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a–em [ʔaʔɛːm] n.kin reference or address to younger sibling or younger cousin if a child; also extended to unrelated children; also extended to a man’s wife. em [yB, yS.] Restrictions: A male must not refer to a female as a–em unless she is his own younger sister or his wife.] cl: náq, lám; poss: ixeam 4.1.9. Kinship
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a–in [ʔaʔiːn] pc vt resemble giống như syn: arâq pl dial.: in 9.6.2.3. Relations involving correspondences. 8.3.5.2.1. Same. 8.3.5.2.2. Like, similar
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a–oum [ʔaʔṵːm] n.kin sister-in-law chị em dâu; chị em họ [Ego is female.] spec: campay amiêng; poss: i–oum 4.1.9. Kinship
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acay [ʔakaj] n.kin child; children em nhỏ, con [S, D.] syn: rcay cl: lám; spec: acay pông ‘firstborn’, acay tandi ‘second-born’, acay tuha ‘third-born’, tulouiq ‘last’, mpứng ‘in-the-middle’, tardi ‘in-middle-of’ cf: achau., achân., ache. 4.1.9. Kinship
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ado ape [ʔadɔː ʔapɛː] pro to them; to a known group cho họ [3PL Dative specific] cf: angai. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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adyư [ʔaʄɯː] pk vt remember ; miss nhớ pl dial.: iyư cf: mmứng.
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aiq [ʔaːjʔ] n totem name tên thị tộc [Ám_Do of this totem doesn’t eat cats] 4.1.9. Kinship
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akio nem [ʔakiːw nɛːm] pk n garlic tỏi syn: bát bua pl dial.: toiq 1.5. Plant. 1.5.5. Parts of a plant (cmpd)
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aleh [ʔalɛːh] pa n.kin brother-in-law anh (em) vợ; anh (em) rể [WB (m.s.), ZH (m.s.)] pl dial.: alếh
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amon [ʔamɔːn] n.kin nephew; niece; y.cousin cháu; em họ Ape amon achau ma béinh xoanh lư ơn Yang Rbang. The children and grandchildren are healthy, thank God. [Can be used to politely refer to children, like cháu. in VN.] cl: lám, náq; spec: amon adúq; poss: imon 4.1.9. Kinship
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amot [ʔamɔːt] pc; pk vt bring into đem vô pl dial.: amout
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amout [ʔamṵːt] v bring in đem vào pk dial.: amot
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angai [ʔaŋaːj] pro to them; to people cho họ [3PL Dative remote] cf: ado ape. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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apem [ʔapɛːm] n mumps bệnh quai bị spec: a apem ay 2.5.2. Disease
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apét [ʔapɛt] v exaggerate nói thêm syn: a–oai sit: tông apét; redup: rpét pét
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apưn adyom [ʔapɯːn ʔaʄɔːm] vs trembling lỏng lẻo Binomial check meaning against apưn (cmpd)
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arau [ʔaraw] n stem or stalk of pông plant spec: arau pông; cl: ntrayh 1.5.5. Parts of a plant
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arêng alay [ʔareːŋ ʔalaj] n.kin brother-in-law relationship quan hệ các anh em rể [Johnny and Jeffrey (Stebbins) are arêng_alay with sons of their father Tom’s brother-in-law. J and J are imiang-imoq with daughters of Tom’s brother-in-law and cannot marry them.] cf: lup lep. 4.1.9. Kinship Free Binomial (cmpd)
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ayour₁ [ʔajṵːr] n flesh hanging like cow’s dewlap; dewlap lêm, giăng spec: ayour carróq; pa dial.: ayúr; pk dial.: ayor 1.6.2. Parts of an animal
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bâq₂ [bɤʔ] vt retell; recite a memory nhắc lại [Thought of calling the Psalms ayô,_bâq. ] syn: tumôih
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cabêm [kabeːm] vt hold; carry on front bồng trẻ [In contrast to the basket on the back] spec: cabêm acay 7.3.1. Carry
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caldem₂ [kəl.dɛːm] n scorpion con bọ cạp [Rare in VN mountains.] syn: cachóuc, acup cap 1.6.1.7. Insect

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calngo [kəl.ŋɔː] n demon hawk ó ma lai [Large hawks that travel in flocks in the woods and make a loud weird call that makes the people think they are spirits.] cf: calang avác. 4.9.2. Supernatural being
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cán₁ [kan] vs female gái [Human gender.] 1.6.7. Male and female animals. 4.1.2. Types of people
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cân₄ [kɤn] pa n pipe stem cái cán điếu cl: ntrayh; spec: cân bóc; pl dial.: tarrouiq (VN)
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candau [kəndaw] n female elephant con voi cái spec: coang candau; cl: lám
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catâyh [katɤs] vs remind nhắc nhớ; ghi nhớ Cư vi parlayh catâyh payư. I have a message to remind you. cmpd: catâyh payư cf: cachâp caxây. 3.2.6.4. Remind Can take an object and a speech act. Once takes dative instead of object.
