Kashaya - English


-m1mv > v1Essive: diverse abstract meanings, often stative2Supraterrestrial: the action takes place in one spot off the ground or floorEssive*kacʰiwmakeep head down
-m2mv > vDirectional: across, pastCausative*nemqaput acrossCompoundšina·mʔṭʰetopDirectional*bihsam2carry (sev. long) across*biʔdim2carry (bunch) across*cihsam2carry, lead (sev.) across*coʔdom1carry across (in container) carry across (supported underneath) ride horse across*cʰikʼi·mmake streak across with stick*cʰiʔdim2carry, lead (one) across*dahsam2carry (sev. heavy) across*daʔdim3carry (heavy) across*dihtim1carry (sev. nonlong) across*dimcarry (nonlong) across*domhold hand out over something*dukʼi·mstreak a streak*hcamfly across*hpʰemcarry across on back*momrun across*nemqaput across*pihciṭʰmabe overhanging low bank*pʰikʼi·mmake streak across with axe*siʔbom1group float across*siʔdim1one float across*šuhsam1lead, pull (sev.) across*šuʔdim2lead, pull (one) across*ʔbem1carry long object across*ʔdamqatwo go across few men go acrossPrefixed*cʰikʼi·mmake streak across with stick*dukʼi·mstreak a streak*pʰikʼi·mmake streak across with axe
-m3mPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs in a variety of contexts, after vowels and consonants; has the form /ma/ after a consonant
mama´pro2nd person Singular Nominative: youBenefactivemiʔkʰe2.Sg Ben 2.Sg PossLocativemitoʔna2.Sg Loc 2.Sg Loc.HObjectivemito2.Sg Obj 2.Sg In.PossVocativenihna2.Sg Voc Infrml
*ma1-n-kingrandmother: father's mother2.6.5.2Woman4., grandmotherFirst person informal possessorma·manʔ1.Poss.Infrml father's motherFirst person possessorma·sʼenʔ1.Poss father's motherSecond person possessormima·sʼ2.Poss father's motherThird person possessormiya·ma·sʼ3.Poss father's motherThird person reflexive possessormama·sʼ3r.Poss father's mother
*ma2-v-instrput shapeless substanceCompare*ma4put (container)*ṭʼišguessPlural*mat1Prefixed*bama3put shapeless substance with mouth*cama1collect water*cuma2put with round object*cʰimascoop (with instrument)*dama1pick up*dima3put shapeless substance with gravity*himagather shapeless substance*mama1put shapeless substance with sole of foot; with butt of hand*mima1put shapeless substance with toes*pʰima2put shapeless substance with end of long object*šama2put shapeless substance by long object object moving horizontally
*ma3-v-instrtwine a basketPlural*mat2Prefixed*cama2twine, weave*dama2weave basket
*ma4máwvput a container holding liquid or another shapeless substancemi·li má mul ʔput that (container) there!Compare*ma2put shapeless substance*ṭʼišguessPlural*matʰmamost often with a directional suffix
*ma5máwv-mvtone go across or pastmamamago across!mací·duce·dumamá·duce·dukeep going across!kawa·yi biláhwal mabiwhe must have gone acrossSynonym*hayohwimsev. go across*lahwicross*pahṭʰistep over something*pʰima1group go across*ʔdamqa 1two go acrossFree Variant*mam*waone go-m2across
ma-1man-kinReflexive third-person possessive in kinship systemPrefixed*mate·npress with footThird person reflexive possessormahcuṭʼki3r.Poss man's sister's son
