Kashaya - English


-w1wn > advsfxLocative: in a placesuffixed to a few nounscomp.kuhcawfamily, householdʔahšowon the south side of a large geographical feature (mountain, lake, etc.)loc.bahcawin someone else’s house, especially a non-relative'smaʔcawin the sweathouse, into the sweathouseʔahcawin the house (not necessarily one's own home)
-w2wv > vsfxMovement: obligatory before Directional suffix if the verb does not otherwise denote movement [?]essive*kacʰiwmaface head downward and hold that positiondir.*bahcʰiwa·ducshame, insult, or criticize someone*cuhcʰiwa·lashoot a lot of game, shoot down many (birds); slaughter*daʔṭʼawaypress against something with the hand, and break it*duʔkʼuwa·ladestroy, kill all, wipe out*kacʰiwa·qocʼput head facing down*pahcʰiwa·laspear a lot of game, spear many (fish)*puhkʰewaymove something away or against by blowing*qʼawleave something behind in a location; go somewhere to leave something behind*šuʔdiwayintroduce to someone*ʔbewayhold a long object against
-w3wvsfx1Absolutive: the citation form for verbs, usually translated as an infinitive; the commonest form for the main verb in a narrative when referring to completed action2Absolutive Noun: translated as infinitive, gerund, suffixed or simple noun3Absolutive Adjective: translation may be past participle, present participle, or some other device*qasu·lmawabs.qasulmáwadjlong and narrow (of the whole face)synqaṭʼu·smawcf*ṭʼi·sqa·ṭʼusṭʼusucaqʼa·sciwabs.caqʼascíwadjstreaked, from scratchingcukʰetʰmuʔabs.cukʰétʰmuʔnwheelbarrowcuṭʰe·šmawabs.cuṭʰešmáwadjflared (of bugle)syncuhṭʰecu·ṭʰešṭʰešeduša·mawabs.duša·máwadjlong, messy, of haircf*dahšac2*šuhšahšahanaca·lawabs.hanacá·lawn1second crop of fruit (probably second pickings)2last person to gomaʔtʼemʔabs.maʔtʼémʔnunderground foot drum [?]qaṭʼu·smawabs.qaṭʼusmáwadjsmall-faced, with a narrow, small chin, not so longsyn*qasu·lmawwaci·dudur.abs.waci·du´n1leader2main onepl.wa·yicʼiwacʼwa·yicʼíwacʼcuhti waci·dun.p.cuhti wáci·dunleader's design, a horizontal zigzag line; the most important designfr. var.nohpʰonohpʰo cuhtiqʰama· waci·dun.p.qʰama· wací·dunfollowerdial. var.qʰama waci·dufr. var.waci·du qʰama·
-w4wvsfxPlural Act: the object undergoing the action is plural, or the act is performed on the same object more than onceoccurs with some stems ending in a vowel; must be followed by the Durative /ad/plur. aff.*hcowad*hpʰitʼpʰitʼiwad*htiwad*laṭʼa·wad*lewad*suwad*ṭʰewad*yiwa*ʔcʼowad*ʔqʼoʔdiwad2*pʰuʔsʼawadplur.pʰuʔsʼawá·duvbreak lotscf*pʰusʼa·
*wa-v-mvtone go, walkrequires Directional suffix*hcalucomp.calúwvone arrive, terminate movement, come to a house or destinationsyn*hcalpʰili*hcalʔdahqacf*ma·duc*cohtocdir.cohtóʔv-mvt1one leave, go away, start to go2one go upsyn*da·bicʰqa 1*hayomi·bic*pʰilebic 1*cohtocʰqacaus.cohtócʰqawvsend (one)*ma5dir.máwv-mvtone go across or pastsyn*hayohwim*lahwi*pahṭʰi*pʰima1*ʔdamqa 1fr. var.*mam*mac2dir.máʔv-mvt1one go in from here2one go south or east from heresyn*hayohwimac 1*pʰimac 1*ʔdamacʰqa 1*ma·ddir.ma·duv-mvtone go within an enclosed place (house, pasture); at a place identified in the context, enclosed or notsyn*hayohwimacʼ*pʰima·cʼ*ʔdamacʼqa 1qʰosʼa ma·dadun.p.qʰosʼa má·dadunlate fall or early wintercf*qʰoʔsʼaqʰosʼa· 1*ma·ducdir.ma·dúʔv-mvtone arrive at a place, go as far as a place, end a journey, return homesyn*hayohwima·cʼic*pʰima·cʼic*ʔdama·cʼicʰqa 1cf*hcalupl. agt.