Kashaya - English


a


-aavFactual Evidential: used for imperfective or uncompleted actions being watched by the speaker; also for facts or general truths which are known by everybody to be true, whether or not the action has actually been seen by the speakerCompare-doHSY-innaAUD-qa1CIRC-yaVISoften followed by responsive (as /-a-m/) or by nonfinal verb marker (as /-w-e·/)
-acʼ1acʼPlural Agent of-ad1DUR
-acʼ2acʼPlural Agent of-ad2along hither
-acʼacʼacʼacʼPlural Agent of-adadLOC.n.mvmt LOC.mvmt LOC.stat
-acʼicacʼicPlural Agent of-aducfar
-ad1advDurative: frequently translated with a progressive in English, or with the phrase "keep on doing"Synonym-cidDUR-edDUR-idDUR-medDUR-ucedDUR-wad2DURPlural Agent-acʼ1following a consonantDirectional*batʼa·dsound approaches*ca·dfly alongDurative*dakʼoladpet*hqaladobey rule, abstain*qahcawadeat with*qaʔdi·nbite??*sikʼo·yadbe rocking or swayingPrefixed*qahcawadeat with*qaʔdi·nbite??*sikʼo·yadbe rocking or swayingUnspecified Complex Form*bola·tad1*hihkohihkotad*kʼola·tad*pihlipilitad*šoʔpʼošopʼotad*ʔaca·cʼama·tad*ʔbola·tad
-ad2adv > v1Directional: along2Directional: toward here (in imperatives)Plural Agent-acʼ2Directional*bane·dthrow here, along move here, along*basa·dmove (sev.) along with snout*baye·dgive directions, instructions*bisa·dcarry (sev. long) along bring (sev. long) here*biye·dwalk holding in arms*casa·dpush along (sev.) backing up*caye·dpush along*cikʰe·dpush along*cisa·dcarry, lead (sev.) along bring, lead (sev.) here*co·dmove in container (several) swim*cukʰe·dmove along by handle*cusa·d(sev.) float along, be pushed along*cuye·dwalk along holding*cuʔbucubu·dgo along bumping into things*cʰide·dcarry, lead (one) along bring, lead (one) here*cʰiye·dmove with handle*dade·dcarry (heavy) along bring (heavy) here wave move along*dakʰe·dpush along with hand*dasa·dcarry (sev. heavy) along bring (sev. heavy) here*daye·dpush with hand*de·dfollow*dide·dfall along floating [?]*dihtadcarry (sev. nonlong) along bring (sev. nonlong) here*disa·d(sev.) fall along floating [?]*do·dput hand along*dukʰe·dpush here, along with finer*dusa·dpush (sev.) along with finger*duye·dguide, steer*hade·dmove along with foot move along with wings*hasa·dmove (sev.) along with foot (sev.) move along with wings*haye·dmove with foot*hiba·dgo for food*hikʰe·dbody move along*hisa·dpush (sev.) along with body*hiye·dmove with body*hqa·dmove straight along lengthwise*hšiṭʰadsearch*hya·dblow*masa·dmove (sev.) along with foot*maye·dmove with foot*mica·dthrow several hither*mikʰe·dmove along with foot*misa·dmove (sev.) along with toe clouds move along *mitadthrow hither*mude·dmove along with energy*musa·dmove (sev.) along with energy*pasa·dmove (sev.) along with end of long object*pe·dflow along*pisa·d(sev.) watch go along*puhṭi·ddance around*pusa·dmove (sev.) along by blowing*pʰade·dmove along with end of long object*pʰaye·dmove with long object*pʰiye·dmove along with long object*qade·dmove along with teeth*qahle·dbe getting light*qaye·dmove in teeth*sikʰe·dmove along with tongue*siye·dmove while sucking*šade·dmove along with long object moving lengthwise*šasa·dmove (sev.) along with long object moving lengthwise*še·dwalk hither wearing*šiba·dgo for food*šude·dlead, pull (one) along lead, pull (one) here*šukʰe·dpull along*šusa·dlead, pull (sev.) along lead, pull (sev.) here*šuye·dmove by pulling*tʼo·dcloud move along cloud move toward here*ṭʰiladgo along