ma-2mapref-instrwith the sole of the foot, with the foot or claws of a bird, with the butt of the handAbsolutivemahwenmucʼbicyclemaʔtʼemʔunderground foot drum [?]Causative*manetanʔqapetDerivative*mahpanhcompress with foot*mahpʰuyquicky thrust foot into something*mapaarrive in time*maʔsʼoʔsʼocrush with footDirectional*mahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish walkingDistributive*maʔkʼuṭa·duwadwalk crunchingEssive*mahcelhmaspan with foot*maʔyomhang in foldsFrequentative*macʼemacʼewalk with quick short steps*mahcʰomahcʰocwear out something by walking on it*mahqʰamahqʰashuffle along*mahšamahšarustle something while walking on it*mahtemahtestomp ground*mahwemahwewalk along shaking*malemaleclose hole by stomping in dirt*matumatucstuff with feet*maṭimaṭimake noise pounding ground*maʔbemaʔbegrope with foot*maʔkʼuṭʰmakʼuṭʰa·dadwalk crunchingIterative*mahcʰahcʰaccrumble with foot*mahcʰohcʰocwear out something by walking on it*mahkohkotap with bottom of foot*mahpahpapat repeatedly with foot*mahpʰihpʰishred with sole of foot*mahqʰahqʰaslide feet*mahšahšatrample*mahšihšiscatter small objects with sole of foot*mahtahtawalking slowly*mahtehtepat with foot*mahtʰihtʰicput many holes in the feet*mahtʰohtʰoburn holes*mahṭihṭistomp feet*mahṭʰohṭoremove outer layer with foot*mahyuhyucrush brittle object*maʔcʼoʔcʼobreak to pieces by stepping*maʔkʼoʔkʼocwear depression with foot*maʔloʔlotangle with foot*maʔpʼoʔpʼocempty out with foot*maʔsʼaʔsʼacbreak up to pieces*maʔṭiʔṭigather surface into smaller piece with feet*maʔwiʔwifoot rub while twisting*maʔyiʔyistep on and twist*maʔyoʔyocpucker with sole of foot*maʔyuʔyuhurt by feetLocomotory*maʔkʼuṭʰmakʼuṭʰa·dadwalk crunchingPrefixed*mabet1grope with foot*mabi·lpedal*macatsearch*macehold by stepping on*mace·guard*macocrush with foot*macʰa·grab in hand*macʰi·ṭpull out with foot*macʰuldig out several things with sole of foot*macʼalseparate but remain attached with foot*macʼemacʼewalk with quick short steps*macʼi·ṭmix with feet*macʼo·2transform by walking*macʼo·1expose by stepping on*macʼo·mtear in two with hands*macʼo·qstep on something sharp*macʼo·ṭgrab big bunch*macʼu·lstep on to hurt*mahcelhmaspan with foot*mahcʰa2push over with bottom of foot*mahcʰahcʰaccrumble with foot*mahcʰibe hurt by stepping on*mahcʰohcʰocwear out something by walking on it*mahcʰomahcʰocwear out something by walking on it*mahkefoot not go all way in*mahkemproject, stick out*mahkohkotap with bottom of foot*mahkolhciloosen with foot*mahkotʰciwear by walking*mahkʰiṭʼstrain foot*mahkʰiṭʼcicʼstrain foot*mahkʰocatch with sole of foot*mahlodetach with mouth*mahnattry with foot*mahpahpapat repeatedly with foot*mahpooverflow by stepping into*mahponpolocmake painfully swollen by walking about*mahpʰaqʼinterior of surface break from walking on it*mahpʰa·šmasag inward with sole of foot*mahpʰihpʰishred with sole of foot*mahpʰukʼutsink into with foot*mahpʰuṭaybe unable to finish walking*mahpʰuṭʼlose control of feet*mahpʰu·thrust foot into something yielding while falling*mahqabe familiar with by walking*mahqalhremove from surface with foot*mahqoyʔbend or sprain ankle*mahqoyʔcisprain ankle*mahsa2step on something in way*mahsa1move (sev.) with claws*mahsakʼatbounce with foot*mahsetʼmany to project*mahsikʼitbounce through air with foot*mahsimextinguish with feet*mahsismarash feeling on foot*mahsommess up with foot*mahsoqencase quiver rug*mahsoṭscatter little pieces with feet*mahšahšatrample*mahšamahšarustle something while walking on it*mahšanbe springy under foot*mahšihšiscatter small objects with sole of foot*mahšolhcome loose off foot snatch*mahšukʼuṭfoot sink in*mahtahtawalking slowly*mahtaytouch with foot*mahtehtepat with foot*mahtemahtestomp ground*mahtenhflatten with feet*mahtʰaget somewhere quick by walking*mahtʰihtʰicput many holes in the feet*mahtʰohtʰoburn holes*mahṭihṭistomp feet*mahṭilhstamp with foot*mahṭolhmake noise with feet*mahṭʰawear open with sole of foot*mahṭʰohṭoremove outer layer with foot*mahweldawdle*mahwemahwewalk along shaking*mahwe·nshake with foot*mahwistick foot into something soft*mahye·stop dancing. walking*mahyoljoin others spread with foot?