*macʼic*ma·cʼic*ma·qocʼdir.ma·qóʔv-mvtone go back a few stepssyn*hayohwima·qocʼ*pʰimaqocʼ*ʔdama·qocʼqa 1*šuʔdima·qocʼdir.šuʔdimá·qoʔv-hndlead one (person, animal) back a few steps; pull (with a rope)pl.*šuhsama·qocʼ*ma·qʷdir.máʔv-mvt1one come in here2one come southward or eastward to here, come from the north or westsyn*hayohwimaqʷ 1*pʰimaqʷ 1*ʔdamahqa 1*muldir.múlʔv-mvtone go around to the other sidesyn*hayohwimul*pʰimul*ʔdamulqa 1*mulicʼdir.mulíʔv-mvtone go around all the waysyn*hayohwimu·licʼ*pʰimulicʼ*ʔdamu·licʼqa 1*waladir.waláw1v-mvtone go downsyn*da·lahqa 1*hayohmala*pʰilala2v(power, disease) possess, enter, descend into a personpl.*wohtola*wala·mecʼdir.walá·meʔv-mvtone go down off ofsyn*dala·mecʼqa 1*hayohmala·mecʼ*pʰilala·mecʼ*waqdir.wáʔv-mvt1one go out from here, go away2one go north or west from heresyn*da·hqa1 1*hayohmaq 1*pʰilaq 1*wahqacaus.wáhqawvswallowpl.*wahtahqawahtáhqa*waqacdir.waqáʔv-mvtone go up from here, go up and outsyn*da·qacʰqa 1*hayohmaqac*pʰilaqac*wa·d2dir.wa·du´v-mvt1one go along (in one direction)2one come toward heresyn*da·cʼqa 1*hayohmacʼ 1*pʰila·cʼ 1*wa·nʔwadcomp.wanʔwadúv-mvtone go here and there; wandersyn*da·cʼwacʼqa 1*hayom*pʰilatʰmucʼʔama· wa·dun.p.ʔama· wá·duntoddler; child who has started to walkcfnaṭa 1ʔama ciwa·du*wa·ducdir.wa·dúʔv-mvtone go far, away to a distancesyn*da·cʼicʰqa 1*hayohmacʼic*pʰila·cʼic*woloqdir.wolóʔ1v-mvtone come up to heresyn*da·lohqa 1*hayohmaloq*pʰiloloq2vrun out*wolo·qocʼdir.woló·qoʔv-mvtone come up out ofsyn*dalo·qocʼqa 1*hayohmalo·qocʼ*pʰilolo·qocʼ2*woqdir.wóʔv-mvt1one come out toward here2one come northward or westward to here, come from the south or eastsyn*da·hqa2 1*hayohmaqʷ 1*pʰiloq 1woqolliloc.woqóllinplace where water comes out but does not flow away; a spring*woqocʼdir.woqóʔv-mvtone go out from here (without reference to cardinal direction)cf*da·qocʼqa 1*hayohmaqocʼ*pʰiloqocʼ
-wawavsfxInterrogative: always linked systematically to one of the class of interrogative words that occur first in the clausecf-em2ˇmay be suffixed to the Assertive, when then follows the question word or some other major word of the sentence
waci·duwaci·du´n1leaderwaci·dál qʰamacʰmeʔfollow the leader! follow the one going first!4.5.1Person in authority2main oneDurative ofAbsolutive:*wa·c-id-w3Pluralwa·yicʼiwacʼwa·yicʼíwacʼcuhti waci·dun.p.cuhti wáci·dunleader's design, a horizontal zigzag line; the most important designfr. var.nohpʰonohpʰo cuhtiqʰama· waci·dun.p.qʰama· wací·dunfollowerdial. var.qʰama waci·dufr. var.waci·du qʰama·
waci·du qʰama·waci·dú qʰama·Free Variant ofqʰama· waci·dufollower
-wacʼwacʼPlural Agent of-wad2DUR-wad1DIST
-wad1wadv > vsfxDistributive: the action occurs in different places or moves in a haphazard manner; usually translated "here and there" or "about"Plural Agent-iwacʼ-wacʼdist.