Kashaya - English


-w1wn > advsfxLocative: in a placesuffixed to a few nounscomp.ku hcawfamily, householdʔahšowon the south side of a large geographical feature (mountain, lake, etc.)loc.bahcawin someone else’s house, especially a non-relative'smaʔcawin the sweathouse, into the sweathouseʔahcawin the house
-w2wv > vsfxMovement: obligatory before Directional suffix if the verb does not otherwise denote movement [?]essive*kacʰiwmaface head downward and hold that positiondir.*daʔṭʼawaypress against something with the hand, and break it*duʔkʼuwa·ladestroy, kill all, wipe out*hcʰiwa·lakill much game*kacʰiwa·qocʼput head facing down*puhkʰewaymove something away or against by blowing*qʼawleave something behind in a location; go somewhere to leave something behind*šuʔdiwayintroduce to someone*ʔbewayhold a long object against
-w3wvsfx1Absolutive: the citation form for verbs, usually translated as an infinitive; the commonest form for the main verb in a narrative when referring to completed action2Absolutive Noun: translated as infinitive, gerund, suffixed or simple noun3Absolutive Adjective: translation may be past participle, present participle, or some other device*qasu·lmawabs.adjlong and narrow (of the whole face)caqʼa·sciwabs.adjstreaked, from scratchingcukʰetʰmuʔabs.nwheelbarrowcuṭʰe·šmawabs.adjflared (of bugle)duša·mawabs.adjlong, messy, of hairhanaca·lawabs.n1second crop of fruit (probably second pickings)2last person to gohaʔtʼemʔabs.nan underground drum that was danced on; any drummaʔtʼemʔabs.nunderground foot drum [?]qaṭʼu·smawabs.adjsmall-faced, with a narrow, small chin, not so long
-w4wvsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with some stems ending in a vowel; must be followed by the Durative /ad/*pʰuʔsʼawadplur.vbreak lots
*wa-v-mvtone go, walkrequires Directional suffix*hcalucomp.vone arrive, terminate movement, come to a house or destination*cohtocdir.v-mvt1one leave, go away, start to go2one go up*cohtocʰqacaus.vsend (one)*ma5dir.v-mvtone go across or past*mac2dir.v-mvt1one go in from here2one go south or east from here*ma·ddir.v-mvtone go within an enclosed place (house, pasture); at a place identified in the context, enclosed or notqʰosʼa ma·dadun.p.nlate fall or early winter*ma·ducdir.v-mvtone arrive at a place, go as far as a place, end journey, return home*ma·qocʼdir.v-mvtone go back a few steps*ma·qʷdir.v-mvt1one come in here2one come southward or eastward to here, come from the north or west*muldir.v-mvtone go around to the other side*mulicʼdir.v-mvtone go around all the way*waladir.1v-mvtone go down2v(power, disease) possess, enter, descend into a person*wala·mecʼdir.v-mvtone go down off of*waqdir.v-mvt1one go out from here, go away2one go north or west from here*wahqacaus.vswallow*waqacdir.v-mvtone go up from here, go up and out*wa·d2dir.v-mvt1one go along (in one direction)2one come toward here*wa·nʔwadcomp.v-mvtone go here and there; wanderʔama· wa·dun.p.ntoddler*wa·ducdir.v-mvtone go far, away to a distance*woloqdir.1v-mvtone come up to here2vrun out*wolo·qocʼdir.v-mvtone come up out of*woqdir.v-mvt1one come out toward here2one come northward or westward to here, come from the south or eastwoqolliloc.nplace where water comes out but does not flow away; a spring*woqocʼdir.v-mvtone go out from here (without reference to cardinal direction)
-wawavsfxInterrogative: always linked systematically to one of the class of interrogative words that occur first in the clausemay be suffixed to the Assertive, when then follows the question word or some other major word of the sentence