*mahyoqʰstir*mahyuhyucrush brittle object*mahyuṭstir with sole of foot*make·ṭwith foot to take of corner*maki·mcirestrain with foot*mako·ltwirl with foot*maku·ṭbreak off branches with hand*makʼalopen slightly with foot*makʼe·noverpress with foot*makʼi·scratch with foot*makʼi·šscrape with feet*makʼumbe too much for feet*malayafoot slips*malemaleclose hole by stomping in dirt*malucoat with sole of foot; with butt of hand*mama1put shapeless substance with sole of foot; with butt of hand*mamadicʼgo check on*manacdrive animal*mana·cover with sole of foot*mana·cchase away*manedance*mapaṭʰcicover hole with foot*mapo·šget blister on bottom of foot*mapʰo·be splashing with feet*mapʰo·ṭbe splashing with feet*mapʰu·scatter by walking*mapʰu·mkick up dust*mapʼilfeel slick to sole of foot*maqʰalmark with foot*maqʰaqʰaṭstrip off*maqʰa·break by stepping on*maqʰa·ṭfeel good on feet*maqʰoṭuproot several with foot*maqʼa·mprotect*maqʼa·ṭscratch with foot*maqʼosmake scraping sound with foot*maqʼošemit shuffling sound*masapull off of*masedislike*mase·lclean feet*masisilfeet be irritated*maso·lswirl water with foot*masuscratch several with claws*masʼa·break fingers, branches*masʼulmake smooth foot*masʼuymake pointed wih foot*maša·lmake noise walking*maši·mscatter by walking on*mašudfeel strange to feet*matašflatten by stepping on*matilhlatwist*mati·troll with sole of foot; with butt of hand*matumatucstuff with feet*matʰiltear but not necessarily apart with sole of foot*matʼatbother with sole of foot*maṭibe uprooting by walking on*maṭimaṭimake noise pounding ground*maṭi·šstretched tight using foot*maṭʰaṭbreak open with foot*maṭʰilstretch with foot*maṭʰoremove outer layer with foot*maṭʼamdisturb by stepping on*maṭʼa·step on hex, make sick*maṭʼemtired of doing action with foot*maṭʼo·take off outer layer with hand*maṭʼufoot sink into*maṭʼunfeel slimy to feet*mawayawaken with sole of foot*mawoṭstir with foot*mawo·lfeel soft to foot*mayemove, hold with foot*mayecʼrest foot on*mayibe like, take after*mayukʼutput foot into*mayu·ʔcibe after (to catch)*maʔbabe spading ground*maʔbalhcibe turning with foot*maʔbehold one's breath*maʔbemaʔbegrope with foot*maʔbolhturn over with foot*maʔcʼa2flexible object stiffen with foot*maʔcʼanhstep on something sticky*maʔcʼolhmake hole with foot*maʔcʼondetach by stepping*maʔcʼoqʰotremove piece by walking*maʔcʼoʔcʼobreak to pieces by stepping*maʔdenbe clawing*maʔdi1move with foot*maʔdi2get*maʔkʼacrack with foot*maʔkʼanhlean long object against with foot*maʔkʼayʔciget foot stuck*maʔkʼecbecome erect*maʔkʼobump with foot*maʔkʼoʔkʼocwear depression with foot*maʔkʼuwalk all over*maʔkʼuṭa·duwadwalk crunching*maʔkʼuṭʰmakʼuṭʰa·dadwalk crunching*maʔloʔlotangle with foot*maʔluwrap with foot*maʔne·cicʼget used to walking*maʔpʼanhclose with foot*maʔpʼoʔpʼocempty out with foot*maʔqʼactighten with sole of foot*maʔqʼalhinsert foot*maʔqʼotamchoke someone by stepping on neckmaʔsʼaputrified lymph*maʔsʼaṭhit hard and hurt with sole of foot*maʔsʼaʔsʼacbreak up to pieces*maʔsʼipinch with whole hand*maʔsʼiyfold with foot*maʔsʼonhdent by stepping on*maʔsʼoqmash with foot*maʔtʼafeel with foot*maʔtʼekelecstep on something hollow and flatten it out*maʔtʼem1beat up*maʔtʼem2find with foot*maʔtʼemhstep onmaʔtʼemʔunderground foot drum [?]