Kashaya - English


-iivsfxSingular Imperative: spoken directly to one person who will perform the actionmay be followed by the Responsive
=iiDialectal Variant of=liLOC
-ibicibicv > vsfx1Directional: up; neither toward or from here, because what is moving does not become separated from what it has been attached to2Directional: away (with verbs of motion)3Inceptive: begin a voluntary actcomp.mobi·ceduwimotor, enginen.p.qʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedge for splitting woodpref.*moʔkʼoyi·bic(a plank) to warp up at one end in the sun *piṭitibicstrike ground with the side of a stickdur.mobi·ceduwimotor, enginedir.*bade·bicmove something away with the mouth; move something up with the mouth*basa·bicmove or push several objects away with the mouth*baʔsʼawi·bicsing up; rise (of voice)*be·biclift up, pick up a long objectcarry a long object up, away*bide·bicpick up a bunchcarry a bunch up, away*bisa·biclift up, pick up several long objects in the armscarry several long objects in the arms away*cikʰe·biclift something by picking it up with a handle or other small part of the larger object*cisa·bicpick up several things (with a handle); start to drag, lead by the handcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things up, away; drag; lead by the hand*codo·bicpick up in a containercarry up, away in a containerpick up while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headcarry up, away while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse up, away*cošoti·bicraise hand *co·bic2liquid or other shapeless material to rise up within a contained space, or to be lifted while contained*cukʰe·biccarry something, especially in an upward direction while holding the smaller part of a larger object, such as a handle of a wheelbarrow*cʰeʔeti·bicdip out*cʰide·bicpick up one thing (with a handle); start to drag, lead by the handcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing up, away; drag; lead by the hand*dade·biclift up, pick up something heavycarry, move something heavy away*dasa·biclift up, pick up several heavy objectscarry, move several heavy objects away*daʔcʰa·bicdo a push-up (referring to the raising of the body on relatively weak arms)*dibiclift up, pick up a nonlong objectcarry a nonlong object up, awaypitch a song higher (with /qali·/ "high")*dihcibicpick up a nonlong object, lifting it upward*dihtibiclift up, pick up several nonlong objectscarry several nonlong objects up, away*dikʼo·yibictip on side by self*do·bicraise (one's) hand up*dude·bicmove something up or away with the fingerstrike (person): with a hex?*dukʰe·biclift something (especially if it involves sliding the fingers, hand under it first?)*dusa·bicmove several objects up or away with the finger*ha·tibicspeak up, speak one's mind (in a meeting or other gathering, for example)*hikʰe·bicdrag self to a sitting position; (power to) increase*hitʼe·bicprosper*hotʼo·tibicraise head; move head upwards*htibicraise footmobi·ceduwimotor, engine*moqʰo·tibicraise knee or move knee upward*moʔboli·bicthrow (a rock) and knock the lid off, spilling the contents*moʔkʼoyi·bic(a plank) to warp up at one end in the sun *neti·bic(fire) blaze up*pisa·bicmove up or lift several objects with the side of a long object (such as a shovel)*piṭitibicstrike ground with the side of a stick*pʰade·bicmove up something with the end of a long object (such as a fist); shovel up; by wrapping*pʰaduwi·bicpoke and hit edge*pʰe·bicstart to carry person on back; get up while carrying person on back*pʰide·bicmove up or lift something with the side of a long object (such as a shovel)*pʰude·bicmove something away by blowing; blow something away*qasa·biclift several objects with the teeth, with the mouthsuck (pain) out*qa·biclong object to move up, lengthwise: an arrow to fly upward, a jet or column of water to spout up, a fish to jump upward*sibo·bicgroup float or sail up, away; rise up; (dancers) leap up togethergroup start to float or sail*šaʔcʰa·bicpush up on hands fron lying prone*šiba·tibicgrow strong, improve oneself; do one's best, apply effort to a task, focus on doing well*šude·biclift (one) up by pulling; start to pulllead one (person, animal) up, away; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·biclift something, especially by pulling it*šusa·bicpick up several (people, animals) (with a pulling); start to drag, lead by the handlead several (people, animals) up, away; pull (with a rope)*tibicraise leg*tʼe·tibicone stand up on two or more legs, on or off the ground; stand still*ṭʰili·bicstoop raising butt*ṭʼayi·bicpour down out of a container; tip over (a box, not nec. that something come out)*ʔbaci·bicbear (fruit), start to grow (hair)incep.*bane·bicbe delayed; delay event*ca·bicfly up, start to fly*cʼowi·bicappear suddenly*qaṭʼu·sibicface become narrow; have a narrow face*šiweyi·bicbe new, renewed; new growth start; (the land) to bloom in springinstr.qʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedge for splitting woodʔahca dusʼuli·biʔlia lean-to*co·bic1dir.vwater rise upʔahqʰa co·bicn.p.nflood; water rising in well (when it rains)*doʔkʼoyi·bicdir.vwith the fingers to pry up one end of a long object (a stick), the other remaining on the ground*hayomi·bicdir.v-mvtseveral (separately) leave, go away, start to go*mobo·kʼibicdir.vswell up from heat*mo·bicdir.vescape, run off*paʔcʰa·bicdir.vstand up unsteadily*qabo·kʼibicdir.vbe bulging with cheeks*side·bicdir.v-mvt1one float or sail up, away2one start to float or sail*šoko·bicdir.vsit up*šoʔkʼoyi·bicdir.vpull up one end of a long object with the other end remaining on the ground