stoopedDistributive*bide·nʔwadcarry (bunch) here and there*cakʰe·nʔwadmove around on butt*cukʰe·nʔwadpush wheelbarrow around*cʰide·nʔwadcarry, lead (one) here and there*dade·nʔwadcarry (heavy) here and there*dakʰe·nʔwadpush around with hand*dide·nʔwadfall floating here and there*dikʰe·nʔwadfall, walk slowly*dukʰe·nʔwadmove around with finger*hikʰe·nʔwadmove self around*mikʰe·nʔwadmove around with foot*mukʰe·nʔwadmove car around*ne·nʔwadtune*side·nʔwadone float here and there*šude·nʔwadlead, pull (one) here and there*šukʰe·nʔwadpull around
-adadadadv > v1Locomotory (with non-motion verb): the Agent, while performing the action of the verb, is moving from one place to another, or is intermittently doing so; duplicate use indicates that the movement is definitely intermittent2Locomotory (with motion verb): intermittent movement; duplicant use intensifies this meaning, i.e. it is more intermittent or continues a longer distance3Locomotory (with change of state verb): indicates a steady or gradual change, with no movement impliedPlural Agent-acʼacʼ
-aducaducv > vDirectional: far away in space or time; at a distance, away to a distance, from a distancePlural Agent-acʼicCausative*ca·ducʰqapilot an airplane off to distanceDirectional*bahcʰiwa·ducshame someone*batʼa·ducsound go far*baye·daduc*baye·ducwarn, remind when leaving*bayota·ducscatter*be·duccarry (long) far*bida·ducriver branch out*bide·duccarry (bunch) far*bisa·duccarry (sev. long) far*ca·ducʰqapilot an airplane off to distance*cisa·duccarry, lead (sev.) far*ciwa·ducswim away*ci·cʼaducbecome more and more*codo·duccarry far (in container) carry far (supported underneath) ride horse far*co·ducput aside*cusʼuya·duchave spread corners corner (spread)*cʰide·duccarry, lead (one) far*dade·duccarry (heavy) far*dahqosʼa·ducspill and scatter*dakʰe·ducpush away*damita·ducthrow away*dasa·duccarry (sev. heavy) far*daʔsʼona·ducpunch to make hole*de·ducfollow far*diduccarry (nonlong) far*dihtaduccarry (sev. nonlong) far*diya·ducorder to leave*dowa·ducavoid*do·ducput hand away*dubila·ducsend away*dukʰe·ducpush away*duye·ducguide, steer away*hikʰe·ducmove body away*hine·ducbe far away*kihla·ducdisappear (in distance)*kʼuwa·šaducfail to arrive from afar*macica·ducbecome day*mica·ducthrow several hence*mikʼila·ducindicate direction gesture "let's go"*mitaducthrow away*mukʰe·ducmove car away*ne·ducflop down*pisa·duc(sev.) watch go far move far (sev.) with side of long object*posoṭa·ducblow away*pʰe·duccarry far (person on back)*pʰide·ducwatch go far move far with side of long object*pʰoʔbola·ducwind scatter from container*qʰaʔawa·ducmorning arrive*qʼawa·ducstore away, hide*sibo·ducgroup float far*side·ducone float far*sihla·ducgo with flat-face*šeṭʰe·yaducspread out*šiba·ducgo far to hunt*šude·duclead, pull (one) far*šuhkema·ducnot be heard from*šusa·duclead, pull (sev.) far*tʼo·duccloud move away*ṭʰabaducbe away, absent*ṭʰaba·ducnot here anymore stretch out*ṭʼaya·ducpour away*wa·ducone go farNominal Phraseqʰa·mosʼ šuṭʰuṭa·ducshooting starPrefixed*dahqosʼa·ducspill and scatter*hine·ducbe far awayVerbalization*sihla·ducgo with flat-face
-ahmucʼahmucʼv > vplural form of the Directional-Distributive suffix combination -ad-wad, indicating movement of several actors "around" or "here and there"Synonym-tʰmucʼPL.DISToccurs in contexts where the Plural form /t/ is not appropriateDistributive*duhṭʰalahmucʼquarrel with each other*haʔdahmucʼswap, exchange change intoPlural*duhṭʰalahmucʼquarrel with each other*haʔdahmucʼswap, exchange change intoReciprocal*maʔdaqʰahmucʼbe married to each other
