Kashaya - English


Ø1Ømim-animexpress dislike of someone and something they are saying
Ø2Ømim-anim(no sound) passing hand back over hair.Unspecified Variant3
Ø-Øpref-instrpfxthis prefix is restricted in occurrence to about two dozen of the class Vi; it means ‘with no specified agent’ and is frequently, but not always, best translated as a passive or as an intransitive verbpref.*cʰa·2be caught tightly, be snared or trapped*hcʰa5fall, fall over (from no apparent cause); get trapped*hcʰoc2disappear, be destroyed, become nothing, die awaywear away, wear out*hkʰe2move self or something in a direction; move, shift position while sitting along surface, scoot over*hlo2detach (with no agentive meaning)*hlo·m2break off joint*hlud2remove, break or cut off one something attached by a stem*hluṭʼ2sneak away*hmu·l2lag behind, stay behind*hpʰoṭ2make many fine particles come off a larger object with repeated movement; knock down with a pole (nuts from a tree)*hsey2cover completely; spread over something*hsokʼot1one to make spurt*htay2touch, bother something*libit2peek, glimpse, catch a glimpse of*qʰac3divide, distribute evenly*qʼa·ṭ3scrape, file*sal2thin, sheer*sʼi·cʼ2fold*šud3be badsmlf.*ʔlawʔcido something quickly; grab or get something quickly, in an unspecified way; make a quick movement, such as to beat people to a placedir.*ʔṭʼašaystick together firmly*hqo·ci1der.-v-instrsuddenly to overbend, strain or sprain a joint.*cʰi·ṭ3pref.cʰiʔ´vtake out (without a specifit agent)pl.*cʰiṭ2*cʰila·qocʼdir.cʰila·qóʔvtake something out of something else by removing it in an upwards direction or picking it up in an unspecified manner*hnat2pref.náʔv1try, test2measure; be (size)*hnaticʼrefl.natíʔvtry, test*hwel2pref.-vbe slow*hwelicʼrefl.welíʔvbe slow in doing something: literally, (not) be in a hurry, (not) do quicklyonly with negative*hyol2pref.-vmix, spread*hyo·csmlf.yoʔ´v1mix multiple things together; join or mix in with a group2spread or smear a liquid oncedoes not occur without semelfactive suffix*kel3pref.-vstretch*kelicʼrefl.kelíʔvstretch, straightenpl.*keli·tacʼ*keltacʼ*kišpref.kíšvstretch taut (a broad thing, not a rope); stretch tight against or around somethingsyn*ki·š*kʰaš1pref.kʰášvtalk indistinctly, yawn*pʰu·4pref.pʰuw´vscatter small particles from the ground*qʰal4pref.qʰálʔvbrush againstpl.*qʰahli1*qʼa·m4pref.qʼamʔ´vprotect a person or thing from something or someone else*qʼa·m5pref.qʼamʔ´vradiate heat (in unspecified manner)pl.*qʼama·tad2*ṭʰe·2pref.ṭʰew´vspread something out*ṭʰe·messiveṭʰemʔ´1vspread out to lie on, spread (cloth) over top of something; make bedcf*ṭʰeyay2nsomething spread out to lie on; a sheet, a bedspread; a covering on the floor or a seatsyn*hsem*šahmasa·wanapl.*ṭʰetam1ṭʰetámʔṭʰe·mʔ daʔbowcomp.ṭʰemʔ dáʔbownmattresssyncahti daʔbowka·ma*ṭʼahṭʰaṭpref.ṭʼáhṭʰaʔvcrushed (of rock) or pieces of rock in the soilcf*hihsutqʰaʔbe ṭʼahṭʰaʔn.p.qʰaʔbe ṭʼáhṭʰaʔngravel found on mountains, not near watercfqʰaʔbe qaṭʰaw*ṭʼam4pref.ṭʼámʔvstir up a swarm, not necessarily get stung without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitive*way3pref.-vwake up*wayicʼrefl.wayíʔvwake up by oneself, without any external causesyn*qa·macʼcf*wa·c=ʔwa·yi 4pl.*wayʔtacʼwáyʔtaʔ*wayicʼqacaus.wayícʼqawvwake (someone) up, without any specific meanscf*daway*ʔbalh2pref.-vturn around*ʔbalhmuldir.-vturn oneself around*ʔbalhmulicʼrefl.bálhmuliʔvturn oneself around, turn in bedpl.