Kashaya - English


a


-aavsfxFactual Evidential: used for imperfective or uncompleted actions being watched by the speaker; also for facts or general truths which are known by everybody to be true, whether or not the action has actually been seen by the speakeroften followed by responsive (as /-a-m/) or by nonfinal verb marker (as /-w-e·/)
-acʼ1acʼPlural Agent of-ad1DUR
-acʼ2acʼPlural Agent of-ad2alonghither
-acʼacʼacʼacʼPlural Agent of-adadLOC.n.mvmtLOC.mvmtLOC.stat
-acʼicacʼicPlural Agent of-aducfar away
-ad1advsfxDurative: frequently translated with a progressive in English, or with the phrase "keep on doing"following a consonantPlural Agent-acʼ1dur.*baʔkʼoyadspeak in a scattered way*biʔkʼoyadeat scattered, small pieces of foodeat a snack (eat small amounts, pieces)*caʔkʼoyadcut a few scattered objects*dakʼoladpet*doʔkʼoyadpick up scattered objects (can be scattered abstract entities as well)*hqaladobey a rule or law; abstain (from food), fast, diet; follow restrictiondir.*batʼa·dsound be approaching; hear a sound when it is not there*ca·dfly alongunspec. comp. form*bola·tad1*hihkohihkotad*kʼola·tad*pihlipilitad*šoʔpʼošopʼotad*ʔaca·cʼama·tad*ʔbola·tad*pʰuʔsʼawadplur.vbreak lots*daʔkʼoyaddur.vbe acting on a few ungrouped or scattered objects with the hand*diʔkʼoyaddur.vfall on a few scattered objects [?]*miʔkʼoyaddur.vsmell here and there, smell a few scattered objects*pʰiʔkʼoyaddur.vchop here and there with an axe, chop a few scattered objects*qahcawaddur.veat one thing with another*qaʔdi·ndur.vbite??*sikʼo·yaddur.vbe rocking or swaying (of a drunk person, or a baby)*sikʼoyanʔqacaus.vrock a baby*šaʔkʼoyaddur.vcatch a few scattered (fish, leaves, etc.) with a net*šoʔkʼoyaddur.vcatch a few scattered (fish) with a line
-ad2adv > vsfx1Directional: along2Directional: toward here (in imperatives)Plural Agent-acʼ2dist.*bide·nʔwadcarry a bunch here and there, all over, all around*cakʰe·nʔwadmove, scoot around on one's butt or rear end*cukʰe·nʔwadpush something arround with a handle or by holding a small part of the larger object, such as of a wheelbarrow*cʰide·nʔwadcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing here and there, all over, all around; drag; lead by the hand*dade·nʔwadcarry, move a heavy object here and there, all over, all around*dakʰe·nʔwadpush, move something around with the hand*dide·nʔwadfall floating here and there (as a feather would do)*dikʰe·nʔwadfall slowly; walk slowly, especially if leaning on something to support self*dukʰe·nʔwadmove or push something around with the finger, such as setting an analog clock*hikʰe·nʔwad(someone to) move self, body around*mikʰe·nʔwadmove something around with the foot, such as by kicking*mukʰe·nʔwadmove car around; drive around in car*ne·nʔwadtune*side·nʔwadone float or sail here and there, all over, all around*šude·nʔwadlead one (person, animal) here and there, all over, all around; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·nʔwadpull, drag something arounddir.*bane·dthrow object to locationmove object to location*basa·dmove or push several objects along with snout (of an animal)*baye·dsend someone along with instructions; tell (a blind person) which way to go*bisa·dcarry several long objects in the arms along, in one directionbring several long objects in the arms toward here*biye·dwalk along while holding something in one's arms, or while hugging someone*casa·dpush along several objects by backing up (either with one’s own body or with a machine such as a car)*caye·dpush or move something along with the shoulders, with something massive, whether slow or fast*cikʰe·dmove, push something along by holding a smaller part of the large object, such as a handle*cisa·dcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things along, in one direction; drag; lead by the handbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things toward here; drag; lead by the hand*co·dliquid or other shapeless substance move within a container(several) swim*cukʰe·dcarry or move something along by holding a handle or a smaller part of a larger object*cusa·dseveral people float along, be pushed along by the front end (of a bulldozer, etc.)*cuye·dwalk along while holding something with a round object or with the front end*cuʔbucubu·dgo along bumping into unseen obstacles while trying find them (a blind person, or someone moving in the dark)*cʰide·dcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing along, in one direction; drag; lead by the handbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing toward here; drag; lead by the hand*cʰiye·dmove something toward oneself, or walk along while moving something, by means of a holding handle*dade·dcarry, move something heavy along (in one direction)bring, carry, move something heavy toward herewave to move along*dakʰe·dpush something along or around with the hand*dasa·dcarry, move several heavy objects along, in one directionbring, carry, move several heavy objects toward here*daye·dpush along using the hand*de·dfollow; trail, follow tracks*dide·dfall along floating*dihtadcarry several nonlong objects along (in one direction)bring several nonlong objects toward here*disa·dseveral objects fall along floating*dukʰe·dpush, move, or slide something along or toward here, using the finger, such as setting the time on an analog clock or opening curtains*dusa·dpush several objects