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clươi [klɯəj] pa; pc quant more thêm pl dial.: claơi cf: pânh claơi.
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culet [kulɛːt] v stick out tongue nhái; đem ra lưới recp: carlet let 2.1.1.4. Mouth
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dau [daw] Pronunc.Variant of idau
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doi [dɔːj] vt demand đòi syn: ep 4.2.1.1. Invite. 3.3.3.4. Insist (VN)
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dông₃ [doːŋ] vt2 take, bring; carry đem Ngcốh upôc dông culay croul ado Ông Parnha tốq piday. Then he went took rambutan to Mr. Rich at the field. Ngai dông ngai cui dáng achoiq. They carry they carry in back basket. [Most generic term for take/carry.] caus: padông, pardông; recp: tardông; invol: tadông; sit: dông paxear ‘bring down’ 7.3.1. Carry Can take object, recipient, source, goal.
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doui ngcat [dṵːj ʔəŋkaːt] n burned rice cháy sém 5.2.3.4. Prepared food
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dyép [ʄɛp] v taste, touch with tongue nếm thử sit: nhóung dyép; caus: padyép; invol: tadyép cf: póunh. 5.2.2. Eat
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dyiêl [ʄiəl] pa v lick liếm pl dial.: leah 5.2.2. Eat
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dyiêm [ʄiəm] pa vs delicious ngon pl dial.: dyeam 5.2.2. Eat. 2.3.3. Taste
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dyúc₂ [ʄuk] vt temper iron with fire and water sit: dyúc acóuq cf: troaq.
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êm o [ʔeːm ʔɔː] vs peace; peaceful hòa bình; bình an; bình yên syn: iên o 4.8.4. Peace. 3.4.1.2.2. Calm Free Binomial (cmpd)
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ep [ʔɛːp] vi demand, e.g., spoiled child begging; to coerce đòi syn: doi, xeqcaus: pa–ep; nomi: par–ep; recp: tar–ep; synl: doi cf: aráp. 4.2.1.1. Invite. 3.3.3.4. Insist
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hêl [heːl] vt enjoy ; fondle; pet; caress âu yếm [Like a puppy, or something new; like a child taking a new toy to bed.]
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idơ [ʔidɤː] adj temporary tạm thời; lâm thời He át dáng xu idơ ndóung táq xu tamme. We stay at a temporary house while building a new house. ant: aclang cf: ., .idơ only modifies nouns; whereas dơ modifies actions and nouns, leading us to ask, What is i- or i= doing here?
