Kashaya - English


-iivsfxSingular Imperative: spoken directly to one person who will perform the actionmay be followed by the Responsive
=iiDialectal Variant of=liLOC
-ibicibicv > vsfx1Directional: up; neither toward or from here, because what is moving does not become separated from what it has been attached to2Directional: away (with verbs of motion)3Inceptive: begin a voluntary actinitial vowel /i/ does not undergo the usual change to /u/ after a stem ending in /d/comp.mobi·ceduwimotor, enginen.p.qʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedge for splitting wooddur.mobi·ceduwimotor, enginedir.*bane·bicthrow (nonlong) upwardbe delayed; delay event*be·biclift up, pick up a long objectfetch (water specifically), go and get (water)carry a long object up, away*bide·biclift up or pick up a bunchcarry a bunch up, away*bisa·biclift up, pick up several long objects in the armscarry several long objects in the arms away*cikʰe·biclift something by picking it up with a handle or other small part of the larger object*ciya·bicseveral crawl or swim up, awayseveral start to crawl or swim*codo·biclift up, pick up in a containercarry up, away in a containerlift up, pick up while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headcarry up, away while supported underneath, especially on the shoulders or headride a horse up, away*cošoti·bicraise hand *co·bic2liquid or other shapeless material to rise up within a contained space, or to be lifted while contained*cukʰe·biccarry something, especially in an upward direction while holding the smaller part of a larger object, such as a handle of a wheelbarrow*cʰeʔeti·bicdip up (water); dip a cup or a ladle into water and then lift it up*dade·biclift up, pick up something heavycarry, move something heavy awaywaves or ocean rise up*dasa·biclift up, pick up several heavy objectscarry, move several heavy objects away*daʔcʰa·bicdo a push-up (referring to the raising of the body on relatively weak arms)*dibiclift up, pick up a nonlong objectcarry a nonlong object up, awaypitch a song higher (with /qali·/ "high")become (worse, of rain)*dihcibicpick up a nonlong object, lifting it upward*dikʼo·yibictip on side by self*diṭa·nibicone side flip up when an object is dropped*do·bicraise (one's) hand up*dude·bicmove something up or away with the finger; aim a gunstrike (person): with a hex?*dukʰe·biclift something (especially if it involves sliding the fingers, hand under it first?)*dusa·bicmove several objects up or away with the finger*haʔsʼili·bicsplash water up with a swinging motion of the arm or leg*ha·tibicspeak up, speak one's mind (in a meeting or other gathering, for example)*hikʰe·bicdrag self to a sitting position; (power to) increase*hitʼe·bicprosper*hotʼo·tibicraise head; move head upwards*htibicraise footmobi·ceduwimotor, engine*moqʰo·tibicraise knee or move knee upward*moʔboli·bicthrow (a rock) and knock the lid off, spilling the contents*neti·bic(fire) blaze up*ne·bicthrow a long object upward; (long object) fall over [?]