along with the finger*duye·dmove something along using the fingers; steer a car or other vehicle; lead, guide (a blind person, or something that can’t do it itself)*hade·dmove something along with footmove self along with wings*hasa·dmove several objects along with the footseveral move along with wings*haye·dmove along with the foot pressed on something, such as riding in a car with the foot propped up*hiba·dgo along for food, implying the search is for deer or other prey that moves*hikʰe·d(entire body) move along; (skill) to increase*hisa·dpush several objects with body*hiye·dmove along with the body, while pressing the body against something or someone*hqa·dmove straight along lengthwise; weave a straight lattice weave (not a Kashaya style)*hšiṭʰadlook for, search for*hya·dblow, be blowing: said of the wind*masa·dcarry several objects along in the claws, as a hawk would a fish*maye·dmove along or with the foot, move while holding something with the foot*mica·dthrow several hither*mikʰe·dmove something along by pushing or kicking it with the foot*misa·dmove several objects along with the toe; move several objects along by kickingclouds move along*mitadthrow or move several objects toward here, one after another; throw off the ground*mude·dmove along with energy*musa·dmove several objects along with energy [?]*pasa·dmove several objects along with the end of a long object (such as the fist); by wrapping*pe·dflow along*pisa·dseveral watch something go along with the connotation of spying*pusa·dmove several objects along by blowing*pʰade·dmove along one thing with the end of a long object (such as the fist); by wrapping*pʰaye·dmove or push something along, guide or prod an animal, using the end of a long object*pʰiye·dmove or push something along with the side of a long object*qade·dmove something along with the teeth, with the mouth*qahle·dbe getting light, daylight*qaye·dmove something in the teeth; carry something along holding it in the teeth*sikʰe·dmove something along with the tongue or by sucking*siye·dmove while holding something in the mouth by sucking it*šade·dmove something along with a long object moving lengthwise*šasa·dmove several objects along with a long object moving lengthwise*še·dwalk along, walk toward here wearing certain clothes*šiba·dgo along for food, implying the search is for deer or other prey that moves*šude·dlead one (person, animal) along, in one direction; pull (with a rope)lead one (person, animal) toward here; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·dpull something along; move something along by pulling it, such as with a wagon*šusa·dlead several (people, animals) along, in one direction; pull (with a rope)lead several (people, animals) toward here; pull (with a rope)*šuye·dmove or lead an animal, person, or object by pulling, especially of a rope or clothing*tʼo·da cloud move alonga cloud (esp. of fog, dust) move toward here*ṭʰiladgo along stooped*cuhqʰayaddir.vpush something along forward on ground or table*daqʰa·saddir.vnoise of rubbing hand against something*do·ddir.vput hand along*hiqʰa·saddir.vgo along with the body rubbing against (a wall)*miqʰa·saddir.vshuffle feet while walking along, making noise*puhṭi·ddir.vdance around; move around dancing
-adadadadv > vsfx1Locomotory (with non-motion verb): the Agent, while performing the action of the verb, is moving from one place to another, or is intermittently doing so; duplicate use indicates that the movement is definitely intermittent2Locomotory (with motion verb): intermittent movement; duplicant use intensifies this meaning, i.e. it is more intermittent or continues a longer distance3Locomotory (with change of state verb): indicates a steady or gradual change, with no movement impliedPlural Agent-acʼacʼlocom.*maʔkʼuṭʰmakʼuṭʰa·dadbe making crunching sounds from intermittently walking (on leaves, grass, twigs)
-aducaducv > vsfxDirectional: far away in space or time; at a distance, away to a distance, from a distancePlural Agent-acʼicdir.*macica·ducbecome dayqʰa·mosʼ šuṭʰuṭa·ducn.p.nshooting star*ca·ducʰqadir.caus.vpilot an airplane off to a distance*bahcʰiwa·ducdir.vshame, insult, or criticize someone*batʼa·ducdir.vsound remind you of other sound; sound travel far or away*baye·daducdir.Free Variant of*baye·ducwarn, remind when leaving*baye·ducdir.vremind or warn someone of something as they are leaving; send someone away with instructions to be careful or to be good*bayota·ducdir.vto scatter, scare away (sheep, birds) by clapping or yelling; animals scattering food with their mouths*be·ducdir.v-hndcarry a long object far, away to a distance*bida·ducdir.vriver or stream to branch out, extend far*bide·ducdir.v-hndcarry a bunch far, away to a distance*bisa·ducdir.v-hndcarry several long objects in the arms far, away to a distance*cisa·ducdir.v-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things far, away to a distance; drag; lead by the hand*ciwa·ducdir.vswim away*ci·cʼaducdir.vbecome more and more*codo·ducdir.1v-hndcarry far, away to a distance in a container2v-hndcarry far, away to a distance while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or head3v-mvtride a horse far, away to a distance*co·ducdir.vput aside (food in storage), spread (to fill an area)*cusʼuya·ducdir.v1have spread-out corners2corner that is spread outmihca cusʼuya·ducn.p.1adjfour-cornered, having