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iêl [ʔiəl] pk vt lick liếm pl dial.: leah; pa dial.: dyiêl 5.2.2. Eat
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ilo ikhít [ʔilɔː ʔikhit] ph worry and search remedy lo nghĩ [Not same as khít alone.] Binomial (cmpd)
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imiêng [ʔimiəŋ] n.kin elder brother (f.s.) anh của em gái [eB(f.s.).; Possessed form of amiêng. ]
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in [ʔiːn] vt resemble; same giống như; như syn: mpi, arâqpc dial.: a–in; contr: i= cf: tupi., li. 8.3.5.2.1. Same. 8.3.5.2.2. Like, similar
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ính cha [ʔiɲ caː] vt crave thèm [food.] 5.2.2. Eat
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ixeam ixai [ʔisḭam ʔisaːj] n siblings; brothers and sisters, including cousins anh chị em [With possessive prefix.] 4.1.9. Kinship Free Binomial (cmpd)
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kem [kɛːm] n zinc kêm
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khot₁ [khɔːt] vi make agreement; vow; promise hứa; cam đoan, cam kết; thề [Verbal contract, but usually includes a pledge.] nomi: parkhot, carhot; recp: tarkhot; pk dial.: patáp cf: ca–ưq., candaơm. 3.5.1.9. Promise. 4.7.5.7. Take oath. 3.2.5.4. Agree with someone
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lallêm [ləl.leːm] vs good, flourishing--of plants mọc sum sê sit: uhon o lallêm 8.3.7. Good. 4.4.1. Prosperity
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lâyq chiêt [lɤjʔ ciət] aux embarrassed nhục Cư lâyq chiêt pôc. Cư achiêt pôc. I’m embarrassed to go. Restrictions: always in negative] rt-vs: achiêt, cachiêt, carchiêt cf: lâyq cốq. (cmpd)
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lbot rmor [ʔəl.bɔːt ʔər.mɔːr] vs soft, tame; responsive (of heart) mềm Binomial (cmpd)
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leah [lḭah] v lick liếm pa dial.: dyiêl 5.2.2. Eat
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lóh₁ [lɔh] n hemorrhoids spec: lóh lear
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mamoiq [mamɔːjʔ] v hunting săn; kiếm thịt syn: papéinh sit: pôc mamoiq 6.4.1. Hunt
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mop₁ [mɔːp] pk v condemn pl dial.: cacháq thét
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mpau [ʔəmpaw] pk vt dream mơ; chiêm bao pl dial.: mpo 5.7.2. Dream
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mpư [ʔəmpɯː] vs said of place where bad luck to live thêm buồn bức sit: mpư a mpư ay, râu, ngot
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ndem [ʔəndɔːj] pa n fifth finger; fifth toe ngón út cl: lám; whole: ati, adyưng; pl dial.: ndoi
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ndyoq [ʔəɲʄɔːʔ] n straw; stalks; stems rơm lúa; rơm rạ pa dial.: nxoq; cl: ntrayh; sit: ndyoq tro 1.5.5. Parts of a plant
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ngai₂ [ŋaːj] pro they; them; their; 3PL remote họ; người đó Tốq bar kixay cư át icốh ngai dyoun cư chou thám icốh. After I stay like that two months they let me return visit like that. [Unknown or treated as unknown; contrasts with ape ‘they-known’.; Also used as classifier ngai_ticuôi; ‘people’.] cf: mu. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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ngcán [ʔəŋkan] n female; woman
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nhanhiêm [ɲaɲiəm] vi crying khóc lóc rt: nhiêm; sound: khức ikức 3.4.2.1. Sad. 3.5.6.5. Cry, tear. 2.3.2.3. Types of sounds
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nhiêm [ɲiəm] vi cry khóc syn: héq rep: nhanhiêm; sound: a–uq, ti–úr 3.4.2.1. Sad. 3.5.6.5. Cry, tear. 2.3.2.3. Types of sounds

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nhiêm cubéq [ɲiəm kubɛʔ] vi cry; weep; burst into tears khóc mếu [Making faces.] 3.4.2.1. Sad Binomial (cmpd)
