Kashaya - English


-e1evExplanatory: forms a subordinate adverbial clause that explains or gives the reason for a commandonly occurs in a sentence containing one of the Imperative suffixes
-e2eFree Variant of-e·NFV
-ecʼecʼPlural Agent of-edDUR
-ededvDurativeSynonym-ad1DUR-cidDUR-idDUR-medDUR-ucedDUR-wad2DURPlural Agent-ecʼfollowing /c/
-elel1v > nObjective: changes verb to noun; employed when the noun clause is an object of the larger sentence or is in an object relation with a locative encliticCompare-em3 1SUBJ2vREL.objCompare-em3 2REL.subj3adpPOSSDerivativebilon this
-elaelavPerformative Incomplete: the speakers knows that what he is saying is true because he is or was performing the action himselfCompare-melaPRF.CMP
-em1emvDifferent-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, but they have different Agents; "while, whenever"added only to imperfective verbs
-em2emvResponsive: employed when the utterance is in response to something said by the one(s) spoken to, whether question, statement, or other comment; not used when the utterance is spontaneous or stimulated solely by the action being describedCompareˇR-waINTERcan follow Evidentials and Modals, as well as the Singular Imperative /-i/ and the Performative Intentive /-te/; accompanied by rising intonation /ˇ/
-em3emv1Subjective: changes verb to noun; employed when the noun clause is the subject of the larger sentenceCompare-el 1OBJ2REL.subjCompare-el 2REL.objFree Variant-emu
-emuemuFree Variant of-em3SUBJ REL.subj
-etietivConcessive: "although, even though"; different Agent from the main verb [?]