four corners2nsquare or diamond shape*cʰide·ducdir.v-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing far, away to a distance; drag; lead by the hand*dade·ducdir.v-hndcarry, move something heavy far, away to a distance*dahqosʼa·ducdir.vspill and scatter*dakʰe·ducdir.vpush something away, such as a plate unwanted food*damita·ducdir.vthrow away, discard*dasa·ducdir.v-hndcarry, move several heavy objects far, away to a distance*daʔsʼona·ducdir.vpunch to make hole*de·ducdir.vfollow far*diducdir.v-hndcarry a nonlong object far, away to a distance*dihtaducdir.v-hndcarry several nonlong objects far, away to a distance*diya·ducdir.vtell, order, command someone to leave, to go away*dowa·ducdir.vavoid, ignore, shun*do·ducdir.vput hand away (in a hole, where it can’t be seen)*dubila·ducdir.vsend something away, send offcahno dubihladuʔlin.p.ntelegraph*dukʰe·ducdir.vpush something away or move it to the side, using the fingers*duye·ducdir.vguide someone by holding their arm, etc. or steer a car (away, to a distance??)duye·duʔliinstr.nsteering wheel*hikʰe·ducdir.vmove one's body away*hine·ducdir.vbe or go far away*kihla·ducdir.vdisappear (into the distance)*kʼuwa·šaducdir.vfail to arrive or show up, when traveling from some distance; fail to return from a journey*mica·ducdir.vthrow several hence*mikʼila·ducdir.v1indicate the direction of a distant, out-of-sight place by gesturing with the face, chin, and pursed lips2make this gesture used as a means of saying "let's go" to that place*mitaducdir.v-hndthrow several objects away, one after another*mukʰe·ducdir.vmove car away, somewhere else*ne·ducdir.vflop down, fall over [stretched out?]*pisa·ducdir.1v-mvtseveral watch someone leave or go to a far place; several see someone off – not secretly2v-hndmove or hit several objects far away with the side of a long object; bat away several objects*posoṭa·ducdir.vblow away; explode into bits*pʰe·ducdir.vcarry far (person on back)*pʰide·ducdir.1v-mvtwatch someone leave or go to a far place; see someone off – not secretly2v-hndmove or hit something far away with the side of a long object; bat away*pʰoʔbola·ducdir.vwind to blow over (a container) and scatter the contents*qʰaʔawa·ducdir.vmorning arrive*qʼawa·ducdir.vleave something set away; to put away, store away, hide away*sibo·ducdir.v-mvtgroup float or sail far, away to a distance*side·ducdir.v-mvtone float or sail far, away to a distance; sail off, set sail*sihla·ducverb.dir.vgo with flat-face*šeṭʰe·yaducdir.vspread out, make wide*šiba·ducdir.vgo away to the (distant) place where the hunt will be, not hunting untl arriving there*šude·ducdir.v-hndlead one (person, animal) far, away to a distance; pull (with a rope)*šuhkema·ducdir.vnot be heard from*šusa·ducdir.v-hndlead several (people, animals) far, away to a distance; pull (with a rope)*tʼo·ducdir.va cloud (esp. of fog, dust) move away*ṭʰabaducdir.vbe away, absent*ṭʰaba·ducdir.v1come to be in a distant place, not be here anymore2stretch out, extend into the distance*ṭʰaba·ducʰqacaus.v1cause not to be here; fail at doing something2ridicule, show disrepect toward (someone)*ṭʼaya·ducdir.vpour out a liquid to throw it away or get rid of it*wa·ducdir.v-mvtone go far, away to a distance
-ahmucʼahmucʼv > vsfxplural form of the Directional-Distributive suffix combination -ad-wad, indicating movement of several actors "around" or "here and there"occurs in contexts where the Plural form /t/ is not appropriateplur.*duhṭʰalahmucʼquarrel with each other*haʔdahmucʼswap, trade (one or several things), exchange, change, take turnschange into (something different)dist.*duhṭʰalahmucʼquarrel with each other*haʔdahmucʼswap, trade (one or several things), exchange, change, take turnschange into (something different)recip.*maʔdaqʰahmucʼbe married to each other
-alaalav > vsfx1Directional: down, without reference to "here" or "there"2Inceptive: begin an involuntary actn.p.ʔama kʼoṭoca·lawgully, steep and rough bluff where you can't go downabs.ciqʰahlalawsledqasita·lawsoaked and split buckeye nutspref.*dokʼo·yalatip down something long that is standing up, using the fingers*munaca·lastay or leave something behind after a firecaus.*bana·lahqaput downplur.ciqʰahlalawsleddir.*bana·la1put (several) down in*bana·la2throw down*bana·lahqaput down*baṭica·lahang down (such as sash on clothing or body); (of clothing) have vertical stripes*baʔsʼawa·lalowering (of voice)*be·lacarry a long object down*bida·la1carry a bunch down*bida·la2river extend down*bisa·lacarry several long objects in the arms down*cakʼihwalamake cuts downward (when whittling)*ca·lafly down (of bird, airplane, or something thrown from height)(sun) setciqʰahlalawsled*cisa·lacarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things down; drag; lead by the hand*codo·lacarry in a container down; pick up (container) and set lower (or into something)carry down while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse down*co·laset (baby) into (basket); set down (baby in basket)(water) go down*cʰeʔeta·ladip into*cʰida·lacarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing down; drag; lead by the hand*dada·lacarry, move, put something heavy down into somethingbury a person*dasa·lacarry, move, put several heavy objects down into somethingbury several people*da·laextend down*dihtalacarry several nonlong objects down*dikʰe·lasomething to slip or fall