*maʔtʼutʰucstep on edge of long object*maʔṭiʔṭigather surface into smaller piece with feet*maʔṭufoot on edge*maʔṭʼa??*maʔṭʼašpush in place with foot*maʔṭʼaṭtwist together*maʔṭʼawʔducstep on to hurt*maʔṭʼestain with foot*maʔṭʼelhmat down with foot*maʔṭʼeʔṭʼepress repeatedly with footmaʔṭʼibent by foot*maʔṭʼiṭtwist several things together with sole of foot; with butt of hand*maʔṭʼubutsubmerge foot*maʔṭʼuṭʰuclench fist*maʔwiʔwifoot rub while twisting*maʔyaalmost step on*maʔya·qrecognize with foot*maʔyiʔyistep on and twist*maʔyomhang in folds*maʔyoʔyocpucker with sole of foot*maʔyuʔyuhurt by feet*ma·sqʰacbe worn bare by feetReflexive*mahkʰiṭʼcicʼstrain footmahwenmucʼbicycle*mamadicʼgo check onSemelfactive*mahcʰahcʰaccrumble with foot*mahkolhciloosen with foot*mahkotʰciwear by walking*mahkʰiṭʼcicʼstrain foot*mahponpolocmake painfully swollen by walking about*mahqoyʔcisprain ankle*mahtʰihtʰicput many holes in the feet*maki·mcirestrain with foot*mapaṭʰcicover hole with foot*matumatucstuff with feet*mayu·ʔcibe after (to catch)*maʔbalhcibe turning with foot*maʔkʼayʔciget foot stuck*maʔkʼecbecome erect*maʔkʼoʔkʼocwear depression with foot*maʔpʼoʔpʼocempty out with foot*maʔsʼaʔsʼacbreak up to pieces*maʔtʼekelecstep on something hollow and flatten it out*maʔtʼutʰucstep on edge of long object*maʔyoʔyocpucker with sole of foot*ma·sqʰacbe worn bare by feet
*mabahlicmabáhliʔPlural of*maʔbalhcibe turning with foot
*mabahtaqmabáhtaʔPlural of*maba·qacknowledge someone as father-in-law
mabahṭʰemabáhṭʰeplaceBigland: a place east of Elderberry place and north of Tree Sittingʔama·1land, world sky, weather place groundbahṭʰebig important
*mabasʼahmucʼmabasʼáhmuʔv-kinaddress each other according to a paternal grandfather relationship; call each other father’s father and son’s childPlural*mabasʼa·tahmucʼ*mabasʼaqcall someone father’s father
*mabasʼaqmabasʼáʔv-kincall someone father’s fatherPlural*mabasʼa·taqReciprocal*mabasʼahmucʼaddress in paternal grandfather relationmaba·sʼ3r.Poss father's father-aq2ADDR ACK STAT
*mabasʼa·tahmucʼmabasʼá·tahmuʔPlural of*mabasʼahmucʼaddress in paternal grandfather relation
*mabasʼa·taqmabasʼá·taʔPlural of*mabasʼaqcall someone father’s father
mabasʼe·yimabasʼé·yiComitative ofmaba·sʼ3r.Poss father's father
maba·maba·´n-kinhis, her, their own father-in-law2.6.5.1Man4.·2.Poss father-in-lawmiya·ba·3.Poss father-in-lawtʼileyac1.Poss parent-in-lawBenefactivemaba·ʔkʰeLocativemaba·ʔnaObjectivemaba·lComitativemaba·yiVerbalization*maba·qacknowledge someone as father-in-law*ba·father-in-law
*maba·cmabaʔ´vspade the ground, open the ground by stepping on (a spade)*maʔbabe spading ground
maba·lmabal´Objective ofmaba·3r.Poss father-in-law
*maba·qmabaʔ´v-kinacknowledge someone as father-in-lawPlural*mabahtaqmaba·3r.Poss father-in-law-aq2ADDR ACK STAT
maba·sʼmabasʼ´n-kinhis, her, their own grandfather: father's father; also father's older male relative and mother's older sister's husband2.6.5.1Man4., grandmotherCompareba·banʔ1.Poss.Infrml father's fatherba·sʼenʔ1.Poss father's fathermiba·sʼ2.Poss father's fathermiya·basʼ3.Poss father's fatherBenefactivemaba·sʼeʔkʰeLocativemaba·sʼeʔnaObjectivemaba·sʼelComitativemabasʼe·yiVerbalization*mabasʼaqcall someone father’s father*bafather's father
maba·sʼelmaba·sʼélObjective ofmaba·sʼ3r.Poss father's father