligubang head

   kangkalingninknee

   kakateknin elbow

   kanfidinghair that has been detached from the body

   kayabutnin – navel

   kolongnin – leg, including the foot

   kolongnin beknin – ankle

   koknin mii – stomach area

   koo – womb; internal organ

   koo ili – part of the body that covers the internal organs

   kook faeces

   koo nanaa intestines

   kopongnin – chest

   kotoknin neck

   meenintooth

   meewongbreath

   membenin tongue

   mendeninback

   miamhair on head, such as eyebrow or beard

   miingthumb

   mom breast

   momminipple

   mukpimple

   munear area

   mundup testicle

   naknakngi oesophagus

   namitkalenin – cheek bone

   nangkapmuknin throat

   puukpuukheartbeat

   sabut – bone

   salaa external body part (hair, toe, finger); appendage

   tamanin – nose

   tabo pus

   tusali – muscle

   uyangi – tail

   wong – sweat

   yalekobo middle finger

   yaleyale – ring finger

   yegenin – calf; lower part of leg between knee and foot

   yomole – penis

Colour Terms

( = kodenkoden)

   faa – white

   fakotfakot – grey

   gegetaning yellow

   giyongegreen

   gomonered

   gonggomonyeng pink

   kubuliblack; dark

   kukubityeng blue

Kinship and Other Relationships

[first person plural forms]

   afa grandfather; ancestor; grandson

   afetnin – daughter; female blood relation in the following generation (e.g. niece, cousin's daughter, etc.)

   alanin – grandchild; grandchild of one's brother or sister

   alung – clan

   amanin nanak – female's male sibling; brother; female's sister-in-law's husband

   ambek grandmother; granddaughter

   anongnin – son; male blood relation in the following generation (e.g. nephew, cousin's son, etc.). Birth parents use the term nanak amani instead.

   apnin – husband

   Baa name given to a fifth-born daughter; also used with tenth-born daughter

   Dabi name given to a third-born daughter; also used with eighth-born daughter

   fuap kobolak – original ancestor of a particular clan

   fuapnin – ancestor

   Gek name given to a third-born son; also used with seventh-born son

   Ine – name given to a second-born daughter; also used with seventh-born daughter

   ip – father-in-law; brother of one's spouse's parents; son-in-law; brother of one's son- or daughter-in-law

   kaanin – same generation male in-law; husband of someone's sister or brother of someone's wife

   Kaap name given to a fourth-born daughter; also used with ninth-born daughter

   kadek – same generation female in-law; sister-in-law; daughter-in-law; child's spouse's sisters

   kangkaning – descendant

   kuyaknin – same-sex sibling; opposite sex sibling-in-law's spouse

   maanin – extended family, not including one's immediate family

   Mene – name given to a second-born son; also used with sixth and tenth-born son

   meng – mother; mother's sister or father's brother's wife; grandparents of wife

   Mok – name given to a first-born daughter; also used with sixth-born daughter

   namboninin-law from another generation; mother/father-in-law; son/daughter-in-law

   nanak child

   nanaknin ibe male's female sibling; sister; male's brother-in-law's wife

   nanak tamenindaughter, as referenced by birth parents

   nemenin father's sister's child; mother's brother's child; cousin

   nen father; father's brother or mother's sister's husband; grandparents of husband

   oongnin mother's brother; father's sister's husband; uncle

   samengsenen – parents; mothers and fathers

   Sawo name given to a fourth-born boy; also used with eighth-born son

   tamonin – wife

   Tu – name given to first-born male child; also used with fifth, ninth, etc.