downwards and out of place, such as clothes falling off*dikʼe·nalafeel pain (in the throat) from the pressure (of some too big piece of food) moving down*dilacarry a nonlong object down*do·laput hand down*dubila·lasend away*duda·lapush or move down with the fingerload (an arrow in a bow); aim a loaded weapon, ready to shoot*dukʰe·laslide, push, move omething down with the finger(s)*dusa·lapush or move several objects down with the finger*duye·laguide, lead, or hold someone while going down; steer (a car) downhill*duʔkʼuwa·ladestroy, kill all, wipe out*hanaca·la1remain, stay behind, be left behind*hcʰiwa·lakill much game*hikʰe·lamove, slide body down*htalaclimb downput on (legs, feet)*huʔuta·lareach the bottom*huʔuta·lamucʼbe face to face*kʼiši·lamake sound of running water*mitalathrow or put several objects down, one after another*miṭi·calaone lie down between*muda·ladance down (into the dance house)*munaca·lastay or leave something behind after a fire*musukʼa·la(fire) burn down to coals*muʔdiwa·ladiffuse down through*na·laput down (in)*pihciṭa·la(land) drop away perpendicularly or precipitouslysteep (land)*pisa·laseveral watch something go down*pʰe·lacarry (person) down on back*pʰida·lawatch something go downward*pʰiʔduwa·lasee through*qada·la1lower something with the teeth, with the mouth*qadu·lasplice rope or attach new stick in basket making or attach knob to chest*qasa·lalower several objects with the teethqasita·lawsoaked and split buckeye nuts*qʼaca·laleave behind*qʼawa·lato take something down to leave*sibo·lagroup float or sail down*siʔduwa·lasoak down through*šahtalawear (clothes on legs?)*še·lawear (certain clothes) down*šiba·talabody to undergo a changespirit enter body, for a good purpose*šinala·lawash head by ducking it*šuda·lalead one (person, animal) down; pull (with a rope)*šukʼihṭʰalahave deep parallel marks*šunaca·la??*šusa·lalead several (people, animals) down; pull (with a rope)*tʼa·lastart to feel; start to think; have a thought or idea; a thought occurs to (oneself)*ṭʰaba·la(land) slope downward*ṭʼaya·lapour something out so it falls downward into something else; dump something from a container into waterincep.*duʔya·qalastart to think; get an idea*hqala·lastart to obey or follow a rule, restriction, taboo, or law; start to abstain (from food), begin a fast*htena·lacalm down*qahsila·laget coldrecip.*huʔuta·lamucʼbe face to facehisʼu· ṭʰiwi·lawn.p.narrow notch*ciwaladir.vcrawl downciwalawabs.nshirtʔiyow ʔbakʰe ciwalawn.p.nundershirt*dakʼihṭʰaladir.1vhave parallel stripes running downward; have vertical stripes2adjstriped*daqʰa·saladir.vrub the palm of the hand downward (on a wall), producing a sound*daʔṭʼaša·ladir.vpress down with the hand to put into place something that has bent out at a joint; press the lid on a box*da·lahqadir.v-mvt1two (male or female) go down2a few men go down*duʔkʼiya·ladir.vmake a mark with the finger moving downward*hayohmaladir.v-mvtseveral (separately) go down*mohkota·ladir.vburned down to ashes or badly burned (man)*pe·ladir.vflow down*pʰilaladir.v-mvtgroup go down*šokʼo·yaladir.vtip downward something long that is standing up*naʔbaca·laincep.vbecome puzzled, discover one does not know how
-alamecʼalamecʼv > vsfxDirectional: down off of a place, down out of an enclosed areasʼihta qawí yya šaʔáhtala·mecʼe·duhe always takes down small birds (from the tree)ciqʰala·laméʔ tʰinit didn’t drag him off (the horse)dir.*be·lamecʼcarry a long object down off of*bida·lamecʼcarry a bunch down off of, take down from a high place*bisa·lamecʼcarry several long objects in the arms down off of somewhere*cisa·lamecʼcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things down off of; drag; lead by the hand*codo·lamecʼcarry down off of in a containercarry down off of while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse down off of*cʰida·lamecʼcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing down off of; drag; lead by the hand*cʰula·lamed(water) drain out, down, away*dada·lamecʼcarry, move something heavy down off of*dasa·lamecʼcarry, move several heavy objects down off of somewhere*dihtala·mecʼcarry several nonlong objects down off of*dilamecʼcarry a nonlong object down off of*dukʰe·lamecʼsome quantity to undergo a decrease or be lowered; also applies to other decreasing, such as in crochet*hikʰe·lamecʼmove body down off, out of something*htala·mecʼclimb down from, climb back down; take foot down from*pe·lamecʼ(water) flow down and outdroop, sag (of a face or flower)droopy, saggy (face, flower)*sibo·lamecʼgroup float or sail down off of*sida·lamecʼone float or sail down off of*šuda·lamecʼlead one (person, animal) down off of; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·lamecʼpull down, bend towards, off of something*šusa·lamecʼlead several (people, animals) down off of; pull (with a rope)*šuʔtʼeya·lamecʼpull down (on a tree branch); grab (hair) and pull (neck) down*dala·mecʼqadir.v-mvt1two (male or female) go down off of2a few men go down off of*hayohmala·mecʼdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) go down off of*mala·lamecʼverb.dir.v(year) endʔama malala·meʔn.p.nend of year (beginning of winter)*na·lamecʼdir.1vfall down, collapse2v-hndtake out of*pʰilala·mecʼdir.v-mvtgroup go down off of*wala·mecʼdir.v-mvtone go down off of
