Kashaya - English


fere·nufere·nu´Free Variant offre·nubridle
fi·nufí·nuadjdressy, fine (dressy of shoes), dress-up
fre·nufre·nu´nbridle, bit; reinsfre·nu ʔé· muit is a bridlefre·nu tʰín e· muit is not a bridle6.3.1.7Beast of burdenFree Variantfere·nu
fØ-Øpref-instrpfxthis prefix is restricted in occurrence to about two dozen of the class Vi; it means ‘with no specified agent’ and is frequently, but not always, best translated as a passive or as an intransitive verbpref.*cʰa·2be caught tightly, be snared or trapped*hcʰa5fall, fall over (from no apparent cause); get trapped*hcʰoc2be destroyed, wear away, wear out, become nothing, disappear, die away, wear out*hkʰe2move self or something in a direction; move, shift position while sitting along surface, scoot over*hlo2detach (with no agentive meaning)*hlo·m2break off joint*hlud2remove, break or cut off one something attached by a stem*hluṭʼ2sneak away*hmu·l2lag behind, stay behind*hpʰoṭ2make many fine particles come off a larger object with repeated movement*hsey2cover completely; spread over something*hsokʼot1one to make spurt*htay2touch, bother something*libit2peek, glimpse, catch a glimpse of*qʰac3divide, distribute evenly*qʼa·ṭ3scrape, file*sal2thin, sheer*sʼi·cʼ2fold*šud4be badsmlf.*ʔlawʔcido something quickly; grab or get something quickly, in an unspecified way; make a quick movement, such as to beat people to a placedir.*ʔṭʼašaystick together firmly*hqo·ci1der.v-instrsuddenly to overbend, strain or sprain a joint.*cʰi·ṭ3pref.vtake out (without a specifit agent)*cʰila·qocʼdir.vtake something out of something else by removing it in an upwards direction or picking it up in an unspecified manner*hnat2pref.vmock, imitate; weigh; measure*hwel2pref.vbe slow*hwelicʼrefl.vbe slow in doing something: literally, (not) be in a hurry, (not) do quickly*hyol2pref.vmix, spread*kel3pref.vstretch*kelicʼrefl.vstretch, straighten*kišpref.vstretch taut (a broad thing, not a rope); stretch tight against or around something*kʰaš1pref.vtalk indistinctly, yawn*pʰu·4pref.vscatter small particles from the ground*qʰal4pref.vbrush against*qʼa·m4pref.vprotect a person or thing from something or someone else*qʼa·m5pref.vradiate heat (in unspecified manner)*ṭʰe·2pref.vspread something out*ṭʰe·messive1vspread out to lie on, spread (cloth) over top of something; make bed2nsomething spread out to lie on; a sheet, a bedspread; a covering on the floor or a seatṭʰe·mʔ daʔbowcomp.nmattress*ṭʼahṭʰaṭpref.vcrushed (of rock) or pieces of rock in the soilqʰaʔbe ṭʼahṭʰaʔn.p.ngravel found on mountains, not near water*ṭʼam4pref.vstir up a swarm, not necessarily get stung without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitive*way3pref.vwake up*wayicʼrefl.vwake up by oneself, without any external cause*wayicʼqacaus.vwake (someone) up, without any specific means*ʔbalh2pref.vturn around*ʔbalhmuldir.vturn oneself around*ʔbalhmulicʼrefl.vturn oneself around, turn in bed*ʔdi3pref.vmove or hold one thing without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitive*de·ddir.vfollow; trail, follow tracks*hude·dder.vapplaud in the Indian way (by saying "ho")qʰama· de·duph. v.vfollow tracks*de·ducdir.vfollow far*ʔduw2pref.vdiffuse, move through barrier, without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitive*ʔkʰoš2pref.v bend (without an agent); bend long object near middle; bend at waist;*ʔkʰošcismlf.vbend*ʔkʰošcicʼrefl.vbend one's own body at middle; bend at waist*ʔkʼoy4pref.vsway*ʔlawʔ2pref.vdo quickly*ʔqʼalh2pref.vinsert*ʔqʼoʔdi2pref.vdo well, do in a lasting way, do right, make good, fix, prepare, without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitive*ʔsʼulh2pref.vpress back, down*ʔtʼa8pref.vdetect, feel (in general, with no specific means)tʼammucʼessiverecip.v(edges or pieces) be put together*tʼacaysmlf.dir.vbutt something against; one thing against another; touch against*tʼa·ddur.v1one to feel (feelings, emotions; not from a specific sense organ)2(one) think*duʔsʼaʔ tʼa·dcomp.vbe cold, freezing (only of weather), stinging coldpišudu tʼa·dph. v.vfeel bad, be or feel sorry (for someone)*tʼa·ladir.vstart to feel; start to think; have a thought or idea; a thought occurs to (oneself)*tʼawicʼrefl.vthink (about self)*ʔtʼaq2pref.vrub (with soap) and lather*ʔtʼel2pref.vdoubt; be doubtful to someoneʔama ʔtʼelʔn.p.ndoubter of ko·ko [taboo] or anything*ʔtʼut2pref.vhuddle; sit huddled up on self (from cold, or so someone can’t see you)*ʔtʼutʰu3pref.vsqueeze, decrease inside space*šuʔtʼutʰu2pref.vmake narrower*ʔtʼutʰmuessivevhuddle together*ʔṭʼaš2pref.vfasten in place, without agentive meaning; best translated as passive or intransitiveqʼohsa ṭʼaša·muʔlin.p.nelbow joint connection*ʔṭʼašaydir.nstick together firmly*ʔṭʼaṭ5pref.vtwist together, mix*ʔṭʼubut2pref.vdive, go down yourself, submerge*hqo·ci2smlf.vmake carelessly