   waak – father's sister; mother's brother's wife; aunt

Biblical and Religious Key Terms

   Afini Baayabo – Exodus, the second book of the Old Testament

   Amun Man – Deuteronomy, the fifth book of the Old Testament

   aningge – holy

   aningge it church building

   Aningge WongHoly Spirit

   ayungkingdom

   bakpeace

   bangkupcommunion

   benep ayunrepent

   benep gafunigrace; kindness

   benep olonelove

   BenyeleLord

   BubusapChristian

   bingam olone – Gospel; Scripture

   bungbaga – cross

   daanggidi amacherub

   daangkasaa man law

   Dabote Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament

   damenambaning – just; righteous

   dindilimbondage of sin

   Dum Sese Fee – Leviticus, the third book of the Old Testament

   dum sese gelem – altar

   fee amanii – angel

   fee nanak servant

   fop cross

   gidongofongami – worship; honour

   gubam heaven

   Ibot God

   Ilangi bua Easter

   iningkalehaningapostle

   Iningkalehaning – Acts, the fifth book of the New Testament

   Inte Temek – Psalms

   kalis chariot

   kasat faaheaven

   kukuluksin

   kupmipking

   MalanJesus

   man babaa amaangel

   Man Bingam Chronicles, two numbered books of the Old Testament

   mananin - joy

   mendekmendee filthy; wicked

   nandembaamta – love

   nandendabli obey

   nandengkumunta – believe; faith

   ninimbaamta praise us

   SadangSatan

   saguaprophet

   taantongkaat – disciple

   Tobole – Lord

   tontoong – parable

   tumsin

   Ulak Lord Most High; Creator

   usu blessing

   usu ame gonggom – baptism

   usu ame gonggom tege – baptise

   utangi bingam kot glory

   Utangi Taang – Numbers, the fourth book of the Old Testament

   wameng sin

   yabodaningkale judge

   yaboyaan feeni reign

   Yawe LORD; God's name in the Old Testament, Yahweh

   yesasa pray

   yesefeleconfess sins

   Yesu Jesus

Fauna ( = kalem)

   but pig

   but-dodonidonkey

   but-fongolo tabaning goat

   but-gafuni sheep

   but-tobole cow

   dafunggeng – small rodent species; bandicoot

   dinoop – bandicoot

   gepmeng – cuscus that lives in cold areas

   gisiba bat

   gonggomon rat with brown fur

   gusep tree kangaroo

   inenggamblack cuscus

   kamokbig rat with white tail

   kamokbengkind of large rat

   kanum large cuscus with rust-coloured fur and a bushy tail which lives in the bush

   kwegabuk – house rat

   kweham – small rat with grey fur

   kwesak – large bush rat with short nose

   maam rodent

   pusip cat

   sangampangmedium-large grey rodent with furry tail

   sapdog

   yeksaa large white and black cuscus found in warm areas

Birds ( = yup)

   aluapegret

   amesahulin – little ringed plover [Charadrius dubius]

   babiit – ornate honeyeater [Melidectes torquatus]

   bagiyup – imperial-pigeon [Ducula zoeae & pinon]

   baimi – male variety of the Raggiana bird of paradise [Paradisaea raggiana]

   baiwan palm cockatoo

   banggila shovel-billed kingfisher [Clytoceyx rex]

   bengkotofet common koel [Eudynamys scolopacea]

   bihum – Astrapia birds of paradise [Astrapia stephaniae & splendidissima]

   bitnamdofoyange – long-tailed buzzard [Henicopernis longicausa]

   bobon chicken

   butkali cuckoo-shrikes [Coracina navaehollandiae, papuensis, caeruleogrisea & boyeri]

   dabigepPesquet's parrot, black lory and brown lory [Psittrichus fulgidus & Chalcopsitta atra & duivenbodei]

   diinggak – mottled whistler [Rhagolgus leucostigma]

   dolobangi – hawk with a white head and breast with a brown body [Haliastur indus]

   donohamun – regent whistler [Pachycephala schlegelli]

   dundulung – Southern cassowary [Casuarius casuarius] ; white-shouldered fairy wren

   duutungyup – orange-cheeked honeyeater [Lichenostomus chrusogenys]

   faani larger variety of two similar species of birds

   gafu – blue bird of paradise

   galisa feline owlet-nightjar [Aegotheles insignis]

   gamelak – chestnut forest-rail [Rallina rubra]

   gekbogom brown cuckoo-dove [Macropygia ambroinesis]

   gekngafut red-knobbed imperial-pigeon [Ducula rubricera]

   gekolok – hooded butcherbird [Cracticus cassicus]

   gektaleyupmimetic honeyeater [Meliphaga analoga]

   gengkokobathooded pitohui [Pitohui kirhocephalus]

   gengkusafawn-breasted bowerbird [Chlamydera cerviniventris]

   giboongraceful honeyeater [Meliphaga gracilis]

   gisuak helmeted friarbird [Philemon buceroides]

   gomonenismaller of two similar species of birds

   gongondekhornbill [Aceros plicatus]

   gulagupyellow-faced myna [Mino dumontii]

   gutiitgreat cuckoo-dove [Reinwardtoena reinwadtii]

   inehusivariable goshawk, specifically referring to the white morph [Accipitar novaehollandiae leucosomus]

   inengakngak red-necked crake and the New Guinea tiger-heron [Rallina tricolar & Zonerodius heliosylus]

   kaadibin fig-parrots [Psittaculirostris desmarestii, edwardsii, salvadorii & gulielmiterti]