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nhóung [ɲṵŋ] vt perceive; see; taste, smell coi, xem sit: nhóung bóunh, nhóung cha; sit: nhóung tarngứh; rep: nhanhóung; caus: panhóung; nomi: parnhóung; recp: tarnhóung; invol: tanhóung cf: culơn., hôm. 2.3.1. See. 2.3.1.1. Look
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nnhoup nniêm [ʔəɲ.ɲṵːp ʔən.niəm] vs bad xấu Binomial (cmpd, redup)
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ntár taq [ʔəntar taːʔ] n wire dây kem 7.5.4.1. Rope, string (cmpd)
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om ai [ʔɔːm ʔaːj] n.kin female cousins anh chị; em (họ) [Relation between Jenny and daughters of her father’s bro-in-law] cf: a–om., lup lep. 4.1.9. Kinship Free Binomial (cmpd)
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pa–ôiq [paʔoːjʔ] vt tempt; appeal to lust of eyes cám dỗ [E.g., seductive dress or scenes on TV.] syn: clốh, paxúq rt-v: ôiq
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pallơiq [pəl.lɤːjʔ] vs be modest khiêm tốn Do pallơiq, lâyq ayô bôm. He is modest, doesn’t praise himself. [Not to talk about wealth or achievements.] 4.3.2.2. Humble
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papéinh [papḭɲ] vt hunting; shooting săn; kiếm thịt syn: mamoiq sit: pôc papéinh 6.4.1. Hunt
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parnha [pər.ɲaː] vs rich and esteemed sùng-thượng; giầu [Has belongings but still needs to work.] ant: cadit, candit, kiditcf: xúc. 6.8.1.2. Rich
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patroc [patrɔːk] v cause to be demon possessed sit: pináh patroc cf: pináh.
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pecon [pɛːkɔːn] picon n enemy kẻ thù; kẻ địch; giắc [Only case of presyllable with vowel other than a,i,u.; Ape con??]
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péinh [pḭɲ] vt 1throw ném Do kéiq peaih péinh. He picked fruit and threw it. 7.7.2. Aim at a target 2shoot bắn Dyeal tumiêng péinh cune. Grab crossbow and go shoot. [xxxxxx] pa pk dial.: pánh; rep: papéinh; nomi: parpéinh; recp: tarpéinh; invol: tapéinh; instr: tumiêng, búl, xúng 4.8.3.7. Weapon, shoot. 7.3.1.1. Throw
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pêm [peːm] v beat out bamboo đánh sit: pêm o prêm
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picon [pikɔːn] Pronunc.Variant of pecon
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picon pinong [pikɔːn pinɔːŋ] n enemy giặc Binomial (cmpd, redup)
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pleng xit [plɛːŋ siːt] n potent, of medicine or of a sorcerer’s or prophet’s ability to forecast the unknown. huyền nhiệm [Also of a highly respected speaker’s ability to move people to act.] cf: xit pleng. (cmpd)
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raxom [rasɔːm] n shroud liệm spec: ao raxom
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talât [talɤt] v add, do more than another thêm sit: táq talât
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tandyaih [təɲʄaːs] n female (monkey) cái (con khỉ -) pa dial.: ndyaih; cl: lám cf: tangcuôl.
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taơc caơc [tɯ̰ːk kɯ̰ːk] exp of painful, stiff finger (arthritis?) chứng viêm khớp spec: taơc caơc a–ay ati (redup)
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táq achiêt [taʔ ʔaciət] vp embarras syn: pixiêp (cmpd)
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tardi idau [tər.diː ʔidaw] adv.t midnight nửa đêm 8.4.1. Period of time. 1.1. Sky. 8.3.3.2. Dark (cmpd)
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tarnem [tər.nɛːm] n betel quid rt-v: tem cf: tem., labaq., turuiq., troi.
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tarnhiêm nhiêm [tər.ɲiəm ɲiəm] vi crying together khóc nhau rt-v: nhiêm Reciprocal (cmpd, redup)
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tem [tɛːm] v prepare a betel quid têm trầu sit: tem troi; caus: patem; nomi: partem; recp: tartem cf: tarnem.