-alaalav > v1Directional: down, without reference to "here" or "there"Compare-alamecʼdown offDirectional*coto·labe loweredbe lowered from a standing position*sida·laone float downone float or sail down2Inceptive: begin an involuntary actInceptive*duweca·launtil nightfall(last) until nightfall, all dayAbsolutiveciqʰahlalawsledhanaca·lawsecond crop of fruit last to goqasita·lawsoaked buckeye nutsCausative*bana·lahqaput downDirectional*bahtena·lacalm down*bana·la2throw down*bana·la1put (several) down in*bana·lahqaput down*baṭica·lahang down*baʔsʼawa·lalowering*be·lacarry (long) down*bida·la2river extend down*bida·la1carry (bunch) down*bisa·lacarry (sev. long) down*ca·lafly down (sun) setciqʰahlalawsled*cisa·lacarry, lead (sev.) down*ciwalacrawl down*codo·lacarry down (in container) carry down (supported underneath) ride horse down*co·laset down into (water) go down*cʰeʔeta·ladip into*cʰida·lacarry, lead (one) down*dada·laput (heavy) down into bury (person)*dakʼihṭʰalahave vertical stripes striped*daqʰa·salarub palm downward*dasa·laput (sev. heavy) down into bury (people)*da·laextend down*da·lahqatwo go down few men go down*dihtalacarry (sev. nonlong) down*dikʰe·laslip off*dikʼe·nalafeel pain from pressure moving down*dilacarry (nonlong) down*do·laput hand down*dubila·lasend away*duda·lapush down with finger load, aim*dukʰe·lamove down with finger*dusa·lapush (sev.) down with finger*duye·laguide, steer down*duʔkʼiya·lamake mark with finger moving downward*duʔkʼuwa·ladestroyhanaca·lawsecond crop of fruit last to go*hayohmalasev. go down*hcʰiwa·lakill much game*hikʰe·lamove body down*htalaclimb down put on (legs, feet)*huʔuta·lareach the bottom*huʔuta·lamucʼbe face to face*kʼiši·laburble*mitalathrow, put down*miṭi·calaone lie down between*mohkota·laburned down to ashes or badly burned*muda·ladance down*munaca·lastay after fire*musukʼa·la(fire) burn down*muʔdiwa·ladiffuse down through*na·laput down (in)*pe·laflow down*pihciṭa·ladrop away*pisa·la(sev.) watch go down*pʰe·lacarry down on back*pʰida·lawatch go down*pʰilalagroup go down*pʰiʔduwa·lasee through*qada·la1lower with teeth*qadu·lasplice, attach*qasa·lalower (sev.) with teethqasita·lawsoaked buckeye nuts*qʼaca·laleave behind*qʼawa·latake down to leave*sibo·lagroup float down*siʔduwa·lasoak down through*šahtalawear (clothes on legs?)*še·lawear down*šiba·talabody change spirit enter body*šinala·lawash head by ducking it*šokʼo·yalatip down*šuda·lalead, pull (one) down*šukʼihṭʰalahave deep parallel marks*šunaca·la(water) remain after tide goes out ?*šusa·lalead, pull (sev.) down*tʼa·lastart to feel, think*ṭʰaba·laslop down*ṭʼaya·lapour down intoInceptive*duʔya·qalastart to think*hqala·lastart to abstain; fast*htena·lacalm down*naʔbaca·labecome puzzled*qahsila·laget coldNominal Phrasehisʼu· ṭʰiwi·lawnotchʔama kʼoṭoca·lawgullyPluralciqʰahlalawsledPrefixed*bahtena·lacalm down*dakʼihṭʰalahave vertical stripes striped*daqʰa·salarub palm downward*dokʼo·yalatip down with fingershanaca·lawsecond crop of fruit last to go*mohkota·laburned down to ashes or badly burned*munaca·lastay after fire*šokʼo·yalatip down*šukʼihṭʰalahave deep parallel marks*šunaca·la(water) remain after tide goes out ?Reciprocal*huʔuta·lamucʼbe face to face