-icʼ1icʼPlural Agent of-idDUR
-icʼ2icʼv > vsfxReflexive: the agent acts on itself, for itself, or on something along with itselfn.p.huʔuy pihceliʔeyelashesessive*qʼa·macʼbequeath to another; leave behind when you diedir.*qʼa·macʼbequeath to another; leave behind when you die*šaqacʼwear (one thing), be wrapped by (blanket)refl.*banawicʼ*base·cʼsave or protect oneself by talking, by means of what one says; defend oneself against blame or accusation*bilukumcicʼkeep one's mouth closed, especially to cover food while eating*dahyalicʼhave responsibilities, duties, chores, or a person or child that one must tend to: seems to be restricted to household or family obligationsresponsibilities, duties, chores*duqʰalicʼto make a mark with the fingers; specifically to paint a design on one’s own face with pigments on the fingers*duyemacʼhold oneself back, control oneself, get ahold of oneself*pʰuʔcʼipʰucʼi·cʼput perfume or cologne on oneselfperfume, cologne*qʼa·macʼbequeath to another; leave behind when you die*šaqacʼwear (one thing), be wrapped by (blanket)*ʔbalhmulicʼturn oneself around, turn in bed*ʔtʼutʰmuyicʼhuddle together, sit huddled*bakʼuma·cʼrefl.vtalk to one's limit*bakʼuma·cʼeddur.vkeep talking about how hard some task is for the talker to do*basi·ṭicʼrefl.vsing, use voice too much; waste one's voice; want to sing; be free to sing*cusi·ṭicʼrefl.vscatter with a brush or other round object*dahkʰiṭʼcicʼrefl.vstrain or sprain one's wrist*hace·cʼrefl.vbrace self with foot (to protect from falling)*haʔqʼahaqʼa·cʼrefl.v-redkick the feet around to get purchase on something in order to get up (from lying position)*hihtsinhcicʼrefl.vjump. give a start*hikʼo·cʼrefl.vtry to impress*hikʼo·cʼeddur.vtry to impress, act important, put on a big front, act proudʔama hikʼo·cʼedun.p.1nsnob2adjsnobbish, stuck-up*hisi·ṭicʼrefl.vbe free, lose, unrestricted; waste oneself*hiʔbayicʼ1refl.vstart to be troubled by*hwelicʼrefl.vbe slow in doing something: literally, (not) be in a hurry, (not) do quickly*kelicʼrefl.vstretch, straighten*mahkʰiṭʼcicʼrefl.vstrain or sprain one's foot*pʰiʔṭʼuwicʼrefl.vmove head to side to avoid blow; blink eye (to get something off lashes)*qakʼišicʼrefl.vgnash or grate one'€™s teeth (several times)*qaʔkʼayʔcicʼrefl.v(food) get caught in one's teeth*sikʰelcicʼrefl.vdisappear (of person)*siṭʼamacʼrefl.vflash (light), spark; flash on and off*sʼinhcicʼrefl.vgive a start, jump with a start*šubilicʼrefl.vblaze up*šukʼiṭʰicʼrefl.vbe streaked all over*šuʔbunicʼrefl.vbe twitching, by pushing or pulling*šuʔbunhcicʼsmlf.refl.vtwitch once*wayicʼrefl.vwake up by oneself, without any external cause*wayicʼqacaus.vwake (someone) up, without any specific means
-ididvsfxDurativefollowing /c/Plural Agent-icʼ1
-ililsfxa component of certain Directional expressions
-imimvsfxFormal Imperative: employed in prayers and invocations, and in ordinary situations by the characters in myths; previous generations used this suffix more in their daily life, but this now sounds old-fashioned
-ininvsfx1Same-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, and they have the same Agent; "while, whenever, because, by"naṭá yya ʔem lowa·cʼin baṭʰammawthe children talking make loud noiseʔacaʔ cʰátʰqan mul bimucí·duhe was capturing people and eating themʔayél tʼanʔqan ti· cʼá·haʔ daqa·cʼinhe felt jealous because he wanted to marry her himself2Progressive Aspect, used typically with the copula /ʔe·/ya·pálka duqʰan e· ʔaI'm picking applesadded only to imperfective verbsder.meninand (same subject)that's why
-innainnavsfxAuditory evidential: the speaker heard the sounds of the reported action, but did not see it
-insʼinsʼvsfxSuppositional: variously rendered by "I suppose, probably, may, might, could"in texts, often attached to the Assertive
-inʔnainʔnavsfxPotential: seems to be concerned with a capability of doing an act which may or may not be carried through
-išvsfxOptative: expresses the hope or desire of the speaker; the desire is that the speaker himself do that action unless the Causative immediately precedeswith /tí·qa/ means "I wish"; with Causative can be added to the Assertive
-iwacʼiwacʼPlural Agent of-uwad1DIST*-wad1DIST
-iyiyvsfxIndirect Imperative: said to someone who will not perform the action, so the agent will be either first or third person
-iyicʼiyicʼPlural Agent of-ucedDUR
iyowalFree Variant ofyowalsame as beforeformer, aforementioned
iyowal menFree Variant ofyowal menas before
-iʔbaiʔbavsfxConditional: "would", "could"often linked to a condition that may be expressed explicitly in a subordinate clause containing /-pʰi/ or /-pʰila/, or the condition may only be implied