waci·duwaci·du´n1leaderwaci·dál qʰamacʰmeʔfollow the leader! follow the one going first!4.5.1Person in authority2main oneDurative ofAbsolutive:*wa·c-idPluralwa·yicʼiwacʼcuhti waci·dun.p.nleader's design, a horizontal zigzag line; the most important designqʰama· waci·dun.p.nfollower
waci·du qʰama·waci·dú qʰama·Free Variant ofqʰama· waci·dufollower
-wacʼwacʼPlural Agent of-wad2DUR-wad1DIST
-wad1wadv > vsfxDistributive: the action occurs in different places or moves in a haphazard manner; usually translated "here and there" or "about"Plural Agent-iwacʼ-wacʼdist.*bide·nʔwadcarry a bunch here and there, all over, all around*cakʰe·nʔwadmove, scoot around on one's butt or rear end*cukʰe·nʔwadpush something arround with a handle or by holding a small part of the larger object, such as of a wheelbarrow*cʰide·nʔwadcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing here and there, all over, all around; drag; lead by the hand*dade·nʔwadcarry, move a heavy object here and there, all over, all around*dakʰe·nʔwadpush, move something around with the hand*dide·nʔwadfall floating here and there (as a feather would do)*dikʰe·nʔwadfall slowly; walk slowly, especially if leaning on something to support self*dukʰe·nʔwadmove or push something around with the finger, such as setting an analog clock*hikʰe·nʔwad(someone to) move self, body around*mikʰe·nʔwadmove something around with the foot, such as by kicking*mukʰe·nʔwadmove car around; drive around in car*ne·nʔwadtune*side·nʔwadone float or sail here and there, all over, all around*šude·nʔwadlead one (person, animal) here and there, all over, all around; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·nʔwadpull, drag something around*wa·nʔwadcomp.v-mvtone go here and there; wander
-wad2wadvsfxDurativeoptional after the Causative /-hqa/, where otherwise /-med/ is typicalPlural Agent-wacʼpref.*duhqʰawadbother, fool around, mess around with someonedur.*banawadfool, deceive (by words), play trick on, liedist.*šoqo·nʔwadsit around*dunawaddur.1vfool, play a trick on (someone); lie, cheat2adjhauntedʔama dunawadph. v.1vspook, haunt2nnightmare, bad dream
waholo·tewaholó·tenturkeykulu bákʰe waholo·tewild turkey5.2.3.2Food from animals1.6.1.2Bird6.3.1Domesticated animal
*wahqawáhqawvswallowmiʔkʰe máʔa qʼoʔdi qácopʰi, wahqachew your food well, then swallow!5.2.2Eat1.6.4.2Animal eatingCausative of*waqPlural*wahtahqa
wahqʰawahqʰa´placeWahka: a place where people lived just south of Where Scallops Lie
*wahtahqawahtáhqaPlural of*wahqaswallow
wake·ruwaké·runcowboy6.6OccupationFree Variantbake·ru
*walawaláw1v-mvtone go downpʰala máʔca· walawhe went back down into the sweathouse<ménc'iba pala máʔǯa· walaw> then; again; in sweat house; he went down into2v(power, disease) possess, enter, descend into a personDirectional of*wa-alaPlural*wohtolacomp.ʔahqʰa wala·liat the mouth of the river or streaminstr.ʔahqʰa wala·liat the mouth of the river or stream
*walaqwaláʔv(spirit) possess [?]
*wala·mecʼwalá·meʔv-mvtone go down off ofDirectional of*wa-alamecʼ
waleholyowalehólyonseed beadswaleholyo cʰiṭu·n.p.nbead basket
waleholyo cʰiṭu·walehólyo cʰiṭu·nbead basket6.6.4.2Weaving baskets and mats6.7.7ContainerNominal Phrase:waleholyocʰiṭu·
wale·puwalé·punfeather sorcerer; men who possess magical power by virtue of wearing feather coatswale·pu yaʔ maṭʼawthe walepu has stepped on (you): i.e. you're finishedmu walé·pu ʔdo· mu ˉ ʔihṭʰé ʔdo· mu ˉ šátʰqacʼe·du šiʔba kúʔmu ˉ šáhmaw ˆ. the walépu is said to wear feathers covering his entire body4.9.4.1Sorcery
waltewáltenwooden bucket6.7.7Container
*wanta·rwantá·rvtolerate (pain), suffer, endure, standwantá·r daqa·cʼi ʔitry to stand it, not give up to the pain!heʔén ṭa ma ṭʼi· wantá·r wahow did you stand all that?
wante·hawanté·hanpan, basin