Kashaya - English


-e1evsfxExplanatory: forms a subordinate adverbial clause that explains or gives the reason for a commandonly occurs in a sentence containing one of the Imperative suffixes
-e2eFree Variant of-e·NFV
-ecʼecʼPlural Agent of-edDUR
-ededvsfxDurativefollowing /c/Plural Agent-ecʼdur.*bakʼuma·cʼedkeep talking about how hard some task is for the talker to do*banawi·cʼeddur.vdeny; refuse to tell what one did; tell a lie (with negative, "confess")*hikʼo·cʼeddur.vtry to impress, act important, put on a big front, act proudʔama hikʼo·cʼedun.p.1nsnob2adjsnobbish, stuck-up*mohṭʰinhcʼeddur.vbe a know-it-all; act like person who acts like he knows everything but doesn'€™t; show off
-elel1v > nsfxObjective: changes verb to noun; employed when the noun clause is an object of the larger sentence or is in an object relation with a locative enclitic2vsfxREL.obj3adpPOSSder.bilon this, hereon
-elaelavsfxPerformative Incomplete: the speakers knows that what he is saying is true because he is or was performing the action himself
-em1emvsfxDifferent-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, but they have different Agents; "while, whenever"added only to imperfective verbs
-em2emvsfxResponsive: employed when the utterance is in response to something said by the one(s) spoken to, whether question, statement, or other comment; not used when the utterance is spontaneous or stimulated solely by the action being describedcan follow Evidentials and Modals, as well as the Singular Imperative /-i/ and the Performative Intentive /-te/; accompanied by rising intonation /ˇ/
-em3emvsfx1Subjective: changes verb to noun; employed when the noun clause is the subject of the larger sentence2REL.subjFree Variant-emu
-emuemuFree Variant of-em3SUBJREL.subj
-etietivsfxConcessive: "although, even though"; different Agent from the main verb [?]