Kashaya - English


-e1evsfxExplanatory: forms a subordinate adverbial clause that explains or gives the reason for a commandonly occurs in a sentence containing one of the Imperative suffixesder.ʔeʔbecause, or else
-e2eFree Variant of-e·NFV
-ecʼecʼPlural Agent of-edDUR
-ededvsfxDurativesyn-ad1-cid-id-med-uced-wad2following /c/Plural Agent-ecʼ-icʼ1*bakʼuma·cʼeddur.bakʼumá·cʼeduvkeep talking about how hard some task is for the talker to do*banawi·cʼeddur.banawí·cʼeduvdeny; refuse to tell what one did; tell a lie (with negative, "confess")*hikʼo·cʼeddur.hikʼó·cʼeduvtry to impress, act important, put on a big front, act proudsyn*hokʼoyʔcʼedpl. agt.*hikʼo·cʼiwacʼʔama hikʼo·cʼedun.p.ʔama híkʼo·cʼedu1nsnob2adjsnobbish, stuck-upplural agent is closest to plural act*kʼo·cʼeddur.-v-instract important, try to impress, think oneself important, be conceitedsyn*cʼoyʔcʼed*kʼoyʔcʼedOnly occurs with the Reflexive + Durative*mohṭʰinhcʼeddur.mohṭʰínhcʼeduvbe a know-it-all; act like person who acts like he knows everything but doesn'€™t; show offpl.*mohṭʰinhcʼiwacʼmohṭʰínhcʼiwaʔpl. agt.*mohṭʰinhcʼiwacʼ
-elel1v > nsfxObjective: changes verb to noun; employed when the noun clause is an object of the larger sentence or is in an object relation with a locative encliticcf-em3 12vsfxREL.objcf-em3 23adpPOSSder.bilon this, hereon
-elaelavsfxPerformative Incomplete: the speakers knows that what he is saying is true because he is or was performing the action himselfcf-mela
-em1emvsfxDifferent-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, but they have different Agents; "while, whenever"added only to imperfective verbs
-em2emvsfxResponsive: employed when the utterance is in response to something said by the one(s) spoken to, whether question, statement, or other comment; not used when the utterance is spontaneous or stimulated solely by the action being describedcf-waˇcan follow Evidentials and Modals, as well as the Singular Imperative /-i/ and the Performative Intentive /-te/; accompanied by rising intonation /ˇ/
-em3emvsfx1Subjective: changes verb to noun; employed when the noun clause is the subject of the larger sentencecf-el 12REL.subjcf-el 2Free Variant-emu
-emuemuFree Variant of-em3SUBJREL.subj
-etietivsfxConcessive: "although, even though"; different Agent from the main verb [?]