Kashaya - English


-aavsfxFactual Evidential: used for imperfective or uncompleted actions being watched by the speaker; also for facts or general truths which are known by everybody to be true, whether or not the action has actually been seen by the speakercf-do-inna-qa1-yaoften followed by responsive (as /-a-m/) or by nonfinal verb marker (as /-w-e·/)
-acʼ1acʼPlural Agent of-ad1DUR
-acʼ2acʼPlural Agent of-ad2alongto here
-acʼicacʼicPlural Agent of-aducfar awaybroadly
-ad1advsfxDurative: frequently translated with a progressive in English, or with the phrase "keep on doing"syn-cid-ed-id-med-uced-wad2following a consonantPlural Agent-acʼ1dur.*bahnatadask about something, ask for information*biʔkʼoyadeat scattered, small pieces of foodeat a snack (eat small amounts, pieces)*caʔkʼoyadcut a few scattered objects*dakʼoladpet*doʔkʼoyadpick up scattered objects (can be scattered abstract entities as well)*hqaladobey a rule or law; abstain (from food), fast, diet; follow restrictiondir.*ca·dfly along*pʰuʔsʼawadplur.pʰuʔsʼawá·duvbreak lotscf*pʰusʼa·*baʔkʼoyaddur.baʔkʼoyá·duvspeak in a scattered way*daʔkʼoyaddur.daʔkʼoyá·duvbe acting on a few ungrouped or scattered objects with the hand*diʔkʼoyaddur.diʔkʼoyá·duvfall on a few scattered objects [?]*miʔkʼoyaddur.miʔkʼoyá·duvsmell here and there, smell a few scattered objects*pʰiʔkʼoyaddur.pʰiʔkʼoyá·duvchop here and there with an axe, chop a few scattered objects*qahcawaddur.qahcawá·duveat one thing with anothersyn*qahyolqahcec 1pl. agt.*qahcawacʼ*qaʔdi·ndur.qaʔdinʔ´vbite??*sikʼo·yaddur.sikʼoya·du´vbe rocking or swaying (of a drunk person, or a baby)cf*sikʼo·mapl.*sikʼoya·tadsikʼoyá·tadufr. var.*siʔkʼoyad*sikʼoyanʔqacaus.sikʼoyanʔqáwvrock a baby*šaʔkʼoyaddur.šaʔkʼoyá·duvcatch a few scattered (fish, leaves, etc.) with a net*šoʔkʼoyaddur.šoʔkʼoyá·duvcatch a few scattered (fish) with a line*batʼa·ddir.vsound be approaching; hear a sound when it is not there*ciya·ddir.ciya·dúv-mvt1several crawl or swim along (in one direction)syn*ciwa·d 12several crawl or swim toward here (especially in imperatives)syn*ciwa·d 2
-ahmucʼahmucʼv > vsfxplural form of the Directional-Distributive suffix combination -ad-wad, indicating movement of several actors "around" or "here and there"syn-tʰmucʼoccurs in contexts where the Plural form /t/ is not appropriateplur.*duhṭʰalahmucʼquarrel with each other*haʔdahmucʼswap, trade (one or several things), exchange, change, take turnschange into (something different)dist.*duhṭʰalahmucʼquarrel with each other*haʔdahmucʼswap, trade (one or several things), exchange, change, take turnschange into (something different)recip.*maʔdaqʰahmucʼbe married to each other
-alamecʼalamecʼv > vsfxDirectional: down off of a place, down out of an enclosed areasʼihta qawí yya šaʔáhtala·mecʼe·duhe always takes down small birds (from the tree)ciqʰala·laméʔ tʰinit didn’t drag him off (the horse)cf-ala 1dir.