   kaaginang yellow-billed lorikeet [Neosittacus musschenbroekii]

   kabuhangkangblack butcherbird [Cracticus quoyi]

   kadangka – bare-eyed crow [Corvus tristis]

   kahamu – streak-headed, hooded, grand and black-breasted manikins [Lonchura tristissima, spectabilis, grandis & teerinki]

   kahase – variable goshawk, specifically referring to the grey morph [Accipiter novaehollandiae lavongai]

   kaliha – orange-footed scrubfowl [Megaposius reinwardt]

   kalingkakat – bat hawk [Macheirhamphus alcinus]

   kanakyupyellow-bellied longbill [Toxorhamphus novaeguineae]

   kolasisip Pacific swallow [Hirundo tahitica]

   komeyupemerald and Stephan's doves, the cinnamon ground-dove and the New Guinea bronzewing [Chalcophaps indica & stephani, Gallicolumba rufigula & Henicophaps albifrons]

   kotkot Torresian crow [Corvus orru]

   kuluwakuk bar-tailed cuckoo dove

   kungkang male emperor bird of paradise [Paradisaea guilielmi]

   kungkangtefet – female Raggiana and emperor birds of paradise [Paradisaea raggiana & guilielmi]

   kutniyet palm cockatoo [Probosciber aterrimus]

   kwesangulang – sooty, white-bellied, chestnut-bellied, northern & rufous-backed fantails [Rhipidura threnothorax, leucothorax, hyperthyra, rufiventris & rufidorsa]

   mambangi – black kite [Milvus migrans]

   mambongkaluang – Meyer's friarbird [Philemon meyeri]

   mambotfifii – Papuan boobook [Ninox theomacha]

   manatuk – azure kingfisher [Alxedo azurea]

   meneben – long-bearded honeyeater [Melionyx princeps]

   menehasak – variable dwarf kingfisher [Ceyx lepidus]

   menehubeng – common cicadabird [Coracina tenuirostrus]

   menemonge – Papuan and marbled frogmouth [Podarus papuensis & ocellatus]

   menewoo – pheasant pigeon [Otidiphaps nobilis]

   menggelep – eclectus parrot [Eclectus roratus]

   mipdalang – Papuan flowerpecker [Dicaeum pectorale]

   mohombokmi – New Guinea wood-swallow [Artamus maximus]

   monggok – owls; nightjars

   munduu – pheasant coucal [Centropus phasianinus]

   ngangakind of nocturnal bird

   ngiongbiak red, western black-capped and eastern black-capped lories being marked by a predominant red colouration [Eos cyanogenia & Lorius lory & hypoinochrous]

   pato amani – goose

   saatolonmagnificent bird of paradise [Cicinnurus magnificus]

   saatolon oongespangled honeyeater [Melipotes ater]

   sahudit – Goldie's, rainbow, red-flanked, red-fronted, and orange-billed lorikeets and the double-eyed fig parrot [Psitteuteles goldiei, Trichoglossus haemetodus, Charmosyna placentis & runbronotata, Neosittacus pullicauda & Cyclopsitta diopthalma]

   sasibi – northern cassowary; a black cassowary with a helmet-like part on its head [Casuarius unappendiculatus]

   sibap – cassowary, a large flightless bird

   sololo Pacific black duck that lives in ponds [Anas superciliosa]

   somseleleng – rufous-bellied kookaburra [Dacelo gaudichaud]; hooded monarch [Monarcha manadensis]

   songak mii brown sicklebill [Epimachus meyeri]

   soodang yup – singing and metallic starlings [Aplonis cantoroides & metallica]

   taga – yellow-legged brush-turkey [Talegalla fuscirostris]

   tampalangan – chestnut-backed, brown-capped, spotted and blue jewel-babblers [Ptilorrhoa castanonotus, geislerorum, leucisticta & caerulescens]

   tantian – spangled drongo [Dicrurus bracteatus]

   tatalak yupadmiralty pied monarch [Monarcha infelix]

   tataluklarge-tailed nightjar [Caprimulgus macrurus]

   tibitetet mountain, black-backed and rusty mouse-warblers and the pale-billed, Papuan, large, Beccari's, buff-face and grey-green scrub-wrens [Crateroscelis robusta, nigrorufa murina; Sericornis spilodera, papuensis, nouuysi, beccarii, perspicillatus & arfakianus]

   tintongwillie wagtail [Clytomyias insignis]

   totyelengkomok – rainbow bee-eater [Merops ornatus]

   tulum – coroneted and superb fruit-doves [Ptilinopus coronulatus & superbus]

   tuseek white-eared and spotted catbirds [Ailuroedus buccoides & crassirostris]

   uyambalang – swallow

   wiambalang moustached tree-swift [Hemiprocne mystacea]

   wiinsokgrey-headed goshawk [Accipiter poliocephalus]

   yupaacockatoo

   yupkubuli common koel [Eudynamys scolopacea]

   yupkumi – Papuan harrier [Circus spilothorax]

