Mbula - English


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pa1CONJbecause, forPa ni ikam ŋgar ta kembei...For he thought like this...Pa nu itum ta maŋmaŋ.It was because you yourself insisted.
pa2PREPto, concerning, about, referent preposition (expresses a wide variety of oblique semantic roles in the clause including: Goal, Source, Location, Time, Instrument, Benefactive, Malefactive, Cause, Addressee, Circumstantial, and Experiential Stimulus)to, intoZaala ta ila pa Lablab na, molo som katŋana?The road that goes to Lablab, is it long or short?Ni iso pa waene.He spoke to his spouse.Ziru tilela pa su.The two went into the forest.about, concerningNio aŋmiu pini.I dreamt about him.Zin tiuulu yo pa uraata tio.They helped me with my work.Zin tiso pini.They spoke about/ to him.atNi imar pa mbeŋ.He came at night.Zin timbot pa Karapo.They live at Karapo.because, for (causal), on account of, of (causal)Nu so mini, pa nio aŋleŋ kat somSay it again, because/for I didn't hear it well.Tikam mbulu tana pa uunu toro.They did that for another reason.Koŋ miaŋ pa ituŋ.I am ashamed of myself.for (dative / benefactive)Nio aŋkam uraata pini.I worked for him.Nu kam pio sorok, som aŋgiimi?Are you (SG) giving it to me for nothing (free), or am I to buy [it]?Nu lelem pa yok?Would you like water? (Lit. 'Are your insides for water?')for (temporal duration / extent)Nio aŋbot pa ndaama lamata.I stayed [there] for 5 years.from, out ofTitatke yo pa uraata ki misin.They took me out of the mission work.Nio aŋko pini.I ran away from him.Ni keteene su pa uraata kini.He rested from his work.Anutu iut mat pa zugut.God separated light from darkness.inNi ipeebe pa Septemba.She gave birth in September.Ni tomtom ambaiŋana pa Anutu mataana.He is a good man in God's eyes.with (instrumental)Nio aŋtaara ke pa nakabasi.I cut the tree down with an axe.Wok ikowo pa kumbuunu mi namaana, mi ikeltapaara pa wiini tomini.The wallaby flees using its front and back limbs, and springs with its tail also.Tire pa matan.They saw [it] with their eyes.pio; piwi; pini; piti; pindi; piam; piom; pizinpu; piupa + Numeralonce, twice, never, timesNi ikam pa tamen.He did it once/ one time.Ni ikam pa ru.He did it twice/ two times.Nio aŋre pa sa zen.I have never seen it yet.
-pa3V_Intrwalk, travel, wander, move, comeNi ipa ma ila.He walked along.Zin tipa toono.They travelled by/on land.Miiri ipa pa re ma imar.The wind came from the southeast.Pa lak! Pa iŋgi zoŋ mataana isula kek.Start walking! For the sun has already started going down.Tipeeze wooŋgo ma tipa ndapet ma tibeleu kur ndemeene. Tipa pa ndapet a.They paddled their canoes and moved out towards the sea and went around the area of the reef where the waves break. They travelled along further out towards the sea.-pa pawalk throughoutKapa pa lele ta boozomen.Go and visit every place.have a close relationshipZiru tipa.They are having a close relationship / affair.-pa kaimer2walk behind, come behind, come later-pa kifollow the behaviour of one's parents (or close relatives), do as one's parents do, follow in the footsteps of one's parentsPikin tana ipa ki tamaana.That child follows his father's ways.-pa ki ndeme-/ -pa ki ŋuzu-walk backwards-pa le-walk or live following one's own desiresNu pa ki tomom som. Nu pa ndel. Pa lem ki asiŋ?You (SG) are not following your father's behaviour. You behave differently. In following your own desires, whose behaviour are you following?