-aloqaloqv > vsfxDirectional: up toward here, moving upward and in this directionmu·kito hásima ʔuhwa hla· baṭica·loʔhis whiskers were lying stretched up out (of the cave)dir.*bana·loqregurgitate; throw food up; food come back up*be·loqbring a long object up to here*bida·loqbring a bunch up to here*bisa·loqbring several long objects in the arms up toward here*cisa·loqbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things up toward here; drag; lead by the hand*ciwoloqcrawl upbulge out*codo·loqbring up to here in a containerbring up to here while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse up to here*coloq(water in container) rise up towards speaker*cʰida·loqbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing up toward here; drag; lead by the hand*dada·loqbring, carry, move something heavy up to here*dasa·loqbring, carry, move several heavy objects up toward here*dihtaloqbring several nonlong objects up to here*diloqcarry, bring a nonlong object in the hand up toward here*htaloqclimb up here*huʔuta·loqclimb to top, appear at top, mount*hyawa·loqvomit up once, throw up once*mitaloqthrow or put several objects up toward here, one after another*moloq(food) run (short)*qahleloqget or become light, daylight*qaloqthrow, jump up hither ?*sibo·loqgroup float or sail up to here*šuda·loqlead one (person, animal) up toward here; pull (with a rope)*šusa·loqlead several (people, animals) up toward here; pull (with a rope)*caloqdir.v1 rise (of the sun or stars)2fly up toward here (of bird, airplane)haʔda caloʔcomp.nsunrise*da·lohqadir.v-mvt1two (male or female) come up to here2a few men come up to here*hayohmaloqdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) come up to here*sida·loqdir.v-mvtone float or sail up to here; (boat) to land*tʼoloqdir.v(fog) move this way, up toward here*woloqdir.1v-mvtone come up to here2vrun out-aloqocʼunspec. comp. formv > vsfxDirectional + Reflexive: up and out of; no meaning of "hither" as found in -aloq by itself*dalo·qocʼqadir.v-mvt1two (male or female) come up out of2a few men come up out of*hayohmalo·qocʼdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) come up out of*lowa·loqocʼdir.vget free from being tied up, from jail, from loose clothing, or from obligations*pʰilolo·qocʼ2dir.v-mvtgroup come up out of*qʰadaloqocʼdir.vcall, summon someone out here*qʼa·waloqocʼdir.vload up (a vehicle)*wolo·qocʼdir.v-mvtone come up out of
-aloqocʼaloqocʼv > vsfxDirectional + Reflexive: up and out of; no meaning of "hither" as found in -aloq by itselfUnspecified Complex Form of-aloq-icʼ2abs.šusʼihwalo·qoʔsuspendersdir.*be·loqocʼbring a long object up out of*bida·loqocʼbring a bunch up out of*bisa·loqocʼbring several long objects in the arms up out of somewhere*cikʰe·loqocʼpull something out or off, especially with a handle or by holding a smaller part of the larger object*cisa·loqocʼbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things up out of; drag; lead by the hand*ciwolo·qocʼcrawl up out of*codo·loqocʼbring up out of in a containerbring up out of while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse up out of, toward here*cʰida·loqocʼbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing up out of; drag; lead by the hand*dada·loqocʼbring, carry, move something heavy up out of*dasa·loqocʼbring, carry, move several heavy objects up out of somewhere*dihtalo·qocʼbring several nonlong objects up out of*diloqocʼbring a nonlong object up out of*hida·loqocʼput out of business*htalo·qocʼclimb up out of*sibo·loqocʼgroup float or sail up out of*sida·loqocʼone float or sail up out of*šuda·loqocʼlead one (person, animal) up out of; pull (with a rope)*šusa·loqocʼlead several (people, animals) up out of; pull (with a rope)šusʼihwalo·qoʔsuspendersrefl.*ciwolo·qocʼcrawl up out of*dalo·qocʼqadir.v-mvt1two (male or female) come up out of2a few men come up out of*hayohmalo·qocʼdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) come up out of*lowa·loqocʼdir.vget free from being tied up, from jail, from loose clothing, or from obligations*pʰilolo·qocʼ2dir.v-mvtgroup come up out of*qʰadaloqocʼdir.vcall, summon someone out here*qʼa·waloqocʼdir.vload up (a vehicle)*wolo·qocʼdir.v-mvtone come up out of
-amam1n > vsfxbecome what the root noun denotes2adj > vsfxbecome what the root adjective denotesadded to many nouns and adjectives, but not freelyincep.*balayam(eyes) become bloodshot; something become bloody?verb.*baʔcʼalamget, become unlucky*buṭucambecome thin, skinny*kʼanasambecome sick, sickenṭʰalimbecome clear (of water)*ʔahqolamgrow tall (of person)*ʔapʰa·tamrust (of iron)rustrusty*cʰiʔbulamverb.1vbecome a cobweb2ncobweb
-aq1aq1v > vsfxDirectional: out from here2v > vsfxDirectional: north or west from here3sfxINCHn.p.cohšo dohtaqglovesabs.pʰeʔcʼenaqbonnet with visorporch, overhangpʰiʔtʼutaqcap with visor; baseball capcaus.*cahkʰohqacatch with a shinny bat; catch something falling in basket, box, etc.*mica·hqacause to fall offIdiom (based on English ?) to take alcoholic drinks*mo·hqadrive; drive and stopdir.