*be·lamecʼcarry a long object down off of*bida·lamecʼcarry a bunch down off of, take down from a high place*bisa·lamecʼcarry several long objects in the arms down off of somewhere*codo·lamecʼcarry down off of in a containercarry down off of while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse down off of*cʰula·lamed(water) drain out, down, away*dada·lamecʼcarry, move something heavy down off of*dasa·lamecʼcarry, move several heavy objects down off of somewhere*dilamecʼcarry a nonlong object down off of*diʔcʼola·lamecʼsink down*do·lamecʼmove hand down off*dukʰe·lamecʼsome quantity to undergo a decrease or be lowered; also applies to other decreasing, such as in crochet*hikʰe·lamecʼmove body down off, out of something*htala·mecʼclimb down from, climb back down; take foot down from*pe·lamecʼ(water) flow down and outdroop, sag (of a face or flower)droopy, saggy (face, flower)*šuda·lamecʼlead one (person, animal) down off of; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·lamecʼpull down, bend towards, off of something*šusa·lamecʼlead several (people, animals) down off of; pull (with a rope)*šuʔtʼeya·lamecʼpull down (on a tree branch); grab (hair) and pull (neck) down*bana·lamecʼdir.bana·lámeʔvput down inpl.*mica·lamecʼ*cisa·lamecʼdir.cisala·méʔv-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things down off of; drag; lead by the handsg.*cʰida·lamecʼ*ciwalamecʼdir.ciwalaméʔvcrawl or swim down off of or out of an enclosed areasyn*ciya·lamecʼ*ciya·lamecʼdir.ciyala·méʔv-mvtseveral crawl or swim down off of or out of an enclosed areasyn*ciwalamecʼ*cʰida·lamecʼdir.cʰidala·méʔv-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing down off of; drag; lead by the handpl.*cisa·lamecʼ*dala·mecʼqadir.dalá·mecʼqawv-mvt1two (male or female) go down off ofsyn*hayohmala·mecʼ*pʰilala·mecʼ*wala·mecʼ2a few men go down off of*hayohmala·mecʼdir.hayóhmala·meʔv-mvtseveral (separately) go down off ofsyn*dala·mecʼqa 1*pʰilala·mecʼ*wala·mecʼ*mala·lamecʼdir.malala·méʔv(year) endʔama malala·meʔn.p.ʔama málala·meʔnend of year (beginning of winter)*na·lamecʼdir.na·laméʔ1vfall down, collapsesyn*dihlo·m*dihwatʼ*diwaṭʰ*hiwaṭʰ2v-hndtake out of*pʰilala·mecʼdir.pʰilalá·meʔv-mvtgroup go down off ofsyn*dala·mecʼqa 1*hayohmala·mecʼ*wala·mecʼ*sibo·lamecʼdir.sibola·méʔv-mvtgroup float or sail down off ofsg.*sida·lamecʼ*sida·lamecʼdir.sidala·méʔv-mvtone float or sail down off ofpl.*sibo·lamecʼ*wala·mecʼdir.walá·meʔv-mvtone go down off ofsyn*dala·mecʼqa 1*hayohmala·mecʼ*pʰilala·mecʼ
-amam1n > vsfxbecome what the root noun denotes2adj > vsfxbecome what the root adjective denotesadded to many nouns and adjectives, but not freelyverb.*baʔcʼalamget, become unlucky*buṭucambecome thin, skinny*kʼanasambecome sick, sickenṭʰalimbecome clear (of water)*ʔahqolamgrow tall (of person)*ʔapʰa·tamrust (of iron)rustrusty*balayamincep.v(eyes) become bloodshot; something become bloody?*cʰiʔbulamverb.cʰiʔbulámʔ1vbecome a cobweb2ncobwebpl.*cʰiʔbula·tamcʰiʔbulá·tamʔ
-aq2aqn-kin > vsfx1address by this kinship term2acknowledge this kinship relation3come to the state indicated by the rootdir.*sima·qbe asleep, go to sleep
-aq3aqvsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with a few stems ending in /l/; sometimes causes deletion of an increment in the rootplur. aff.*bila·q*hcʰita·laq*pahšilaq*pašilaq*paši·laq*pemmaq*ṭʼubu·taq*yolaq*ʔacʰulaq