-pa ndel pa2diverge from, be different from, not the same as, missLutum tana ipa ndel pa mbulu ku.That child of yours diverges from your (SG) way of living.Mbulu tiom ipa ndel pa Anutu sua kini.Your (PL) way of life is different from God's word.-pa ndeme- or -pa kere-walk close to someone in front of them / behind themPikin lautabe, o tomtom yaambaŋana, na irao tapa kouluŋana su kereene uunu pepe, tapa kolouŋana pa ndemeene uunu pepe. Topou pini.A first-born child or a sorcerer, we (INC) must not walk too close to him, either in front of him or behind him. We must show respect for him.kosasa ipa ndeme- somnothing is impossible for someone (i.e. they are strong, wise, capable (Lit. 'nothing walks /moves behind someone')Anutu, kosasa irao ipa ndemeene som.God, nothing is impossible for himknow and properly follow all the rules of ceremony, do everything properlyNi ikam mailaŋ na kosa sa ipa ndemeene som.When he put on the feast, he followed all the customs and laws associated with it.-pa pai mos1live prudently, circumspectlyPutuundu yam. Naso ampa pai mos men, mi amsosor som.Strengthen us (EXC). Then we will walk/live very prudently and not do wrong-pa pakaana1be located along one side of somethingYok Taroobo iut ma Salapoŋgo ipa pakaana, Kipiili ipa pakaana.The river Taroobo divides the land, with the Salaponggo clan's land being along one side and the Kipiili clan's land being along the other side.-wwa, -wawa-wawaV_IntrPikin iwwa kek.The child is walking already.-wwa le-stroll for pleasure, walk without having a clear purpose or goalNiom kala swoi? Soom. Niam amwwa leyam men.Where are you (PL) going? Nowhere in particular. We (EXC) are just having a pleasurable stroll.-wwa le- sorokgo one's own way, follow one's own [immoral] desires, be promiscuousMoori tana iwwa le sorok, ta iŋgi kopoono i.It is because that woman followed her own desires that she is now pregnant.-pawa1V_Trhelp to walkNi ipawa lutuunu, pa ni itoombo pai.He is helping his child to walk, for the child is trying [to learn how to] walk.Teteegi mi tapawa i ma tala. Pa ni mata pisŋana.Let us hold his hand and help him walk along. For he is blind.Kumbuunu ipawa i ma ila.His feet lead him along.
pa + Numeralsubentry ofpa2
paagaNshavings, woodchips (left over after hewing timber or cutting a tree with an axe)Tataara ke, to ka paaga itoptop su toono.When we (INC) cut a tree, then the shavings drop down on the ground.Ni ikan kini pa ke matum ka paaga, tana ilulu. Pa iur pini som.He ate using a chip of matum wood but didn't vomit. It must not suit him. [some people are allergic to this particular kind of wood.].Ke sarwok na ka paaga pelpelŋana. Kembei mbulesen som, pa mbulesen na mbolkeŋkeŋŋana.The sarwok tree is easy to hew. It is not like mbulesen tree, for it is very hard.Nakabasi ila mi ka paaga itoptop.The axe goes [and strikes the tree], and the chips keep falling down.
paagapukQUANTa lot, more than would normally be expectedSu pini ma paagapuk ta kembena? (ro biibi)Why did you (SG) give her as much as that? (You gathered up a lot [of salt].)Mbu tiam kureene siŋaanabi ta pikin ti isu pa ma paagapuk ma ila pizin Mutu, mi niam koyam ri tana. Amso sua som, pa ni ta kembeiŋana. Namaana ti iuri. (=Ikam biibi kat ila pizin.)That huge bunch of areca nut of ours (EXC), this child gave most of it to the island people, and there is just that little bit of it left for us. [But] we did not say anything, for he is just like that. His hand causes him to do it. (=He gave a lot to them.)-reki som; ikam biibi