*bahqʰoʔmacʼaqinsult someone; be insulted; be an insult*bakʼumaqtalk to one’s limit, get tired of talking*bana·qswing, throw out, fall outa swingthrow out*bašudaqbe unable to understand words; (something) to sound unfair*batʼacʼaq(water) be still or calm, unmoving*be·qcarry a long object out from here, awaycarry a long object north or west from here*bida·q2carry a bunch out from here, awaycarry a bunch north or west from here*bisa·qcarry several long objects in the arms out from here, go awaycarry several long objects in the arms north or west from here*biʔdaqgive several*cadutaqʷlook at or notice while you are coming out of somewhere*cisa·qcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things out from here, go away; drag; lead by the handcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things north or west from here; drag; lead by the hand*ciwaqcrawl out herecrawl into (a skin)*codo·qcarry out from here, away in a containercarry north or west from here in a containercarry out from here, away while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headcarry north or west from here while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse out from here, awayride a horse north or west from here*cuda·qfloat out or downriver from here; float from here toward the north or west*cuduwaqbe straight, whether up, down, or horizontalstraight, perpendicular, vertical, upright*cusʼuyaq(table, etc.) have a corner, become pointeda corner*cʰida·qcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing out from here, go away; drag; lead by the handcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing north or west from here; drag; lead by the hand*cʰula·qwater recede after collecting from rain, etc.*dada·qcarry, move something heavy out from here, awaycarry, move something heavy north or west from here*dakʰeṭaqdeal (cards)*damitaqthrow out*dasa·qcarry, move several heavy objects out from here, awaycarry, move several heavy objects north or west from here*dihtaqcarry several nonlong objects out from here, go awaycarry several nonlong objects north or west from here*diqcarry a nonlong object out from here, awaycarry a nonlong object north or west from here*do·qhold arm straight out (any direction)*duhṭʰalaqhurt someone*dukʰe·qpush or shove something away, to the side, especially with the fingers*duye·qguide (a person) out from here; steer (a car) out from here, or to the north or west*hiba·qgo west for food, implying it is for mussels, abalone or other sea food*hikʰe·qʷmove body out, north, or west*hipawaqthe body to fill (a doorway) going through, barely to fit through*hloqfall off oflose (weight)*hseyaqcover, spread over*htaqstretch out leg; foot be stretched out; wear on foot [?]put on leg or foot*mica·hqacause to fall offIdiom (based on English ?) to take alcoholic drinks*mica·qthrow several out; throw bunch (of sticks) at open place*mitaqthrow out several objects, one after another*mo·hqadrive; drive and stop*muʔsʼaṭaqpart of body, a limb to go to sleep*na·qput, throw out, outsidefall [?]*nisa·tahmucʼget divorced*pe·qliquid spread out from here*pušutaqend*pʰaʔsʼulaqwrap up, swaddle (only for baby, for carrying in papoose)pʰeʔcʼenaqbonnet with visorporch, overhangpʰiʔtʼutaqcap with visor; baseball cap*pʰobošaqblow up (balloon)*pʰudutaqblow out, into something, such as through a straw*qabošaqpuff out the cheeks*qa·qlong object to move through the air, lengthwiseput a long object (stick, baseball bat) in a sack*sibo·qgroup float or sail out from here, float or sail awaygroup float or sail north or west from here*sida·qone float or sail out from here, float or sail awayone float or sail north or west from here*sikuṭaqget dizzy, become dizzy*šadaqtake out in straight motion [?]be a ridge extending northward or westward*šaqacʼwear (one thing), be wrapped by (blanket)*ša·qto go with clothes (out or North or West)*šuda·qlead one (person, animal) out from here, go away; pull (with a rope)lead one (person, animal) north or west from here; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·qpull or push something out or away*šusa·qlead several (people, animals) out from here, go away; pull (with a rope)lead several (people, animals) north or west from here; pull (with a rope)*ṭʼaya·qpour out, throw out by pouring*ʔo·qpeep outrefl.*šaqacʼwear (one thing), be wrapped by (blanket)recip.*nisa·tahmucʼget divorcedverb.*pušutaqend*bida·q1dir.v(water) flow northwest*hayohmaqdir.v-mvt1several (separately) go out from here, go away2several (separately) go north or west from here*pihcipici·qfreq.dir.v-redhoe (a field) with repeated chopping motions*pʰilaqdir.v-mvt1group go out from here, go away2group go north or west from here*pʰiṭʼemaqdir.veyes get tired of something; tired of looking at something*waqdir.v-mvt1one go out from here, go away2one go north or west from here*wahqacaus.vswallow
-aq2aqn-kin > vsfx1address by this kinship term2acknowledge this kinship relation3come to the state indicated by the rootdir.*sima·qbe asleep, go to sleep
-aq3aqvsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with a few stems ending in /l/; sometimes causes deletion of an increment in the root