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tíng₁ [tiŋ] vt count, figure; calculate tính miêng (đếm) pl dial.: ngeaih; pa dial.: ngiêih; caus: patíng; nomi: partíng; recp: tartíng 8.1.2.1. Mathematics (VN)
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tom paryưm [tɔːm pər.jɯːm] vt demand payment đòi nợ syn: tom tu 4.2.1.1. Invite. 3.3.3.4. Insist
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tom tu [tɔːm tuː] vp demand payment đòi nợ syn: tom paryưm 4.2.1.1. Invite. 3.3.3.4. Insist
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tuluiq talúq [tuluːjʔ taluʔ] vt tempt; seduce syn: clíh, talíh Binomial (cmpd, redup)
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tưp lom [tɯːp lɔːm] vs humble; modest khiêm nhường [To anticipate others desires and accommodate them above your own.] syn: cang a–êpant: ayóung 3 (cmpd)
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ucrơh [krɤːh] n heat rash; eczema ghẻ [Always attributed to an agent: u. ]
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uróq [ʔurɔʔ] n stem of leaf
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véih [wḭh] v search for tìm, kiếm syn: vayh, xua nomi: parvéih; recp: tarvéih; redup: vivéih véih
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xai xeam [saj sḭam] n.kin elder siblings and younger siblings anh chị em [eB(m.s.) or eZ(f.s.) and yB/yZ.] Free Binomial (cmpd)
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xeq [sɛːʔ] vt ask for; request; demand; summon xin; đòi syn: ep nomi: paxeq, parxeq; recp: tarxeq; rep: xixeq cf: canưi. 3.3.2. Request. 4.2.1.1. Invite. 3.3.3.4. Insist
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a–om [ʔaʔɔːm] pa n.kin sister-in-law; female cousin chị dâu [BW (f.s.); om_ai call each other a–om. ] cpart: aleh; pl dial.: a–oum cf: om ai. 4.1.9. Kinship
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aléiq uróuq campay [ʔalḭʔ ʔurṵʔ kəm.paj] n ceremony confirming marriage phòng tục khi cưới vợ [After this inlaws and friends can visit.] 4.2.2.1. Ceremony drop stem through hole for wife (cmpd)
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areaq [ʔarḭaʔ] vt severely punish, oppress, demand the impossible, e.g., of spirits in this life or the next trừng trị Yoa areaq do táq. Tell him to do something to suffer. Dyoun do areaq parnô parra. Let it (spirit) cause suffering in the future. [Like being ordered to do whatever will cause the greatest suffering, like ordering people to hike barefoot who have never gone without shoes.; Not killed, but forced to suffer so wished for death.] sit: do areaq, táq areaq cf: ráh areaq.
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callêr [kəl.leːr] n scar; blemishes vết [Not a fresh scar.]
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cammáng [kəm.maŋ] vt 1taste, try, test; listen nếm thử; nghe [This is intentional; whereas one can xáng ‘taste or hear’ is not. In English we can “go to hear the speech,” but Pacoh would more sensibly “go to listen to the speech.”] syn: carmáng sit: cha cammáng cf: xáng. 2.3.2.1. Listen. 2.3. Sense, perceive. 2.3.3. Taste. 4.5.4.1. Obey 2obey; obedient, responsive, receptive vâng lời syn: tampránant: lâyq cammángrecp: carmáng cf: póunh. 4.5.4.1. Obey
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cangkír [kəŋ.kir] pk vi shiver; shake; tremble run pl dial.: cacaơr, do avít 3.4.2.4. Afraid. 7.2.2.8. Move back and forth. 7.1.9. Move a part of the body
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choaiq [cṵajʔ] v test, e.g., touch to feel temperature, or ask in a roundabout way thử syn: ilác sit: choaiq cammáng, plốh choaiq
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claiq [klaːjʔ] vt purify; perform cleansing through pireng ceremony after killing a criminal [Wash hands and walk through bamboo gateway.] sit: claiq cháq