-alamecʼalamecʼv > vDirectional: down off of a place, down out of an enclosed areasʼihta qawí yya šaʔáhtala·mecʼe·duhe always takes down small birds (from the tree)ciqʰala·laméʔ tʰinit didn’t drag him off (the horse)Compare-ala 1downDirectional*be·lamecʼcarry (long) down off of*bida·lamecʼcarry (bunch) down off of*bisa·lamecʼcarry (sev. long) down off of*cisa·lamecʼcarry, lead (sev.) down off of*codo·lamecʼcarry down off of (in container) carry down off of (supported underneath) ride horse down off of*cʰida·lamecʼcarry, lead (one) down off of*cʰula·lamed(water) drain out*dada·lamecʼcarry (heavy) down off of*dala·mecʼqatwo go down off of few men go down off of*dasa·lamecʼcarry (sev. heavy) down off of*dihtala·mecʼcarry (sev. nonlong) down off of*dilamecʼcarry (nonlong) down off of*dukʰe·lamecʼundergo decrease*hayohmala·mecʼsev. go down off of*hikʰe·lamecʼmove body down off of*htala·mecʼclimb down from*mala·lamecʼ(year) end*na·lamecʼfall down, collapse take out of*pe·lamecʼflow down out droop droopy*pʰilala·mecʼgroup go down off of*sibo·lamecʼgroup float down off of*sida·lamecʼone float down off of*šuda·lamecʼlead, pull (one) down off of*šukʰe·lamecʼpull down towards*šusa·lamecʼlead, pull (sev.) down off of*šuʔtʼeya·lamecʼpull down*wala·mecʼone go down off ofPrefixed*šuʔtʼeya·lamecʼpull downVerbalization*mala·lamecʼ(year) end
-aloqaloqv > vDirectional: up toward here, moving upward and in this directionmu·kito hásima ʔuhwa hla· baṭica·loʔhis whiskers were lying stretched up out (of the cave)Directional*bana·loqregurgitate, throw up*be·loqbring (long) up*bida·loqbring (bunch) up*bisa·loqbring (sev. long) up here*caloqrise (of sun) fly up here*cisa·loqbring, lead (sev.) up here*ciwoloqcrawl up bulge out*codo·loqbring up (in container) bring up (supported underneath) ride horse up here*coloqrise up*cʰida·loqbring, lead (one) up here*dada·loqbring (heavy) up*dasa·loqbring (sev. heavy) up here*da·lohqatwo come up few men come up*dihtaloqbring (sev. nonlong) up*diloqcarry (nonlong) up to here*hayohmaloqsev. come up*htaloqclimb up here*huʔuta·loqclimb to top*hyawa·loqvomit up once*mitaloqthrow, put up here*moloq(food) run (short)*qahleloqget light*qaloqthrow, jump up hither ?*sibo·loqgroup float up here*sida·loqone float up here*šuda·loqlead, pull (one) up here*šusa·loqlead, pull (sev.) up here*tʼoloq(fog) move up toward here*woloqone come up run outUnspecified Complex Form-aloqocʼup out
-aloqocʼaloqocʼv > vDirectional + Reflexive: up and out of; no meaning of "hither" as found in -aloq by itselfAbsolutivešusʼihwalo·qoʔsuspendersDirectional*be·loqocʼbring (long) up out of*bida·loqocʼbring (bunch) up out of*bisa·loqocʼbring (sev. long) up out of*cikʰe·loqocʼpull out or off*cisa·loqocʼbring, lead (sev.) up out of*ciwolo·qocʼcrawl up out of*codo·loqocʼbring up out of (in container) bring up out of (supported underneath) ride horse up out of*cʰida·loqocʼbring, lead (one) up out of*dada·loqocʼbring (heavy) up out of*dalo·qocʼqatwo come up out of few men come up out of*dasa·loqocʼbring (sev. heavy) up out of*dihtalo·qocʼbring (sev. nonlong) up out of*diloqocʼbring (nonlong) up out of*hayohmalo·qocʼsev. come up out of*hida·loqocʼput out of business*htalo·qocʼclimb up out of*lowa·loqocʼget free*pʰilolo·qocʼ2group come up out of*qʰadaloqocʼcall out here*qʼa·waloqocʼload up (a vehicle)*sibo·loqocʼgroup float up out of*sida·loqocʼone float up out of*šuda·loqocʼlead, pull (one) up out of*šusa·loqocʼlead, pull (sev.) up out ofšusʼihwalo·qoʔsuspenders*wolo·qocʼone come up out ofReflexive*ciwolo·qocʼcrawl up out of-aloqup hither-icʼ2REFL