-aqacaqacv > vsfxDirectional: up from hereplur.*dusʼuhyaqacdiamond (suit in cards)dir.*bana·qacthrow something upwardstake last breath, pass on, die*be·qaccarry a long object up from here, take uphill*bida·qaccarry a bunch up from here*bisa·qaccarry several long objects in the arms up from here*cikʰe·qacdrag up from here, especially with a handle or smaller part of the larger object*cisa·qaccarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things up from here; drag; lead by the hand*ciwaqaccrawl up*codo·qaccarry in a container up from here; push up (in swing)carry up from here while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse up from here*co·qacput a container of water or other shapeless substance up onto a surface*cukʰe·qaccarry something upwards by holding a handle or other smaller part of a larger object*cʰida·qaccarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing up from here; drag; lead by the hand*dada·qaccarry, move something heavy up from here*dasa·qaccarry, move several heavy objects up from here*dihtaqaccarry several nonlong objects up from here*diqaccarry a nonlong object up from here*dusʼuhyaqacdiamond (suit in cards)*hida·qacfigure out (a problem)*hihmu·laqacbe leftover*miṭi·caqacone extend or stretch upward*moqʰo·taqacraise knee or move knee upwards*na·qacput or throw something up from here*pihciṭa·qac(land) rise perpendicularly*pisa·qacseveral watch something go upward*pʰe·qaccarry (a child) up on back*pʰida·qacwatch something go upward*qa·qacput something long all the way through, lengthwise*qʼaca·qacleave things at a place up*qʼawa·qacleave things at a place up*sibo·qacgroup float or sail up from here*sida·qacone float or sail up from here*sikʼalsikʼahlaqaclights repeatedly fading moving upward*siqʰala·qacexpire, pass away, give up dying breath; doze off*soʔola·qacspoil*šadaqactake out*šuda·qaclead one (person, animal) up from here; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·naqacsigh; draw a deap breath, inhale deeply*šusa·qaclead several (people, animals) up from here; pull (with a rope)*tʼoqaca cloud (of fog, dust, etc.) move up and awayfreq.*sikʼalsikʼahlaqaclights repeatedly fading moving upward*ca·qacdir.vfly up*hayohmaqacdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) go up from here*huʔuta·qacdir.v1surmount, reach the top2look upward*mala·qacverb.dir.vbecome new yearʔama mala·qacn.p.nbeginning of yearʔama mala·qaʔ macin.p.nNew Year's Day*mitaqacdir.v-hndthrow, toss, or put several objects upward, one after another*pʰilaqacdir.v-mvtgroup go up from here
-aqocʼaqocʼv > vsfxDirectional + Reflexive: out from here, with no cardinal direction meaningUnspecified Complex Form of-aqʷ-icʼ2dir.*bida·qocʼcarry a bunch out from here*bisa·qocʼcarry several long objects in the arms out from here*cisa·qocʼcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things out from here; drag; lead by the hand*ciwoqocʼcrawl out from here*coto·qocʼstick out backwards*cʰeʔeta·qocʼput spoonful in mouth; take a taste of*cʰida·qocʼcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing out from here; drag; lead by the hand*cʰila·qocʼtake something out of something else by removing it in an upwards direction or picking it up in an unspecified manner*dada·qocʼcarry, move a heavy object from out of here; take out from inside*dasa·qocʼcarry, move several heavy objects out from here*diqocʼcarry, take, move a nonlong object out from here*duda·qocʼmove something out with the fingerput (food) into one's mouth *dukʰe·qocʼput off; push away with finger*dusa·qocʼmove or push several objects out with the finger*kacʰiwa·qocʼput head facing down*mo·qocʼrun out of (something)*na·qocʼput out hence; project, stick outprojecting, sticking out*sibo·qocʼgroup sail or float out from here*šuda·qocʼlead one (person, animal) out from here; pull (with a rope)*šuhkʰe·qocʼmove something by pulling it out of where it is*šusa·qocʼlead several (people, animals) out from here; pull (with a rope)*taqocʼmove one's foot out from here; put foot out, move foot backwards from point of referencerefl.*duda·qocʼmove something out with the fingerput (food) into one's mouth *hayohmaqocʼdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) go out from here (without reference to cardinal direction)*sida·qocʼdir.v-mvtone sail or float out from here
-aqʷaqʷv > vsfx1Directional: out toward here2Directional: north or west toward here; from the south or eastdir.*ba·qʷbring a long object outbring a long object northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east*bida·qʷbring a bunch outbring a bunch northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east*bisa·qʷbring several long objects in the arms out toward herebring several long objects in the arms northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east*cisa·qʷbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things out toward here; drag; lead by the handbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east; drag; lead by the hand*ciwoqcrawl, swim out from here*codo·qʷbring out in a containerbring northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east in a containerbring out while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headbring northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse out toward hereride a horse northward or westward to here, ride a horse from the south or east*cʰida·qʷbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing out toward here; drag; lead by the handbring (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east; drag; lead by the hand*dada·qʷbring, carry, move something heavy outbring, carry, move something heavy northward or westward to here, from the south or east*dasa·qʷbring, carry, move several heavy objects out toward herebring, carry, move several heavy objects northward or westward to here, from the south or east*dihtaqʷbring several nonlong objects outbring several nonlong objects northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east*diqʷbring