*bahlimu·licʼbáhlimu·liʔ*ʔdi3pref.-vmove or hold one thing without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitive*di·nʔwaddir.dist.dinʔwadúv-hndgo around holding*de·ddir.de·du´vfollow; trail, follow trackspl. agt.*de·cʼ*hude·dder.hude·du´vapplaud in the Indian way (by saying "ho")cfʔowpl. agt.*hude·cʼqʰama· de·duph. v.qʰama· dé·duvfollow tracks*de·ducdir.de·dúʔvfollow farpl. mvt.*dehtacʼicpl. agt.*de·cʼic*ʔduw2pref.dúwʔvdiffuse, move through barrier, without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitiveWith certain Directional suffixes.*ʔkʰoš2pref.-v bend (without an agent); bend long object near middle; bend at waist;fr. var.*hkʰoš*ʔkʰošcismlf.kʰóšciwvbendfr. var.*hkʰošci*ʔkʰošcicʼrefl.kʰóšciʔvbend one's own body at middle; bend at waistcf*likʰotfr. var.*hkʰošcicʼwith semelfactive or directionals*ʔkʼoy4pref.-v-redswayalways frequentative*ʔlawʔ2pref.-vdo quickly*ʔlawʔcismlf.láwʔciwvdo something quickly; grab or get something quickly, in an unspecified way; make a quick movement, such as to beat people to a placerequires semelfactive*ʔqʼalh2pref.-vinsert*ʔqʼalhmaessiveqʼálhmawvinsert in placepl.*ʔqʼalhmatadqʼálhmata·du*ʔqʼoʔdi2pref.qʼoʔdíwvdo well, do in a lasting way, do right, make good, fix, prepare, without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitivepl.*ʔqʼoʔdiwad1ʔqʼóʔdowa·du*qʼoʔdicsmlf.-vbetter oneself*qʼoʔdiyicʼrefl.qʼoʔdiyíʔvbetter oneself*qʼoʔdiyicʰqacaus.vcalm down another person by talking to them*ʔsʼulh2pref.sʼúlʔvpress back, down*ʔtʼa8pref.-vdetect, feel (in general, with no specific means)*tʼacsmlf.-vtouch against*tʼacaydir.tʼacáyʔvbutt something against; one thing against another; touch againstpl.*tʼahcaytʼáhcayʔ*tʼa·ddur.tʼa·du´v1one to feel (feelings, emotions; not from a specific sense organ)2(one) thinkpl. agt.*tʼa·cʼ*duʔsʼaʔ tʼa·dcomp.duʔsʼáʔtʼa·duvbe cold, freezing (only of weather), stinging coldcf*qahsilpišudu tʼa·dph. v.pišudú tʼa·duvfeel bad, be or feel sorry (for someone)aph.šudu tʼa·d*tʼa·ladir.tʼa·lawvstart to feel; start to think; have a thought or idea; a thought occurs to (oneself)pl.*tʼahtalatʼáhtalawfr. var.*tʼala*tʼawicʼrefl.tʼawíʔvthink (about self)requires suffix*ʔtʼaq2pref.tʼáʔvrub (with soap) and lathercf*htaq 1pl.*tʼatʰqa1tʼátʰqaw*ʔtʼel2pref.tʼélʔvdoubt; be doubtful to someonecf*ʔiṭʰoʔiṭʰoyawʔama ʔtʼelʔn.p.ʔamá ʔtʼelʔndoubter of ko·ko [taboo] or anythingcfʔama ʔiṭʰow*ʔtʼut2pref.tʼúʔvhuddle; sit huddled up on self (from cold, or so someone can’t see you)*ʔtʼutʰu3pref.tʼutʰúwvsqueeze, decrease inside spacepl.*tʼutʰu1tʼutʰúw*šuʔtʼutʰu2pref.-vmake narrower*šuʔtʼutʰucsmlf.šuʔtʼutʰúʔvmake narrowercf*šeṭʰe·yaduc*ʔtʼutʰmuessive-vhuddle together*ʔtʼutʰmuyicʼrefl.ʔtʼútʰmuyiʔvhuddle together, sit huddled*ʔṭʼaš2pref.ṭʼášvfasten in place, without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitivepl.*ṭʼahši2ṭʼáhšiwqʼohsa ṭʼaša·muʔlin.p.qʼohsa ṭʼáša·muʔliwnelbow joint connectioncfqʼohsa qʼolo·mo*ʔṭʼašaydir.ṭʼašáyʔnstick together firmly*ʔṭʼaṭ5pref.ṭʼáʔvtwist together, mix*ʔṭʼubut2pref.ṭʼubúʔvdive, go down yourself, submergepl.*ṭʼubut1ṭʼubú·taʔ*hqo·ci2smlf.qo·cíwvmake carelessly
-Ø X-vsfxPlural consisting of Decrement only: loss of increment and vowel lengthplur. aff.*boqʼot1*cʰiṭ1*cʼoqʰot*hqal3*kʼiṭ*kʼuyʔkʼuy*lakʼat*libutad*lol1*pʰahtʼ*pʰukʼut1*qʰatad*qʰobot*qʼobot*sakʼa·t*sikʼit2*si·ṭad*sokʼot2*sʼu·l2*šukʼuṭ*tʼutʰu2*ṭʼaqʼa·t*ṭʼubut2*ṭʼuṭʰu*ʔbotʼad*ʔcʼetad