-aqacaqacv > vsfxDirectional: up from hereplur.*dusʼuhyaqacdiamond (suit in cards)dir.*be·qaccarry a long object up from here, take uphill*bida·qaccarry a bunch up from here*bisa·qaccarry several long objects in the arms up from here*cikʰe·qacdrag up from here, especially with a handle or smaller part of the larger object*codo·qaccarry in a container up from here; push up (in swing)carry up from here while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse up from here*co·qacput a container of water or other shapeless substance up onto a surface*cukʰe·qaccarry something upwards by holding a handle or other smaller part of a larger object*dada·qaccarry, move something heavy up from here*dasa·qaccarry, move several heavy objects up from here*dihtaqaccarry several nonlong objects up from here*diqaccarry a nonlong object up from here*dusʼuhyaqacdiamond (suit in cards)*dusʼuya·qaccrease upwardhaving sharp corners in its shape, as a triangle or diamond*hida·qacfigure out (a problem)*miṭi·caqacone extend or stretch upward*moqʰo·taqacraise knee or move knee upwards*na·qacput or throw something up from here*pihciṭa·qac(land) rise perpendicularly*pisa·qacseveral watch something go upward*pʰe·qaccarry (a child) up on back*pʰida·qacwatch something go upward*qa·qacput something long all the way through, lengthwise*qʼaca·qacleave things at a place up*qʼawa·qacleave things at a place up*siqʰala·qacexpire, pass away, give up dying breath; doze off*soʔola·qacspoil*šadaqactake out*šuda·qaclead one (person, animal) up from here; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·naqacsigh; draw a deap breath, inhale deeply*šusa·qaclead several (people, animals) up from here; pull (with a rope)*tʼoqaca cloud (of fog, dust, etc.) move up and away*bana·qacdir.bana·qáʔv1throw something upwards2take last breath, pass on, die*ca·qacdir.vfly uppl.*cahtaqaccáhtaqaʔ*cisa·qacdir.cisa·qáʔv-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things up from here; drag; lead by the handsg.*cʰida·qac*ciwaqacdir.ciwaqáʔv-mvt1crawl or swim up from here, crawl or swim up and outsyn*ciya·qac 12crawl or swim north or west up from heresyn*ciya·qac 2kaʔtʼe ciwaqacder.kaʔtʼe cíwaqaʔplaceWhale Crawling Up: a mountain south of Métini*ciya·qacdir.ciya·qáʔv-mvt1several crawl or swim up from here, crawl or swim up from here (up and out)syn*ciwaqac 12several crawl or swim north or west up from heresyn*ciwaqac 2*cʰida·qacdir.cʰida·qáʔv-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing up from here; drag; lead by the handpl.*cisa·qac*hayohmaqacdir.hayóhmaqaʔv-mvtseveral (separately) go up from heresyn*da·qacʰqa 1*pʰilaqac*waqac 1*huʔuta·qacdir.v1surmount, reach the top2look upward*mala·qacdir.mala·qáʔvbecome new yearʔama mala·qacn.p.ʔama mála·qaʔnbeginning of yearʔama mala·qaʔ macin.p.ʔama mála·qaʔ macinNew Year's Day*mitaqacdir.mitaqáʔv-hndthrow, toss, or put several objects upward, one after another*pʰilaqacdir.pʰilaqáʔv-mvtgroup go up from heresyn*da·qacʰqa 1*hayohmaqac*waqac 1dial. var.*pʰila·qac*sibo·qacdir.sibo·qáʔv-mvtgroup float or sail up from heresg.*sida·qac*sida·qacdir.sida·qáʔv-mvtone float or sail up from herepl.*sibo·qac*sikʼalsikʼahlaqacdir.sikʼálsikʼahlaqaʔvlights repeatedly fading moving upward