*pisa·bicmove up or lift several objects with the side of a long object (such as a shovel)*pʰade·bicmove up something with the end of a long object (such as a fist); shovel up; by wrapping*pʰaduwi·bicpoke and hit edge*pʰe·bicstart to carry person on back; get up while carrying person on back*pʰide·bicmove up or lift something with the side of a long object (such as a shovel)*pʰude·bicmove something away by blowing; blow something away*qasa·biclift several objects with the teeth, with the mouthsuck (pain) out*qa·biclong object to move up, lengthwise: an arrow to fly upward, a jet or column of water to spout up, a fish to jump upward*šaʔcʰa·bicpush up on hands from lying prone*šiba·tibicgrow strong, improve oneself; do one's best, apply effort to a task, focus on doing well*šude·biclift (one) up by pulling; start to pulllead one (person, animal) up, away; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·biclift something, especially by pulling it*šusa·bicpick up several (people, animals) (with a pulling); start to drag, lead by the handlead several (people, animals) up, away; pull (with a rope)*tibicraise leg*tʼe·tibicone stand up on two or more legs, on or off the ground; stand still*ṭʰili·bicstoop raising butt*ṭʼayi·bicpour down out of a container; tip over (a box, not nec. that something come out)*ʔbaci·bicbear (fruit), start to grow (hair)incep.*ca·bicfly up, start to fly*cʼowi·bicappear suddenly*qaṭʼu·sibicface become narrow; have a narrow face*šiweyi·bicbe new, renewed; new growth start; (the land) to bloom in springinstr.qʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedge for splitting woodʔahca dusʼuli·biʔlia lean-to*bade·bicdir.bade·bíʔv-hndmove something away with the mouth; move something up with the mouthpl.*basa·bic*basa·bicdir.basa·bíʔv-hndmove or push several objects away with the mouthsg.*bade·bic*baʔsʼawi·bicdir.baʔsʼawí·biʔvsing up; rise (of voice)*cisa·bicdir.cisa·bíʔv-hnd1pick up several things (with a handle); start to drag, lead by the handsg.*cʰide·bic 12carry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) several things up, away; drag; lead by the handsg.*cʰide·bic 2*ciwa·bicdir.cisa·bíʔv-mvt1crawl or swim up, awaysyn*ciya·bic 12start to crawl or swim syn*ciya·bic 2*co·bic1dir.co·bíʔvwater rise upcf*coloq*co·bic2ʔahqʰa co·bicn.p.ʔahqʰa có·biʔnflood; water rising in well (when it rains)*cʰide·bicdir.cʰide·bíʔv-hnd1pick up one thing (with a handle); start to drag, lead by the handpl.*cisa·bic 12carry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing up, away; drag; lead by the handpl.*cisa·bic 2*doʔkʼoyi·bicdir.doʔkʼoyí·biʔvwith the fingers to pry up one end of a long object (a stick), the other remaining on the groundpl.*dokʼohyibicdokʼóhyibiʔfr. var.*dokʼo·yibic*hayomi·bicdir.hayomí·biʔv-mvtseveral (separately) leave, go away, start to gosyn*cohtoc 2*da·bicʰqa 1*pʰilebic 1*mobo·kʼibicdir.mobokʼi·bíʔvswell up from heatcf*moʔbo 1pl.*mobohkʼibicmobóhkʼibiʔfr. var.*mubu·kʼibic*moʔkʼoyi·bicdir.moʔkʼoyí·biʔv(a plank) to warp up at one end in the sun pl.*mokʼohyibic*mo·bicdir.mo·bíʔvrun away, run off, escapepl.*mohtibic*mo·bicʰqacaus.mo·bícʰqawvdrive (a car) away*paʔcʰa·bicdir.paʔcʰa·bíʔvstand up unsteadilycf*tʼe·tibic*piṭitibicdir.piṭitíbiʔvstrike ground with the side of a stickcf*piṭi*qabo·kʼibicdir.vbe bulging with cheekscf*qabo·šma*qahtoš*qatuqatuc*qatušpl.*qabohkʼibicqabóhkʼibiʔfr. var.*qabu·kʼibic*sibo·bicdir.sibo·bíʔv-mvt1group float or sail up, away; rise up; (dancers) leap up togethersg.*side·bic 12group start to float or sailsg.*side·bic 2*side·bicdir.side·bíʔv-mvt1one float or sail up or awaypl.*sibo·bic 12one start to float or sailpl.*sibo·bic 2*šoko·bicdir.šoko·bíʔvsit upcf*tubicunspec. var.*šokohtibic*šokʼoyi·bicdir.šokʼoyí·biʔvpull up one end of a long object with the other end remaining on the groundpl.*šokʼohyibicšokʼóhyibiʔfr. var.*šokʼo·yibic*balayi·bicincep.balayí·biʔvstart to bleed