-paala1V_Trsplit into pieces lengthwise (both men and women can cut things this way)Nio aŋpaala ke pa nakabasi.I split the wood with an axe.Paala pinpin ke pepe. Kokena ilela you to ŋurŋur baram.Don't split the wood too small. Otherwise, when it is put onto the fire it will burn too quickly.split openTipaala ni.They split open coconuts.cut openOther compound verbs containing -paala-palpaala/ -walwaalaV_TrPalpaala ye ma ka kopoono isu lene.Cut open the fish and remove the entrails.Mi mbili ta imeete na, ziru ko tipalpaala ma ni kana ni kana.And the animal that has died, they should cut it into pieces and share it between them.-palpaala mata-2captivate, fascinate, get caught up with, confuse (Lit. 'be breaking someone's eyes')Moori aigauŋana ipalpaala tomtom tana mataana, tabe ikamam uraata som mi imborene.The woman who was decorated, captivated/fascinated that man, and so he was not doing any work and was just hanging around doing nothing.Pat ipalpaala matan ma tirai som.They are caught up with the money and won't share it.Koroŋ matakiŋa ki toono ipalpaala matan.Different things of the world catch their thinking.-palpaala ŋgar2confuse thinking, captivate (Lit. 'be breaking someone's thinking')Pat ipalpaala ŋgar kizin.The money captivated their thinking.Sua tana ipalpaala ŋgar kizin tomtom.The talk confused people's thinking.paalaŋa-N_Inal_Stativesplit, broken, breakingKe tiŋgi paalaŋana kek.This timber is split up already.-mapaala2V_Intrbreak, burstWooŋgo imapaala.The canoe broke up.synboros-miriŋriŋ-moso-mapalpaala-mawalwaalaV_IntrPat popoŋana isala you ma imapalpaala ma muunu men.The new stone went on the fire and broke up into lots of tiny pieces.-pamapaala2V_Trbreak something accidentallyNi ipamapaala kombom/ kuuru.He broke a drum / pot by accident.-kelpaala (meene, kun, toono)V_Trbreak up using a sharp stick or knife (done to earth, sago, breadfruit)-kinpaala (wooro, teene, muzil)V_Trbreak off with one's fingers rope, cane, vine-kotpaala (ni, pa buza)V_Trbreak in half (coconuts, with a bushknife)-ŋgorpaala (mbu)V_Trbreak with one's teeth (areca nut)-papaala1V_Trbreak something by stepping on itPopoŋana kini sa ko ipapaala utem.One of his offspring will step on your head and break it.Kumbum sala ko mi papaala.Step on the bamboo and break it.-petepaala1V_Trbreak by throwing-roupaalaV_Trsplit in half by striking (done to bigger logs to provide firewood for smoking coconuts or cocoa, done by men)Amroupaala ke pa nakabasi ma iwe ru.We (EXC) split the log in half with an axe.Zin tomooto men irao tiroupaala, pa ke bibip. To tikwaara tataŋa ma timar.Only men are able to split big logs in half, for [they are] big pieces of wood. Then they carry them back one by one.-supaala1V_Trcut in half with a knifeTusupaala ŋge ma iwe ru.Let us (INC) cut the pig in half.-tarpaala (mbu, peege kiini, soolo)split up into small pieces-tutpaala1V_Trbump into somethingNio motoŋ sanaana pa uraata ma aŋre ke som, mi aŋtutpaala kumbuŋ ila.I was concentrating on the work and didn't see the stick and hit my leg on it.
-paala2V_Trwalk in a riverNi ipaala yok.He walked in the river.Paala yok pepe. Kokena kom muk isula, pa zin tiwinin yok ta ndapet.Don't walk in the river lest your (SG) dirt get into it. For they normally drink the water down stream.move across, walk across (the village)Atai ipaala kar keteene.Atai walked across the village.
paalaŋa-subentry of-paala1
paandaNpandanus (=Tok Pisin karuka, leaves are sewn into mats, fruit edible)Pandanus sp.Paanda pwoono, iti takan, mi paanda ruunu na iwe mi.The pandanus fruit, we (INC) eat, and the leaves are made into sleeping mats.