a nonlong object out toward herebring a nonlong object northward or westward to here, bring from the south or east*sibo·qʷgroup float or sail out towards heregroup float or sail northward or westward to here, from the south or east*sida·qʷone float or sail out towards hereone float or sail northward or westward to here, from the south or east*šuda·qʷlead one (person, animal) out toward here; pull (with a rope)lead one (person, animal) northward or westward to here, from the south or east; pull (with a rope)*šusa·qʷlead several (people, animals) out toward here; pull (with a rope)lead several (people, animals) northward or westward to here, from the south or east; pull (with a rope)*hayohmaqʷdir.v-mvt1several (separately) come out2several (separately) come south or east to here, come from the north or west*pʰiloqdir.v-mvt1group come out2group come northward or westward to here, come from the south or east*woqdir.v-mvt1one come out toward here2one come northward or westward to here, come from the south or eastwoqolliloc.nplace where water comes out but does not flow away; a spring-aqocʼunspec. comp. formv > vsfxDirectional + Reflexive: out from here, with no cardinal direction meaning*hayohmaqocʼdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) go out from here (without reference to cardinal direction)*sida·qocʼdir.v-mvtone sail or float out from here
-atatvsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with some stems ending in /l/ or /n/; must be followed by the Durative /ad/unspec. comp. form*kʼola·tad*ʔaca·cʼama·tad*ʔbola·tad*bola·tad1unspec. comp. formPlural of*bo·lmake hole
-ataqataqsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with a few stems ending in /l/; sometimes causes deletion of an increment in the root
-ayayv > vsfxDirectional: against, next to, atph. v.*ʔdu·cicʼayknow what to do (about a situation)abs.pʰiṭʼahšayʔlihammerpref.*muʔkʼucaydry hard and adhere to something(of food) burned and stuck on pot*pihpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with side of instrument(chopping with an axe, hitting with stick)smlf.*tʼacaybutt something against; one thing against another; touch againstcaus.qapʰuhta·qa·lisprayer (for insecticide)dir.*bahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish telling (a story that is too long)*bane·yput item on self*baʔkʼuyaynod the head toward someone (in greeting)*baʔqʼacaymake secure with words, ask someone to look after something*baʔtʼenayhave name or be named (surname, not first name); name be assigned or attached*bicʼulaycall to someone distant; holler at someone*bihpʰuṭaybe unable to lift with arms*bitʼenaysew pieces of cloth or skin together, attaching at edges [?]*biʔdicaybear another man's child while staying with husband*biʔṭʼawaymucʼget close to each other, huddle together for warmth; make a seam?; hug together*buʔsʼunaymake kissing noise*cahnowaysing over (for protection from enemy or from breaking taboo)*cunacaygather or pile items near or against something*cune·wayjoin againstjoint*cʰitʼenaypatch, graft onto, attach*dakʼanayfrom pushing to be leaning against*daʔṭʼawaypress against something with the hand, and break it*doʔolaygive good luck togood luck charm*duʔṭʼašaymucʼjoin objects together*duʔṭʼawayhold against*hcowayhold or place something in front of someone, especially of food*micaythrow several (sticks) against (something)*mitahwaythrow several objects (such as sticks) against, one after another*muʔkʼucaydry hard and adhere to something(of food) burned and stuck on pot*pihpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with side of instrument(chopping with an axe, hitting with stick)*puhkʰewaymove something away or against by blowing*pʰaʔṭʼawaytie onpʰiṭʼahšayʔlihammerqapʰuhta·qa·lisprayer (for insecticide)*šuʔdiwayintroduce to someone*šuʔtʼenayfasten pieces together by tying*tʼacaybutt something against; one thing against another; touch against*ṭʰeyaywrap (someone else) in cloth, etc.; spread (apron) on somebody else or over the side of something*ṭʼayaypour (something) onto (an object or surface); water a plant (pour water onto plant)*ʔbewayhold a long object against*ʔṭʼašaystick together firmlyrecip.*biʔṭʼawaymucʼget close to each other, huddle together for warmth; make a seam?; hug together*duʔṭʼašaymucʼjoin objects togetherinstr.pʰiṭʼahšayʔlihammerqapʰuhta·qa·lisprayer (for insecticide)*dahpʰuṭaydir.vbe unable to finish (washing clothes) with hands*dihpʰuṭaydir.vbe unable to get up; have to keep lying down*duhpʰuṭaydir.vbe unable to finish with fingers*duʔtʼenaydir.vfit together, attach, with the fingerdutʼehnayʔabs.npot-holder*mahpʰuṭaydir.vbe unable to finish walking a certain distance*miʔkanaydir.vnod head to someone in greeting*miʔkʼanaydir.vtilt the nose or chin towards, nod in greeting*pʰaʔtʼenaydir.vmix with stick*pʰaʔtʼenaymucʼrecip.vmix together with a stick*qahpʰuṭaydir.vbe unable to finish eating*sihpʰuṭaydir.vbe unable to finish drinking*siʔkʼucaydir.vcling to when wet*tʼo·ydir.vget (wind) of someone, catch someone's scent or aroma
-aʔyawaʔyawv > adjsfxcreates an adjective from a verb stem*mušucʼaʔyawcomp.adjlaughable, very funnymokʼocʼaʔyawcomp.adjamazing, thought by everyone to be able to do feats (good or bad) nearly impossible for othersʔilacaʔyawcomp.adjdisliked (place or person)hikʼo·cʼ aʔyawder.adjrespected by all, universally respected; the most respected