Reptiles

   alimpum large snake, brown in colour, able to eat pigs and kill men

   amenggop – green snake with a white pattern

   dalak small lizard

   gimatsnake

   masabooff-white poisonous snake

   menembualizard

   mindinok – earthworm

   momnakgecko

   mongayang – brown and black snake

   monggomo light brown snake

   saham light brown snake with black mouth and nose

   woonkale – animals which shed their skin: includes snakes, dragonfly, praying mantis, spider, etc.

   yababak light brown or black viper that grows up to 2m in length and eats rats

Insects

   amanggibe small black beetle that lives in the ground

   amongamong honeybee

   bitnam – bee

   dabikangkang – praying mantis

   didaat insect

   digelekcicada

   duamoklarge bee

   faimbadragonfly

   gebelem fly

   gekonandeng

   gibagibaa ant lion

   gilisuutmillipede

   ginok – beetle; grub

   iba – leech

   kabek ant

   kabek topmon kind of ant with a painful bite

   kantak mii large insect with a tree bark-like exoskeleton, resembling a praying mantis

   mandauk spider

   manggabulum kind of large grasshopper

   masisap butterfly

   melemengbrown hairy caterpillar of medium size

   mepmep beetle

   misinakcentipede

   sangafang mosquito

   soon louse

   sup kailong scorpion

   toom grasshopper

   tumun flea

Water creatures

   imiyak eel

   kamakfrog

   muang crab

   mulinsmall fish; tadpole

   siifuk shrimp; crayfish

   talasia – turtle

   weensabunkind of fish

Plants and Parts of Plants ( = fomsaksak)

   babeng – kind of vine

   baadam – type of wild banana

   bop orchid

   dabionge red appendage hanging down on a banana plant

   dabungdabung – kind of plant with red flowers

   danggulakkind of non-edible cane

   dekdalekfern

   digongdik shrub, commonly used to make pig enclosures

   dongga kind of shrub

   dooleroot

   faan cane

   fomsakgomon plant with purplish leaves and small white flowers

   fop – plant

   fopsak – non-edible tree leaves

   fua kind of reed used as an arrow shaft

   galasi grass

   godofe outer layer of a banana, pandanus or betelnut stalk

   goloo – plant shoot

   inimbu kind of grass, used in traditional dances

   kadang bamboo

   kafele large tree fork

   kaluu seedling

   kanak hibiscus

   kangkasing thorn

   kayabuk – kind of plant

   kokbede – kind of grass

   kudipwild betelnut

   kungkaangi – small branches

   malengkind of vine with thorns

   mambinamwild taro plant

   mangkaleshrub whose sap produces sores when in contact with skin

   membele trunk

   mentebengkind of vine

   mintelengkind of plant used in fence building and as posts for houses

   mufupandanus

   nampaksap from the breadfruit tree

   ololoni flower

   palangka stick

   sak – leaf

   salaa leaf

   salading fern

   suhuluk – kind of fern

   suup wild cane, used in flooring

   taba palm used for making bows and house posts

   taba large main branch on a tree

   tabanini small tree branch

   tafalang kind of grass; cogon; alang-alang grass

   temek banana leaf

   tomatogomon – poinsettia [Euphorbia pulcherrima]

   uulikind of scratchy grass

   watnuknut

   wodenweed

   wogen kind of grass

   wot stinging nettle plant

Edible Plants

   afak coconut

   ayo kind of banana that is eaten cooked

   ayongpapaya

   bainap pineapple

   banakeng – pumpkin

   batete – potato

   bilini edible part of a tree or plant, such as yams, coconuts, oranges, etc.