paara1Nplatform, shelf where food items are put onKom kini ta ise paara na, kam su to kan.Your (SG) food that is on the shelf, take it down and then eat [it].structure for pulling a big log across a riverTipo paara be tiyaaru wooŋgo.They built a bridge over which to pull the log for the canoe.parpaara1Nshelf
-paara2V_Trlook after a rejected child or an orphanIti tapaara pikin ti ma iwe kolman.We (INC) looked after this child until he grew up.syn-mboro
-paara3V_Trsmoke, dry (on a wire grid)Iti tapaara ye/ koi.We (INC) smoked some fish/ tobacco.-kutpaaraŋa-N_Inal_StativeKoi paaraŋana.dried tobacco-tunpaara1V_Intrhave a steam bath, steam treatment (done for some illnesses)
paaraŋa-subentry of-paara3
-paataV_Trread, callRaaza pepe, pa nio aŋpaata zen.Don't tear it, because I haven't read it yet.Nio aŋpaata sua.I read the talk.Paata ma kalŋom biibi!Read it in a loud voice!Pasaana nio zoŋ mi paata sorok pepe.Do not do ruin my name and call it in vain.nameNaŋgoŋ ipaata zoŋ Salme.My mother named me Salme.Adam ipaata zin zan zan makiŋ.Adam named them all.Mat tana, ni ipaata be aigule, mi zugut be mbeŋ.That light, he called day, and the darkness, he called night.considerTomtom takena, niam ampaati be tomtom ambaiŋana.A man like that, we (EXC) consider him a good person.Wal tipaata yom be biibi kizin pepe.People should not call you (PL) [=consider you to be] their masters.Nio ko aŋpaata zin be wal tio.I will call them my people.-paata tenguess-paata ka-plan to do something to someoneintend, mean, do on purposeNio aŋpaata kana, tabe aŋpuni ma imeete.I intentionally killed him.Nio aŋpaata kom, ta aŋmari be re leŋ ŋge sa pa bugoŋ.I have been planning to see you (SG), and that is why I came so that you would look for a pig to give me for my ceremonial obligation. (said to a guraaba 'trading partner')Aŋpaata Atai mi Naleŋ kan be aŋkam len.I plan to give it to Atai and Naleng.-watwaata1V_TrpaataŋanaN_Inal_Eventreadingpaataŋana mi beedeŋanareading and writingNi kwoono imbeeze pa paataŋana.He is a good reader.
-paata ka-subentry of-paata
paataŋanasubentry of-paata
-paata suasubentry ofsua
-paata tensubentry of-paata
paaza1Ntree type (very long-lasting, prized for houseposts)Kala kasap paaza pa kitiimbi.Go and hew paaza tree wood for house posts.
-paaza2-paas (Gauru); -paza (Northern)V_Trplant, put into groundKel toono mi koroŋ isula (ni, mbu, pin, ŋgalam, mok, yagoŋ iweene, etc.)Dig a hole into a ground and put something into it (coconut, betelnut, banana, taro, corn seed, etc.)Aŋpaaza mok.I planted taro.Aŋpaaza kitiimbi.I planted the house posts in the ground.Sombe lende koi iweene, som yagoŋ iweene, to timbit se you mataana bekena you/ka koi iŋgalŋgal (=ikudut). Mi tuurpe muriini ma kiŋ, tona tuputke su ma tala tapaaza. Sombe yagoŋ na tapaaza pataaŋa. Mi sombe koi, nako tala titiyaara, ma perper to tala tupuru mi tapaaza.If we (INC) have tobacco seeds or corn seeds, then we hang them up above a fire so that the fire/smoke dries them. Once we have prepared a place [to place them], then we undo them and go [and] plant them. If it is corn, then we plant [the seeds] right away. And if it is tobacco, then we go [and] scatter [the seeds], and when they start to come up, we pull them up and replant them.-waswaaza, -wazaas, -pazazaV_TrWaswaaza kom kini. Naso kan seeŋge.Keep planting food. Then you (SG) will continue to have food to eat.paazaŋa-N_Inal_StativeplantedTisula Nakayobi paazaŋana, tiru mbu ma som.They went to the area Nakayobi had planted to look for areca nuts but did not find any.nio paazaŋoŋmy planting, my plantation, thing(s) I plantedMazwaana ki biidi paazaŋana na ila kek.The time for planting yams has already passed.
paazaŋa-subentry of-paaza2
-pabarau2V_TrCausativetame, cause to be unafraidIti irao tapabarau zin mbili, to matan isu mi tiute iti.We (INC) are able to tame animals, then their eyes go down (= they are no longer afraid) and they know us.syn-pun mormor1cfbarauŋa-