-icʼ1icʼPlural Agent of-idDUR-edDUR
-icʼ2icʼv > vsfxReflexive: the agent acts on itself, for itself, or on something along with itselfsmlf.*hiʔkʼonhcicʼhold under the arm against the bodyrefl.*badi·cʼcall on someone to come toward oneself, or to do something*bahnaticʼask someone to do something; ask for permission; practice (a song)practice (song)*bahqoṭolqacʼhesitate; refuse to do something*bakʼuma·cʼtalk to one's limit*bakʼumicʼtalk too long*banawicʼ*banemcicʼswing back*bane·yicʼput item on self, hold item against self*base·cʼsave or protect oneself by talking, by means of what one says; defend oneself against blame or accusation*basi·ṭicʼsing, use voice too much; waste one's voice; want to sing; be free to sing*baʔkʰošcicʼbend one'€™s own head down once*baʔkʼuyʔcicʼbend the head down towards the chest; bow head down*biʔdiyicʼhold (a bunch or a bundle) close to oneself, clasp in one's arms*caʔqʼoʔdiyicʼto get well settled into one’s seat*celhmacʼcarry on the back by a strap across the shoulders or chest; carry with backpack*cohqacʼlet someone shoot you*dacʼo·yicʼexpose with the hand*diʔcʼolhcicʼcave in*di·cʼ2something or someone move toward oneself, whether called or observed*duda·qocʼ1move something out with the fingerput (food) into one's mouth *duwemqacʼbe a dark night, be the dark of moondark of moon*hidulcicʼseveral to fail to touch with body*kanhcicʼsettle down*mosʼcicʼget sour*šoʔkʼonhcicʼpull an object up against oneself; hold on to something precious (wife, car)*baṭiqacʼrefl.baṭiqáʔvgroup lie next to or sleep with (not nec. sex)sg.*miṭiqacʼ*bihsayicʼrefl.v-hndpick up and hold (sev. long)*cahqacʼrefl.cáhqaʔvput a costume oncf*caqa·cʼ*šaqacʼ*caʔkʼonhcicʼrefl.caʔkʼónhciʔvretain something by sitting on it*dabalcicʼrefl.dabálciʔvwipe once over one’s own (face)*daʔtʼaqacʼrefl.daʔtʼaqáʔvshow oneself to others*du·bayhcicʼrefl.dú·bayhciʔ1vbe too busy to do (something), take on too much to do, overload oneself with work, have all that one can handle2adjtoo busy, overloaded with work*kʼo·cʼrefl.-vact important*kʼo·cʼeddur.-v-instract important, try to impress, think oneself important, be conceitedsyn*cʼoyʔcʼed*kʼoyʔcʼedOnly occurs with the Reflexive + Durative*miṭiqacʼrefl.miṭiqáʔvone ‎‎lie next to, sleep secretly with someone, esp. if secretly; does not necessarily imply sexpl.*baṭiqacʼ*miʔkanhcicʼrefl.miʔkánhciʔvnod head once in affirmative*piqʰa·ṭʰqacʼrefl.piqʰaṭʰqáʔvbe attractive, good-looking; to admire one's self*pʰisʼamacʼrefl.pʰisʼamáʔvblink eyes several times*pʰisʼampʰisʼamacʼfreq.pʰisʼámpʰisʼamaʔvkeep blinking one's eyes, voluntarily*pʰiʔṭʼupʰiṭʼu·cʼrefl.pʰiʔṭʼupʰíṭʼuʔvblink eyes repeatedly, closing them solidly and then opening them; flutter eyelashes in a flirtatious way*qʼoʔdiyicʼrefl.qʼoʔdiyíʔvbetter oneself*qʼoʔdiyicʰqacaus.vcalm down another person by talking to them*sihsoṭʰcicʼrefl.sihsóṭʰciʔvdisappear, vanish, dissolve, liquefy*sikʰelcicʼrefl.sikʰélciʔvdisappear (of person)*sikʼalicʼrefl.sikʼalíʔv(light) go out, (fire) die down*sikʼalsikʼalicʼrefl.sikʼálsikʼaliʔvflicker or repeatedly fade away, many scattered fires die down or lights go off; (car lights) burning here and there, barely seencf*silakʼa·ticʼ 1*siqʰolcicʼrefl.siqʰólciʔvsuck in once, sniff once, inhale once*siqʰolicʼrefl.siqʰolíʔvsuck in, sniff, inhalepl.