Kashaya - English


-iivSingular Imperative: spoken directly to one person who will perform the actionmay be followed by the Responsive
=iiDialectal Variant of=liLOC
-ibicibicv > v1Directional: up; neither toward or from here, because what is moving does not become separated from what it has been attached toDirectional*coto·bicstand erect, in a vertical position; rise up to a standing position2Directional: away (with verbs of motion)3Inceptive: begin a voluntary actCompoundmobi·ceduwimotorDirectional*bade·bicmove away with mouth*bane·bicbe delayed*basa·bicmove (sev.) away with mouth*baʔsʼawi·bicsing up*be·biclift up (long) carry (long) up, away*bide·bicpick up (bunch) carry (bunch) up, away*bisa·biclift up (sev. long) carry (sev. long) away*cikʰe·biclift with handle*cisa·bicpick up, lead (sev.) carry, lead (sev.) up, away*codo·bicpick up (in container) carry up, away (in container) pick up (supported underneath) carry up, away (supported underneath) ride horse up, away*cošoti·bicraise hand*co·bic2rise in container*co·bic1(water) rise up*cukʰe·biccarry with handle*cʰeʔeti·bicdip out*cʰide·bicpick up, lead (one) carry, lead (one) up, away*dade·biclift up (heavy) carry (heavy) away*dasa·biclift up (sev. heavy) carry (sev. heavy) away*daʔcʰa·bicdo push-up*dibiclift up (nonlong) carry (nonlong) up, away pitch song higher*dihcibiclift up (nonlong)*dihtibiclift up (sev. nonlong) carry (sev. nonlong) up, away*dikʼo·yibictip on side by self*doʔkʼoyi·bicpry up with fingers*do·bicraise hand up*dude·bicmove up with finger strike (person)*dukʰe·biclift*dusa·bicmove (sev.) up with finger*hayomi·bicsev. leave*ha·tibicspeak up*hikʰe·bicsit up; increase*hitʼe·bicprosper*hotʼo·tibicraise head*htibicraise footmobi·ceduwimotor*mobo·kʼibicswell up from heat*moqʰo·tibicraise knee*moʔboli·bicthrow*moʔkʼoyi·bicwarp up in sun*mo·bicrun off*neti·bic(fire) blaze up*paʔcʰa·bicstand up unsteadily*pisa·biclift (sev.) with side of long object*piṭitibicstrike ground with side of stick*pʰade·bicmove up with end of long object*pʰaduwi·bicpoke and hit edge*pʰe·bicstart to carry person on back*pʰide·biclift with side of long object*pʰude·bicmove away by blowing*qabo·kʼibicbe bulging with cheeks*qasa·biclift (sev.) with teeth suck (pain) out*qa·bic(long) move upward*sibo·bicgroup float up, away group start to float*side·bicone float up, away one start to float*šaʔcʰa·bicpush up on hands*šiba·tibicgrow strong*šoko·bicsit up*šoʔkʼoyi·bicpull one end*šude·biclift, pull (one) up lead, pull (one) up, away*šukʰe·biclift by pulling*šusa·bicpick up, lead (sev.) lead, pull (sev.) up, away*tibicraise leg*tʼe·tibicone stand up*ṭʰili·bicstoop raising butt*ṭʼayi·bicpour down and out; tip over*ʔbaci·bicbear (fruit)Durativemobi·ceduwimotorInceptive*bane·bicbe delayed*ca·bicfly up*cʼowi·bicappear suddenly*qaṭʼu·sibic(face) become narrow*šiweyi·bicbe newInstrumentalqʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedgeʔahca dusʼuli·biʔlilean-toNominal Phraseqʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedgePrefixed*dikʼo·yibictip on side by self*doʔkʼoyi·bicpry up with fingers*mobo·kʼibicswell up from heat*moʔkʼoyi·bicwarp up in sun*piṭitibicstrike ground with side of stick*qabo·kʼibicbe bulging with cheeks*šoʔkʼoyi·bicpull one end
-icʼ1icʼPlural Agent of-idDUR
-icʼ2icʼv > vReflexive: the agent acts on itself, for itself, or on something along with itselfDirectional*qʼa·macʼbequeath*šaqacʼwear (clothes)Essive*qʼa·macʼbequeathNominal Phrasehuʔuy pihceliʔeyelashesPrefixed*dahyalicʼhave responsibilities responsibilitiesReflexive*dahyalicʼhave responsibilities responsibilities*duqʰalicʼpaint one's face*duyemacʼcontrol oneself*qʼa·macʼbequeath*šaqacʼwear (clothes)
-ididvDurativeSynonym-ad1DUR-cidDUR-edDUR-medDUR-ucedDUR-wad2DURPlural Agent-icʼ1following /c/
-ilila component of certain Directional expressions
-imimvFormal Imperative: employed in prayers and invocations, and in ordinary situations by the characters in myths; previous generations used this suffix more in their daily life, but this now sounds old-fashioned
-ininv1Same-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, and they have the same Agent; "while, whenever, because, by"naṭá yya ʔem lowa·cʼin baṭʰammawthe children talking make loud noiseʔacaʔ cʰátʰqan mul bimucí·duhe was capturing people and eating themʔayél tʼanʔqan ti· cʼá·haʔ daqa·cʼinhe felt jealous because he wanted to marry her himself2Progressive Aspect, used typically with the copula /ʔe·/ya·pálka duqʰan e· ʔaI'm picking applesadded only to imperfective verbsDerivativemeninand
-innainnavAuditory evidential: the speaker heard the sounds of the reported action, but did not see itCompare-aFACT-doHSY-qa1CIRC-yaVIS
-insʼinsʼvSuppositional: variously rendered by "I suppose, probably, may, might, could"Compare-basʼidmust bein texts, often attached to the Assertive
-inʔnainʔnavPotential: seems to be concerned with a capability of doing an act which may or may not be carried through
-išvOptative: expresses the hope or desire of the speaker; the desire is that the speaker himself do that action unless the Causative immediately precedeswith /tí·qa/ means "I wish"; with Causative can be added to the Assertive
-iwacʼiwacʼPlural Agent of-wad1DIST-uwad1DIST*
-iyiyvIndirect Imperative: said to someone who will not perform the action, so the agent will be either first or third person
-iyicʼiyicʼPlural Agent of-ucedDUR
iyowalFree Variant ofyowalsame as before former, aforementioned
iyowal menFree Variant ofyowal menas before
-iʔbaiʔbavConditional: "would", "could"often linked to a condition that may be expressed explicitly in a subordinate clause containing /-pʰi/ or /-pʰila/, or the condition may only be implied