Kashaya - English


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yayapro1st person Plural Nominative: weyaʔkʰeben.pro11st person Plural Benefactive: for us21st person Plural Possessive: our, oursyaʔkʰe ʔa·penʔn.p.nOur Fatheryaʔnaloc.pro11st person Plural Locative: where we are21st person Plural Locative of Home: at our house, at our placeyalobj.pro11st person Plural Accusative: us21st person Plural Inalienable Possessive: our, ours
-yayavsfxVisual Evidential: used for perfective or completed actions that the speaker knows to be true because he or she saw them happennot used after the Negative nor after imperfective suffixes such as the Durative
=yacyaʔn1Agentive: indicates the cause or driving force behind an action; can be used with animals and inanimates that are seen to cause some changebaqʼo tʰin yaʔ yal qʰama núwa·dadusomething is chasing usyahmóʔ yaʔ ʔacaʔ múhtenʔthe panther pounced on the manʔahqʰa yaʔ miṭaʔ sihcʰúhcʰuwthe water is washing away the sand2Relative Nominalizer: the one who does the thing named in the preceding verb phrase; use in many names of professionstó· ṭʼo maʔál dicʼi·duwá·du yaʔthe one who told me about hermihyácʼkʰe yaʔthe one that is going to win3Respectful, or Honorific: indicates respect for the person named by the noun; used with in-laws and deceased personsšu·šunʔ yaʔ ʔima·ta qʼoʔdimy (deceased) aunt was a good womanObjective=yacolBenefactive=yacoʔkʰeLocative=yacoʔnaVocative=yacocomp.duyaʔtaw yacdreamerhelper or assistant, especially to a dreamer or traditional doctor; sings in the background while healing is in progresswitness, counselormace·yacguardmaya hca yacyou folks, your people, your kind of peopleʔama·qʼoyacfarmern.p.bihše duhkʰuya·du yacbutchercahno dacetiʔ yactape recordercuhma dúhkʰu·muʔ yacʰmaarmykawa·yu cumahci· yaccowboy, rider; horse breaker, rider of bucking horsesmatʼileʔya ʔelšiwa·du yacsalesperson, salesman, saleswoman; merchantmaʔa dutʼata·du yaccooknaṭa yya biditanʔqa· yacmidwifeqali bakʰe yacangel, Godweya qʼoʔdi yacHoly Spiritʔaca·c hadu· yacthe Devil, the "Other One", the Evil Oneʔahqʰatol duhkʰu·muʔ yacʰmanavyʔahqʰatol qamu·muʔ yacʰmanavyʔama ciqʰamʔ yacsurveyorʔama· yow ʔbakʰe yacdevil, Satanʔima·ta ʔelšiwa·du yacpimpder.bahṭʰe ʔiy yacolder, elder (of several siblings)cahno lowaʔ yacsubj.tiya·cLogophoric Agentive Nominative: he, she, it, they (coreferential with the higher subject)unspec. comp. formqawi ʔiy yacyounger (of several siblings)=yacʰmader.n suffPlural for animate nouns, especially peoplehiyemʔ yacder.nlord, ruler, one with authoritycahno dicʼma·yacn.p.ninterpretersʼaʔsʼa siqʰoliʔ yacn.p.nvacuum cleanerʔama hnatʰqa· yacn.p.nsurveyorʔama· cʼoʔ yacn.p.nGod, the Creator
=yacoyacoVocative of=yacAGTRELRSPT
=yacolyacolObjective of=yacAGTRELRSPT
=yacoʔkʰeyacoʔkʰeBenefactive of=yacAGTRELRSPT
=yacoʔnayacoʔnaLocative of=yacAGTRELRSPT
=yacʰmayacʰman suffPlural for animate nouns, especially peopleDerivative:=yacn.p.cuhma qamu·muʔ yacʰmaarmy; soldiers
yahmoṭyahmóʔnmountain lion, pantheryahmoṭʼé· muit's a panther1.6.1.1.2Carnivore
yahwiyyahwíyinterjthank you!yahwiy nihcedun, to kʼili mocʼoʔkʰeʔit’s not going to take much to turn me blackyahwí· qʼoʔdiʔthanks, that's good*yahwiya·macʼverb.refl.vthank (someone), give thanks (for something)