-amam1n > vbecome what the root noun denotes2adj > vbecome what the root adjective denotesadded to many nouns and adjectives, but not freelyInceptive*balayambecome bloodshotVerbalization*baʔcʼalamget unlucky*buṭucamget thin*kʼanasambecome sickṭʰalim(water) become clear*ʔahqolamgrow tall*ʔapʰa·tamrust rust rusty
-aq1aq1v > vDirectional: out from here2v > vDirectional: north or west from here3INCHVerbalization*mušucʼaqlaughlaugh at something funnyAbsolutivepʰeʔcʼenaqbonnet with visor porchpʰiʔtʼutaqcap with visorCausative*cahkʰohqacatch with an object*mica·hqacause to fall off to take alcoholic drinks*mo·hqadriveDirectional*bahqʰoʔmacʼaqinsult*bakʼumaqtalk to one’s limit*bana·qswing swing throw out*bašudaqunable to understand words; sound unfair*batʼacʼaqbe still, calm*be·qcarry (long) out or away carry (long) N or W*bida·q2carry (bunch) out or away carry (bunch) N or W*bida·q1(water) flow northwest*bisa·qcarry (sev. long) out or away carry (sev. long) N or W*biʔdaqgive several*cadutaqʷlook coming out*cahkʰohqacatch with an object*cisa·qcarry, lead (sev.) out or away carry, lead (sev.) N or W*ciwaqcrawl out here crawl into (a skin)*codo·qcarry out or away (in container) carry N or W (in container) carry out or away (supported underneath) carry N or W (supported underneath) ride horse out or away ride horse N or W*cuda·qfloat out*cuduwaqbe straight*cusʼuyaqhave corner corner*cʰida·qcarry, lead (one) out or away carry, lead (one) N or W*cʰula·q(water) recede [?]*dada·qcarry (heavy) out or away carry (heavy) N or W*dakʰeṭaqdeal (cards)*damitaqthrow out*dasa·qcarry (sev. heavy) out or away carry (sev. heavy) N or W*dihtaqcarry (sev. nonlong) out or away carry (sev. nonlong) N or W*diqcarry (nonlong) out or away carry (nonlong) N or W*do·qhold arm out*duhṭʰalaqhurt someone*dukʰe·qpush away with fingers*duye·qguide, steer out*hayohmaqsev. go out or away sev. go N or W*hiba·qgo west for food*hikʰe·qʷmove body *hipawaqbarely to fit through*hloqfall off of lose (weight)*hseyaqcover, spread over*htaqstretch out leg put on leg or foot*mica·hqacause to fall off to take alcoholic drinks*mica·qthrow several out*mitaqthrow out*mo·hqadrive*muʔsʼaṭaqpart of body to go to sleep*na·qput, throw out fall [?]*nisa·tahmucʼget divorced*pe·qspread out*pihcipici·qhoe*pušutaqend*pʰaʔsʼulaqwrap uppʰeʔcʼenaqbonnet with visor porch*pʰilaqgroup go out or away group go N or W*pʰiṭʼemaqeyes tire of looking atpʰiʔtʼutaqcap with visor*pʰobošaqblow up (balloon)*pʰudutaqblow out*qabošaqpuff out cheeks*qa·q(long) move through air put (long) in sack*sibo·qgroup float out or away group float N or W*sida·qone float out or away one float N or W*sikuṭaqget dizzy*šadaqtake out ridge extend north or west*šaqacʼwear (clothes)*ša·qgo out wearing*šuda·qlead, pull (one) out or away lead, pull (one) N or W*šukʰe·qpush, pull away*šusa·qlead, pull (sev.) out or away lead, pull (sev.) N or W*ṭʼaya·qpour out, away*waqone go out or away one go N or W*ʔo·qpeep outFrequentative*pihcipici·qhoeNominal Phrasecohšo dohtaqglovesPrefixed*cahkʰohqacatch with an object*pʰiṭʼemaqeyes tire of looking atReciprocal*nisa·tahmucʼget divorcedReflexive*šaqacʼwear (clothes)Verbalization*pušutaqend
-aq2aqn-kin > v1address by this kinship term2acknowledge this kinship relation3come to the state indicated by the rootDirectional*sima·qsleep