*siqʰoltacʼsiqʰóltaʔka·wa siqʰolicʼph. v.ka·wa síqʰoliʔvdraw on pipesʼaʔsʼa siqʰoliʔ yacn.p.sʼaʔsʼa síqʰoliʔ yaʔnvacuum cleanersynʔama· cisulqaʔli*siqʰolmacʼrefl.siqʰólmaʔvsuck in, sniff, inhale*siʔbalhcicʼrefl.siʔbálhciʔv(sucking doctor) to turn (the disease) with the tongue (in order to move it to a position extract it)*šaqacʼrefl.šaqáʔvwear (one thing), be wrapped by (blanket)cf*cahqacʼ*caqa·cʼpl.*šatʰqacʼšátʰqaʔ*šaqacʼqacaus.vdress someone or put clothing on thempl.*šatʰqacʼqa*ši·batʰcicʼrefl.ší·batʰciʔvfeel sorry for oneself, feel inadequate or inferiorfr. var.*ši·baccicʼ*ši·batʰqacʼrefl.ši·bátʰqaʔvtake pity on*ʔihya·yicʼrefl.vstrengthen onself; muster one's strength
-ididvsfxDurativesyn-ad1-cid-ed-med-uced-wad2following /c/Plural Agent-icʼ1waci·dudur.abs.waci·du´n1leader2main onepl.wa·yicʼiwacʼwa·yicʼíwacʼcuhti waci·dun.p.cuhti wáci·dunleader's design, a horizontal zigzag line; the most important designfr. var.nohpʰonohpʰo cuhtiqʰama· waci·dun.p.qʰama· wací·dunfollowerdial. var.qʰama waci·dufr. var.waci·du qʰama·
-ililsfxa component of certain Directional expressions
-imimvsfxFormal Imperative: employed in prayers and invocations, and in ordinary situations by the characters in myths; previous generations used this suffix more in their daily life, but this now sounds old-fashioned
-ininvsfx1Same-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, and they have the same Agent; "while, whenever, because, by"naṭá yya ʔem lowa·cʼin baṭʰammawthe children talking make loud noiseʔacaʔ cʰátʰqan mul bimucí·duhe was capturing people and eating themʔayél tʼanʔqan ti· cʼá·haʔ daqa·cʼinhe felt jealous because he wanted to marry her himself2Progressive Aspect, used typically with the copula /ʔe·/ya·pálka duqʰan e· ʔaI'm picking applesadded only to imperfective verbsder.meninand (same subject)that's why
-innainnavsfxAuditory evidential: the speaker heard the sounds of the reported action, but did not see itcf-a-do-qa1-ya
-insʼinsʼvsfxSuppositional: variously rendered by "I suppose, probably, may, might, could"cf-basʼidin texts, often attached to the Assertive
-inʔnainʔnavsfxPotential: seems to be concerned with a capability of doing an act which may or may not be carried through
-išvsfxOptative: expresses the hope or desire of the speaker; the desire is that the speaker himself do that action unless the Causative immediately precedeswith /tí·qa/ means "I wish"; with Causative can be added to the Assertive
-iwacʼiwacʼPlural Agent of-uwad1DIST*DUR-wad1DIST
-iyiyvsfxIndirect Imperative: said to someone who will not perform the action, so the agent will be either first or third person
-iyicʼiyicʼPlural Agent of-ucedDUR
iyowalFree Variant ofyowalsame as beforeformer, aforementioned
iyowal menFree Variant ofyowal menas before
-iʔbaiʔbavsfxConditional: "would", "could"often linked to a condition that may be expressed explicitly in a subordinate clause containing /-pʰi/ or /-pʰila/, or the condition may only be implied