*bide·nʔwadcarry a bunch here and there, all over, all around*cakʰe·nʔwadmove, scoot around on one's butt or rear end*cukʰe·nʔwadpush something arround with a handle or by holding a small part of the larger object, such as of a wheelbarrow*cʰide·nʔwadcarry (with a handle, or packing on one's back or shoulder) one thing here and there, all over, all around; drag; lead by the hand*dade·nʔwadcarry, move a heavy object here and there, all over, all around*dakʰe·nʔwadpush, move something around with the hand*dide·nʔwadfall floating here and there (as a feather would do)*dikʰe·nʔwadfall slowly; walk slowly, especially if leaning on something to support self*dukʰe·nʔwadmove or push something around with the finger, such as setting an analog clock*hikʰe·nʔwad(someone to) move self, body around*mikʰe·nʔwadmove something around with the foot, such as by kicking*mukʰe·nʔwadmove car around; drive around in car*ne·nʔwadtune*side·nʔwadone float or sail here and there, all over, all around*šude·nʔwadlead one (person, animal) here and there, all over, all around; pull (with a rope)*šukʰe·nʔwadpull, drag something around*wa·nʔwadcomp.wanʔwadúv-mvtone go here and there; wandersyn*da·cʼwacʼqa 1*hayom*pʰilatʰmucʼ
-wad2wadvsfxDurativesyn-ad1-cid-ed-id-med-ucedoptional after the Causative /-hqa/, where otherwise /-med/ is typicalPlural Agent-wacʼpref.*duhqʰawadbother, fool around, mess around with someonedist.*šoqo·nʔwadsit around*banawaddur.banawá·duvfool, deceive (by words), play trick on, liecfhaṭʰkʼo 2pl. agt.*banawacʼ*baʔsʼawaddur.baʔsʼawá·duvsingcf*cahno 1*hoʔyis*qacʼa·m*qaʔcʼaṭ*tolotolo 1*dunawaddur.dunawá·du1vfool, play a trick on (someone); lie, cheatcf*šiyanci12adjhauntedpl. agt.*dunawacʼʔama dunawadph. v.ʔama dúnawa·du1vspook, haunt2nnightmare, bad dream
waholo·tewaholó·tenturkeykulu bákʰe waholo·tewild turkey5.2.3.2Food from animals1.6.1.2Bird6.3.1Domesticated animal
*wahqawáhqawvswallowmiʔkʰe máʔa qʼoʔdi qácopʰi, wahqachew your food well, then swallow!5.2.2Eat1.6.4.2Animal eatingCausative of*waqPlural*wahtahqawahtáhqa
wahqʰawahqʰa´placeWahka: a place where people lived just south of Where Scallops Lie
*wahtahqawahtáhqaPlural of*wahqaswallow
*wahtʼi-Plural of*hwatʼflopPlural Affix-h-
wake·ruwaké·runcowboysynkawa·yu cumahci· yackawa·yu naṭawa·ka naṭa6.6OccupationFree Variantbake·ru
*walawaláw1v-mvtone go downpʰala máʔca· walawhe went back down into the sweathouse<ménc'iba pala máʔǯa· walaw> then; again; in sweat house; he went down intosyn*da·lahqa 1*hayohmala*pʰilala2v(power, disease) possess, enter, descend into a personDirectional of*wa-alaPlural*wohtolacomp.ʔahqʰa wala·liat the mouth of the river or streaminstr.ʔahqʰa wala·liat the mouth of the river or stream
*walaqwaláʔv(spirit) possess [?]
*wala·mecʼwalá·meʔv-mvtone go down off ofsyn*dala·mecʼqa 1*hayohmala·mecʼ*pʰilala·mecʼDirectional of*wa-alamecʼ
waleholyowalehólyonseed beadswaleholyo cʰiṭu·n.p.walehólyo cʰiṭu·nbead basket
waleholyo cʰiṭu·walehólyo cʰiṭu·nbead basket6.6.4.2Weaving baskets and mats6.7.7ContainerNominal Phrase:waleholyocʰiṭu·
wale·puwalé·punfeather sorcerer; men who possess magical power by virtue of wearing feather coatswale·pu yaʔ maṭʼawthe walepu has stepped on (you): i.e. you're finishedmu walé·pu ʔdo· mu ˉ ʔihṭʰé ʔdo· mu ˉ šátʰqacʼe·du šiʔba kúʔmu ˉ šáhmaw ˆ. the walépu is said to wear feathers covering his entire body4.9.4.1Sorcery
waltewáltenwooden bucketcfhari·ya6.7.7Container
*wanta·rwantá·rvtolerate (pain), suffer, endure, standwantá·r daqa·cʼi ʔitry to stand it, not give up to the pain!heʔén ṭa ma ṭʼi· wantá·r wahow did you stand all that?