-aq3aqvPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with a few stems ending in /l/; sometimes causes deletion of an increment in the root
-aqacaqacv > vDirectional: up from hereDirectional*bana·qacthrow up take last breath*be·qaccarry (long) up from here*bida·qaccarry (bunch) up from here*bisa·qaccarry (sev. long) up from here*ca·qacfly up*cikʰe·qacdrag up*cisa·qaccarry, lead (sev.) up from here*ciwaqaccrawl up*codo·qaccarry up from here (in container) carry up from here (supported underneath) ride horse up from here*co·qacput container up*cukʰe·qaccarry up with handle*cʰida·qaccarry, lead (one) up from here*dada·qaccarry (heavy) up from here*dasa·qaccarry (sev. heavy) up from here*dihtaqaccarry (sev. nonlong) up from here*diqaccarry (nonlong) up from here*dusʼuhyaqacdiamond (cards)*hayohmaqacsev. go up from here*hida·qacfigure out*hihmu·laqac*huʔuta·qacsurmount*mala·qacbecome new year*mitaqacthrow, put up*miṭi·caqacone extend upward*moqʰo·taqacraise knee*na·qacput, throw up from here*pihciṭa·qacrise straight up*pisa·qac(sev.) watch go up*pʰe·qaccarry up on back*pʰida·qacwatch go up*pʰilaqacgroup go up from here*qa·qacput (long) through*qʼaca·qacleave things at place up*qʼawa·qacleave things at place up*sibo·qacgroup float up from here*sida·qacone float up from here*sikʼalsikʼahlaqaclights repeatedly fading moving upward*siqʰala·qacend*soʔola·qacspoil*šadaqactake out*šuda·qaclead, pull (one) up from here*šukʰe·naqacsigh, inhale*šusa·qaclead, pull (sev.) up from here*tʼoqaccloud move up and awayFrequentative*sikʼalsikʼahlaqaclights repeatedly fading moving upwardPlural*dusʼuhyaqacdiamond (cards)Verbalization*mala·qacbecome new year
-aqocʼaqocʼv > vDirectional + Reflexive: out from here, with no cardinal direction meaningDirectional*bida·qocʼcarry (bunch) out from here*bisa·qocʼcarry (sev. long) out from here*cisa·qocʼcarry, lead (sev.) out from here*ciwoqocʼcrawl out from here*coto·qocʼstick out backwards*cʰeʔeta·qocʼput spoonful in mouth*cʰida·qocʼcarry, lead (one) out from here*cʰila·qocʼremove upwards*dada·qocʼcarry (heavy) out from here*dasa·qocʼcarry (sev. heavy) out from here*diqocʼcarry (nonlong) out from here*duda·qocʼmove out with finger put in mouth*dukʰe·qocʼput off*dusa·qocʼmove (sev.) out with finger [?]*hayohmaqocʼsev. go out*kacʰiwa·qocʼput head facing down*mo·qocʼrun out of*na·qocʼput out hence projecting*sibo·qocʼgroup float out from here*sida·qocʼone sail out from here*šuda·qocʼlead, pull (one) out from here*šuhkʰe·qocʼpull out*šusa·qocʼlead, pull (sev.) out from here*taqocʼmove foot outReflexive*duda·qocʼmove out with finger put in mouth-aqʷout hither N/W hither-icʼ2REFL
-aqʷaqʷv > v1Directional: out toward here2Directional: north or west toward here; from the south or eastDirectional*ba·qʷbring (long) out bring (long) N or W*bida·qʷbring (bunch) out bring (bunch) N or W*bisa·qʷbring (sev. long) out here bring (sev. long) N or W*cisa·qʷbring, lead (sev.) out here bring, lead (sev.) N or W*ciwoqcrawl, swim out from here*codo·qʷbring out (in container) bring N or W (in container) bring out (supported underneath) bring N or W (supported underneath) ride horse out here ride horse N or W to here*cʰida·qʷbring, lead (one) out here bring, lead (one) N or W*dada·qʷbring (heavy) out bring (heavy) N or W*dasa·qʷbring (sev. heavy) out here bring (sev. heavy) N or W*dihtaqʷbring (sev. nonlong) out bring (sev. nonlong) N or W*diqʷbring (nonlong) out bring (nonlong) N or W*hayohmaqʷsev. come out sev. come S or E*pʰiloqgroup come out group come N or W*sibo·qʷgroup float out here group float N or W*sida·qʷone float out here one float N or W*šuda·qʷlead, pull (one) out here lead, pull (one) N or W*šusa·qʷlead, pull (sev.) out here lead, pull (sev.) N or W*woqone come out one come N or WUnspecified Complex Form-aqocʼout hence
-atatvPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with some stems ending in /l/ or /n/; must be followed by the Durative /ad/Unspecified Complex Form*bola·tad1*kʼola·tad*ʔaca·cʼama·tad*ʔbola·tad
-ataqataqPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with a few stems ending in /l/; sometimes causes deletion of an increment in the root
-ayayv > vDirectional: against, next to, atAbsolutivepʰiṭʼahšayʔlihammerCausativeqapʰuhta·qa·lisprayerDirectional*bahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish telling*bane·yicʼhold against self*baʔkʼuyaynod head toward someone*baʔqʼacaysecure with words*baʔtʼenayhave (sur)name*bicʼulaycall to someone distant*bihpʰuṭaybe unable to lift with arms*bitʼenaysew together*biʔdicaybear another man's child*biʔṭʼawaymucʼhuddle together*buʔsʼunaymake kissing noise*cahnowaysing over*cunacaygather near*cune·wayjoin against joint*cʰitʼenaypatch*dahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with hands*dakʼanayfrom pushing to be leaning against*dihpʰuṭaybe unable to get up*doʔolaygive good luck to good luck charm*duhpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with fingers*duʔtʼenayfit together with fingers*duʔṭʼašaymucʼjoin objects together*duʔṭʼawayhold against*hcowayhold, place in front of*micaythrow several against*mitahwaythrow against*miʔkanaynod head*miʔkʼanaytilt nose or chin towards*muʔkʼucaydry hard and adhere burned and stuck on pot*pihpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with side of instrument*puhkʰewayblow away, against*pʰaʔtʼenaymucʼmix with stick*pʰaʔṭʼawaytie onpʰiṭʼahšayʔlihammer*qahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish eatingqapʰuhta·qa·lisprayer*sihpʰuṭaybe unable to finish drinking*siʔkʼucaycling to when wet*šuʔdiwayintroduce*šuʔtʼenaytie together*tʼacaytouch against*tʼo·yget (wind) of, catch scent*ṭʰeyaywrap (someone)*ṭʼayaypour onto*ʔbewayhold against*ʔṭʼašaystick together firmlyInstrumentalpʰiṭʼahšayʔlihammerqapʰuhta·qa·lisprayerPhrasal Verb*ʔdu·cicʼayknow what to doPrefixed*bahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish telling*bihpʰuṭaybe unable to lift with arms*bitʼenaysew together*dahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with hands*dihpʰuṭaybe unable to get up*duhpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with fingers*duʔtʼenayfit together with fingers*miʔkʼanaytilt nose or chin towards*muʔkʼucaydry hard and adhere burned and stuck on pot*pihpʰuṭaybe unable to finish with side of instrument*pʰaʔtʼenaymucʼmix with stick*qahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish eating*sihpʰuṭaybe unable to finish drinking*siʔkʼucaycling to when wet*šuʔtʼenaytie togetherReciprocal*biʔṭʼawaymucʼhuddle together*duʔṭʼašaymucʼjoin objects together*pʰaʔtʼenaymucʼmix with stickReflexive*bane·yicʼhold against selfSemelfactive*tʼacaytouch against
-aʔyawaʔyawv > adjcreates an adjective from a verb stemCompoundmokʼocʼaʔyawamazing*mušucʼaʔyawlaughable, funnyʔilacaʔyawdislikedDerivativehikʼo·cʼ aʔyawrespected