-aqocʼaqocʼv > vsfxDirectional + Reflexive: out from here, with no cardinal direction meaningDerivative:-aqʷdir.*bida·qocʼcarry a bunch out from here*bisa·qocʼcarry several long objects in the arms out from here*coto·qocʼstick out backwards*cʰeʔeta·qocʼput spoonful in mouth; take a taste of*cʰila·qocʼtake something out of something else by removing it in an upwards direction or picking it up in an unspecified manner*dada·qocʼcarry, move a heavy object from out of here; take out from inside*dasa·qocʼcarry, move several heavy objects out from here*diqocʼcarry, take, move a nonlong object out from here*duda·qocʼ2move out with finger*dukʰe·qocʼput off; push away with finger*dusa·qocʼmove or push several objects out with the finger*kacʰiwa·qocʼput head facing down*mica·qocʼthrow (sev.) out from here*mo·qocʼrun out of (something)*na·qocʼput out hence; project, stick outprojecting, sticking out*šuda·qocʼlead one (person, animal) out from here; pull (with a rope)*šuhkʰe·qocʼmove something by pulling it out of where it is*šusa·qocʼlead several (people, animals) out from here; pull (with a rope)*taqocʼmove one's foot out from here; put foot out, move foot backwards from point of reference*cima·qocʼdir.cima·qóʔv-mvtcrawl or swim back a bitsyn*ciyama·qocʼ*cisa·qocʼdir.cisa·qóʔv-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things out from here; drag; lead by the handsg.*cʰida·qocʼ*ciwoqocʼdir.ciwoqóʔv-mvtcrawl or swim up out ofsyn*ciya·qocʼ*ciya·qocʼdir.ciwoqóʔv-mvtseveral crawl or swim up out ofsyn*ciwoqocʼ*cʰida·qocʼdir.cʰida·qóʔv-hndcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing out from here; drag; lead by the handpl.*cisa·qocʼ*hayohmaqocʼdir.hayóhmaqoʔv-mvtseveral (separately) go out from here (without reference to cardinal direction)cf*da·qocʼqa 1*pʰiloqocʼ*woqocʼ*sibo·qocʼdir.sibo·qóʔv-mvtgroup sail or float out from heresg.*sida·qocʼ*sida·qocʼdir.sida·qóʔv-mvtone sail or float out from herepl.*sibo·qocʼ
-atatvsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with some stems ending in /l/ or /n/; no Decrement; must be followed by the Durative /ad/ >> include in formplur. aff.*bala·tad*bawila·tad*bila·tad1*bola·tad2*boṭʼat*bo·catad*buʔsʼuna·tad*cahawa·tad*cahqawa·tad*cola·tad3*cola·tad2*cola·tad1*cula·tad*cʰula·tad1*cʰula·tad3*cʼula·t*cʼula·tad*duhṭʰala·tad*duyama·taq1*hala·tad*hcala·tad*hcila·tad*hcʰohmucʼa·tad*hkela·tad*hlala·tad*hola·tad*hoyhcʰoca·tad*hpana·tad*hpola·tad*hpowa·tad*hqala·tad*hqʰaṭa·tad*hsitʼa·tad*hšola·tad*hšona·tad*htena·tad*hṭʰina·tad*hṭʰoṭa·tad*huca·tad*hucuma·tad*hwela·tad*hwena·tad*hyawa·tad*kuʔmuca·tad*kʰula·tad*kʼana·tad*kʼoca·tad*kʼoma·tad*kʼopoškʼopoša·tad*kʼoṭa·tad*kʼowiša·tam*kʼoyat*maluma·tad*mowaqa·tad*nisat*pahšila·tad*poša·tad*pʰula·tad*pʰuwa·tad*qawa·tad*qawiwat*qoca·tad*qola·tad*qʰalema·tad*qʰama·tad*qʰaṭa·tad*qʰawa·tad1*qʰola·tad*qʼama·tad1*qʼasa·tad*qʼolowa·tad*qʼosa·tad*qʼoša·tad*qʼoṭa·tad*sahqacʼa·tad*skala·tad*sqʰawa·tad*sʼawila·tad*šamat2*šana·tad*ša·latad*šuda·tad*tula·tad*tʼatat*ʔaša·tad*ʔcʼuma·tad*ʔqʼala·tad*ʔṭʼela·tad
-ataqataqsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with a few stems ending in /l/; sometimes causes deletion of an increment in the rootplur. aff.*hlalataq*mula·taq*pahšila·taq*yama·taq
-aʔyawaʔyawv > adjsfxcreates an adjective from a verb stem*mušucʼaʔyawcomp.mušucʼáʔyawadjlaughable, very funnymokʼocʼaʔyawcomp.mokʼocʼáʔyawadjamazing, thought by everyone to be able to do feats (good or bad) nearly impossible for othersʔilacaʔyawcomp.ʔilacáʔyawadjdisliked (place or person)hikʼo·cʼ aʔyawder.hikʼocʼáʔyawadjrespected by all, universally respected; the most respected