   bodong – betelnut; the seed of the fruit of the betel palm

   dafungeng – kind of yam with white flesh

   fidim edible wild cane grass

   fomsak edible leaves

   galippeanut

   geetbanana, generic term

   guselen – round, white wild yam

   ibapgomon – kind of yam with light purple flesh

   kafek – bean

   kafugek – kind of yam with white flesh

   kamun – cucumber

   kat betel pepper

   katemkind of edible greens

   kokonekkind of short cucumber

   kudaamango

   kuktaun – long slender banana usually eaten raw

   kumbung – cassava

   kumit – fruit from the pandanus plant

   kwek – sweet potato, generic term [Ipomea]

   macround taro

   meneyaula – long white wild yam

   miimyit – kind of banana which can be eaten cooked or uncooked when ripe

   saatginger

   sakokind of edible greens; choko

   samongkind of banana that is usually eaten cooked

   sanggom corn

   salading fern

   seben – kind of wild yam with a yellow meat

   singgapu – Singapore taro

   suhuluk – kind of fern

   toot yam, generic term

   tutung large round wild yam with white meat

   wop edible cane grass

   yabutmushroom

Kinds of Trees ( = fop)

   balabek – kind of tree with distinctive red leaves

   bom – kind of tree characterised by pairs of opposing edible leaves [Gnetum gnemon]

   bumam – kind of tree with leaves that cause prolonged intense itching and pain

   fufulusu kind of tree with white trumpet-like flowers

   gektale short tree species

   gifom kind of strong tree that bears capped fruit

   gimam kind of tree: breadfruit [Artocarpus altilis]

   ginduk - kind of tree: casuarina

   idam kind of tree which has yellow leaves during dry season (May to August)

   kalukakind of tree whose roots are used in flooring houses

   kangitree that is bent as a spring for a trap

   kone kind of tree which traditionally marks the beginning of planting season when the leaves fall and new shoots turn red

   kusipkind of tree used in house building for making studs and planks. The cooked bark is used to reduce swelling.

   kwali kind of tree whose bark is placed in running water for treatment of scabies

   libiskind of tree which provides shade in coffee gardens

   meneng

   mungguli kind of tree used for house building

   sawokind of tree used in making fences

   tekbam kind of tree with leaves and white sticky juice, similar to breadfruit

   wagem kind of tree used in making hourglass drums

   wodang kind of tree whose leaves cause intense prolonged itching and pain

Traditional Counting System

   (The modern counting system goes up through five. Some alternates are listed.)

   1 kobo/kobolak – one

   2 ilambok/yale – two

   3 yalekobo – two and one

   4 yaleyale – two and two

   5 menggonggom five

   6 menggonggom kait kusani kobolak five hand side one

   7 menggonggom kait kusani ilambok five hand side two

   8 menggonggom kait kusani yalekobo five hand side three

   9 menggonggom kait kusani yaleyale five hand side four

   10 kait (kusani) fengge both (sides) hands

   11 kait fengge kolong nanaa kobolakboth hands one toe

   12 kait fengge kolong nanaa ilambok both hands two toes

   13 kait fengge kolong nanaa yalekobo both hands three toes

   14 kait fengge kolong nanaa yaleyale both hands four toes

   15 kait fengge kolong nanaa menggonggom – both hands five toes

   16 kait fengge kolong nanaa menggonggom kobolakboth hands six toes

   17 kait fengge kolong nanaa menggonggom ilambokboth hands seven toes

   18 kait fengge kolong nanaa menggonggom yalekoboboth hands eight toes

   19 kait fengge kolong nanaa menggonggom yaleyaleboth hands nine toes

   20kait fengge ilambok – both hands two

   20 kait kolong fengge both hands both legs

   30 kait fengge yalekobo – both hands three

   40 kait fengge yaleyale – both hands four

   40 ama ilambok kanen kait kolong fengge two men's hands and legs

   50 kait fengge menggonggom – five both hands

Carry Verbs ( = bibili)

   babalembili – carry (someone or something) in arms in the front

   bok – carry (someone or something) resting on top of shoulders

   dablimbili – carry on top of one shoulder

   dodo carry on shoulders and waist, like a backpack or child

   doombili command to be carried on the back

   fiimbili carry away with the wind

   kasii carry on a stick over the shoulder

   manbiligekucarry a message

   mantalanganecarry something over the head on the shoulder like a purse

   mepmetcarry on the head, as in a net bag

   saambili carry one object using one's mouth

   samanganecarry on one's side or hip

   tagek carry on shoulder, like a purse

   takambili – carry something heavy on a stick between two people

   tiitbilicarry in hand

   ulabembilicarry on back over shoulder

   usaambilicarry away by water

   yufutbili carry impaled on a stick

Sounds ( = mumuni)

   denempapak noise of someone chopping a tree

   kainganimal noise

   nanangmumunoise made by eating

   ngululung sound, often associated with thunder

   pampan noise made when breaking something, like a stick

   papak clap

   peleletnoise a small animal makes when running

   plokploknoise a chicken makes

   pupupsound made to call a chicken

   susuak whistle

   woomsound an angry pig makes