*yahwiya·macʼyahwiyá·maʔvthank (someone), give thanks (for something)yahwiyá·maʔ ʔima·ta ʔelthey thanked the womanyahwiyá·maʔteʔlet's give thanksʔanahmi yahwiya·macʼe·dun ʔe· ʔa mito maʔuI thank you very much for thisVerbalization ofReflexive ofyahwiy
yalyálpro11st person Plural Accusative: us21st person Plural Inalienable Possessive: our, oursObjective ofya
yalayala´1adjstraight, right onyala cúdaʔ tʰin, musu· cuhcélhmadomnot floating out straight, the log got stuck crosswise, they sayyala cíticʼqastraighten them!yala móhqadrive straight ahead!to· tólhqʰaʔ yala wá·ducome straight toward me!ʔaná· heʔe yalavery straight hairmulido hadu· ʔel ma·cáʔ ṭʼo yala pʰíla·cʼiʔ ˉ. The others, however, went right on.ʔahca yalastraight room8.3.1.3Straight2adjdirect, honestʔacaʔ yalastraight (standing) man; honest man4.3.5Honest3adj(stretched) flat, smoothyala ʔé· muit is smoothʔama· yalalevel land8.3.1.3.1Flat4adjbland (tasting)yala qáʔtʼawit tastes bland2.3.3Taste5advimmediately8.4.6.4.4Immediatelykuyalacomp.advright now, right away*yalacsmlf.vstraighten out; be stretched or straightened out
*yalacyaláʔvstraighten out; be stretched or straightened outyalacistraighten out! straighten up!yalací·du(wa·du)D: DurativeyalácʰmeʔD: Pluralyalayícʼmeʔstraighten yourselves!yalacíʔtʰuʔD: Negativeyala cítiʔthey became straightyalácʰqastraighten it!yala cíticʼqastraighten them!Semelfactive ofyala
yalaqolacʼyalaqólaʔnyoung spike buck1.6.3Animal life cycle1.6.1.1.3Hoofed animalsCompound:Absolutive:yala*qola-acʼ1
yalawyaláw1adjpreviousyalá· capa tolin the previous weekyalá· capaltowsince last weekyaláw ʔṭʼo ʔa soh me· ʔicé·dutʰin muʔnati bihqatol ʔa soh mi· ʔiʔkʰe ʔbefore (earlier, previous times) I didn't stay there but this time I'm going to stay thereyalá· capa tol ṭuhsoyíduṭaʔthis past Friday2advat firstyala· pucecʼi·du cuhse wiat first she was shielding herself with the cradle basketmuhtʰi wáyimʔ mu yalá· ʔama· šiweyí·biʔ meṭʼ ido·–bihkʰólhmacʼe·duthe first rattlesnake comes out at the beginning of spring, they sayyalawʔ bakʰe ʔacaʔthe first manyalaw él dibi·yhe picked up the first oneyala· cíla bahqoṭólqacʼe·du bihše ʔem ˆ. The deer hesitated for a long time at first.yala·macder.adv1at first, from the beginning2for a while
yala·macyalá·maʔadv1at first, from the beginningyalá·maʔ be·li ma·dúcʼba to ʔama dúhkal ʔtʼa·duʔyow tʼoʔṭʼoto ʔeʔné·cicʼwiywhen I first came here I felt lonesome, but now I am used to (the place)mensʼi·li mul mu·kinʔ mil ʔbakʰe yala·maʔ ʔahqʰa ʔqʼoʔthen, at first, he drank some of that wateryala·maʔ cahnocí·du “heʔen ʔa tubícʼkʰe tʰin e·” nihceduAt first she was saying, “I can’t get up.”maʔu ʔé· mu ʔa yalá·maʔ ʔacaʔ qašóhqaw ʔaná· na·qʰo mal ʔbakʰe ʔinThe first person I cured was when I was more than twelve years old.yala·maʔ bakʰe ʔacaʔthe first man2for a whileyalá·maʔ mace·cʼiwait a whileDerivative:yalaw
yala·maʔ bakʰeadjoriginal, first
yama·niyama·ni´nsheep6.3.1.2SheepFree Variantyama·nuyama·ni qawicomp.nlambyama·ni ʔimecomp.nwool, and by extension cotton
yama·ni qawiyama·ni qáwinlambyama·ni qáwiyoung lamb6.3.1.2Sheep1.6.3Animal life cycleCompound:yama·niqawi
yama·ni ʔimeyama·ni ʔímenwool, and by extension cotton6.3.7Animal products6.6.1.1ClothCompound:yama·niʔime
yama·nuyama·nu´Free Variant ofyama·nisheep
yama·nu bihšenlamb (meat)
yama·nu duyamʔ bihšenmutton
*yama·taq-Plural of*ya·m1be (un)able to do all