Kashaya - English


-w1wn > advLocative: in a placesuffixed to a few nounsCompoundku hcawfamilyʔahšowon south sideLocativebahcawin other housemaʔcawin sweathouseʔahcawin house
-w2wv > vMovement: obligatory before Directional suffix if the verb does not otherwise denote movement [?]Directional*duʔkʼuwa·ladestroy*hcʰiwa·lakill much game*kacʰiwa·qocʼput head facing down*puhkʰewayblow away, against*qʼaw(go to) leave behind*šuʔdiwayintroduce*ʔbewayhold againstEssive*kacʰiwmakeep head down
-w3wv1Absolutive: the citation form for verbs, usually translated as an infinitive; the commonest form for the main verb in a narrative when referring to completed action2Absolutive Noun: translated as infinitive, gerund, suffixed or simple noun3Absolutive Adjective: translation may be past participle, present participle, or some other deviceAbsolutivecukʰetʰmuʔwheelbarrowcuṭʰe·šmawflaredqaṭʼu·smawnarrow (of face)Essivecuṭʰe·šmawflaredqaṭʼu·smawnarrow (of face)Prefixedcuṭʰe·šmawflaredqaṭʼu·smawnarrow (of face)
-w4wvPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with some stems ending in a vowel; must be followed by the Durative /ad/
*wa-v-mvtone go, walkrequires Directional suffixCompound*hcaluone arriveDirectional*cohtocone leave one go up*ma5one go across*mac2one go in one go S or E*ma·done go within*ma·ducone arrive*ma·qocʼone go back few steps*ma·qʷone come in one come S or E*mulone go around*mulicʼone go all around*walaone go down possess, enter*wala·mecʼone go down off of*waqone go out or away one go N or W*waqacone go up from here*wa·d2one go along one come here*wa·ducone go far*woloqone come up run out*wolo·qocʼone come up out of*woqone come out one come N or W*woqocʼone go out
-wawavInterrogative: always linked systematically to one of the class of interrogative words that occur first in the clauseCompareˇR-em2RESPmay be suffixed to the Assertive, when then follows the question word or some other major word of the sentence
waci·duwaci·du´n1leaderwaci·dál qʰamacʰmeʔfollow the leader! follow the one going first!4.5.1Person in authority2main onePluralwa·yicʼiwacʼNominal Phrasecuhti waci·duleader's designqʰama· waci·dufollower*wa·clead-idDUR
waci·du qʰama·waci·dú qʰama·Free Variant ofqʰama· waci·dufollower
-wacʼwacʼPlural Agent of-wad1DIST-wad2DUR
-wad1wadv > vDistributive: the action occurs in different places or moves in a haphazard manner; usually translated "here and there" or "about"Plural Agent-iwacʼ-wacʼCompound*wa·nʔwadone go here and thereDistributive*bide·nʔwadcarry (bunch) here and there*cakʰe·nʔwadmove around on butt*cukʰe·nʔwadpush wheelbarrow around*cʰide·nʔwadcarry, lead (one) here and there*dade·nʔwadcarry (heavy) here and there*dakʰe·nʔwadpush around with hand*dide·nʔwadfall floating here and there*dikʰe·nʔwadfall, walk slowly*dukʰe·nʔwadmove around with finger*hikʰe·nʔwadmove self around*mikʰe·nʔwadmove around with foot*mukʰe·nʔwadmove car around*ne·nʔwadtune*side·nʔwadone float here and there*šude·nʔwadlead, pull (one) here and there*šukʰe·nʔwadpull around
-wad2wadvDurativeSynonym-ad1DUR-cidDUR-edDUR-idDUR-medDUR-ucedDURPlural Agent-wacʼoptional after the Causative /-hqa/, where otherwise /-med/ is typicalDistributive*šoqo·nʔwadsit aroundPrefixed*duhqʰawadbother
waholo·tewaholó·tenturkeykulu bákʰe waholo·tewild turkey5.2.3.2Food from animals1.6.1.2Bird6.3.1Domesticated animal< Span. guajolote < Aztec weʔšolotl
*wahqawáhqawvswallowmiʔkʰe máʔa qʼoʔdi qácopʰi, wahqachew your food well, then swallow!5.2.2Eat1.6.4.2Animal eatingPlural*wahtahqa*waqone go out or away one go N or W
wahqʰawahqʰa´placeWahka: a place where people lived just south of Where Scallops Lie
*wahtahqawahtáhqaPlural of*wahqaswallow
wake·ruwaké·runcowboy6.6OccupationSynonymkawa·yu cumahci· yaccowboykawa·yu naṭacowboywa·ka naṭacowboyobsoleteFree Variantbake·ru< Span. vaquero
*walawaláw1v-mvtone go downpʰala máʔca· walawhe went back down into the sweathouse<ménc'iba pala máʔǯa· walaw> then; again; in sweat house; he went down intoSynonym*da·lahqa 1two go down*hayohmalasev. go down*pʰilalagroup go down2v(power, disease) possess, enter, descend into a personPlural*wohtolaCompoundʔahqʰa wala·liat mouth of riverInstrumentalʔahqʰa wala·liat mouth of river*waone go-aladown INCEP
*walaqwaláʔv(spirit) possess [?]
*wala·mecʼwalá·meʔv-mvtone go down off ofSynonym*dala·mecʼqa 1two go down off of*hayohmala·mecʼsev. go down off of*pʰilala·mecʼgroup go down off of*waone go-alamecʼdown off
waleholyowalehólyonseed beads< Span. abalorio ? (through intermediary?)Nominal Phrasewaleholyo cʰiṭu·bead basket
waleholyo cʰiṭu·walehólyo cʰiṭu·nbead basket6.6.4.2Weaving baskets and mats6.7.7Containerwaleholyoseed beadscʰiṭu·coiled basket
wale·puwalé·punfeather sorcerer; men who possess magical power by virtue of wearing feather coatswale·pu yaʔ maṭʼawthe walepu has stepped on (you): i.e. you're finishedmu walé·pu ʔdo· mu ˉ ʔihṭʰé ʔdo· mu ˉ šátʰqacʼe·du šiʔba kúʔmu ˉ šáhmaw ˆ. the walépu is said to wear feathers covering his entire body4.9.4.1Sorcery
waltewáltenwooden bucket6.7.7ContainerComparehari·yabucket< Span. balde "bucket, pail"
*wanta·rwantá·rvtolerate (pain), suffer, endure, standwantá·r daqa·cʼi ʔitry to stand it, not give up to the pain!heʔén ṭa ma ṭʼi· wantá·r wahow did you stand all that?< Span. levantar ?
wante·hawanté·hanpan, basin< Span. bandeja "tray, bowl"