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éh [ʔɛh] v defecate; have bowel movement đi tiêu syn: pôc ca–éh caus: pa–éh; nomi: par–éh; recp: tar–éh; invol: ta–éh 2.2.8. Defecate, feces
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lát₁ [lat] vt castrate; emasculate; geld thiến [Pigs, etc.] nomi: palát, parlát; recp: tarlát; invol: talát 6.3.8.2. Castrate animal
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lom [lɔːm] n physical liver; figurative heart; character; seat of emotions gan; lá gan; gan óc Imo lom pallúng do cốh, achai? What is his character, brother? (Good, thief, liar?) [Adyóq_lom ‘mean’; câng_lom (crêng, pưt) ‘stubborn, fearless’; cóc_lom ‘says one thing but does other’; coum_lom ‘dull, unlearned’; o_lom ‘good hearted’; khâm_lom ‘keeps his word’; lâyq_bôn_lom ‘no pride, no embarrassment’; lbot_lom ‘responsive’; ticál_lom ‘??’; tinâng_lom ‘honest, true to word’; tinga_lom ‘pure’; vec_lom ‘says one thing but does other’.] syn: parngíh parchứm spec: lom mít 1.6.2. Parts of an animal
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lxam [ʔəl.saːm] adv.t winter season (November-January) mùa lạnh [But really based on crops, not weather] spec: nno lxam; pa dial.: lixam cf: nno. 8.4.1. Period of time. 8.4. Time. 8.4.1.1. Calendar
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ng–oung [ʔəŋʔṵːŋ] n female buffalo sit: tiriaq ng–oung; pa dial.: tangôn; cl: lám
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patrâq [patrɤʔ] vt demon orders to speak spec: do patrâq
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pôc cacong [poːk kakɔːŋ] vp do ceremony for opening storehouse [Put down ladder, enter, close door, wash hair, pretend to sleep, sacrifice large rodent, eat it, open door, return.]
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póq₂ [pɔʔ] vt peel by hand; remove husk lột (vỏ) [E.g., take bark off.] sit: póq ngcár; nomi: parpóq; invol: tapóq cf: tarloc. 5.2.1.2.1. Remove shell, skin
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ráh areaq [rah ʔarḭaʔ] vs misery; unbearable pain, extreme difficulty trừng triẹ; khổ [More severe than diêiq_túh because can stop it, like pain of death, but can’t die.] cf: areaq. (redup)
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tóun bóun [tṵn bṵn] exp of enemy troops approaching near spec: picon tóun bóun (redup)
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uchôiq lom [ʔucoːjʔ lɔːm] v crave, ‘it tempts liver’ tham 3.3.1.8. Lust. 3.3. Want. 3.4.1.1. Like, love
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ngcốh₁ [ʔəŋkoh] 1det that one there; that place; there cái đó He át dáng dúng ngcốh. We live at that house. [Deictic or anaphoric.; N- is speculated to have been grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] 2pro that one; that place cái đó Icáq tông, “Ngcốh ân may râu?” His grandmother said, “That (is) what you’re sad about?” [Deictic or anaphoric.; N- is speculated to have been grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] pc dial.: kếh; pa pk dial.: ki cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction. 9.2.3.5. Demonstrative pronouns
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nnéh [ʔən.nɛh] pro this one; this place; this time; these…. cái nầy đây [N- is speculated to be grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] syn: do néh, cár ranéhcf: ngcốh., cár ranéh. 9.2.3.5. Demonstrative pronouns
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nnóuq [ʔən.nṵʔ] pk n peelings pl dial.: ndoh; pa dial.: nnóq 5.2.1.2.1. Remove shell, skin
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[noː] pk dô₂ dem here [Use of is the basis of the name Kadô.] syn: nnô, ndô 1 def: nnô, ndô 8.5.2. Direction. 9.2.3.5. Demonstrative pronouns
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peq [pɛːʔ] vt dismantle; take down (for repair); break apart tháo [Used of taking apart bushknife, etc.] syn: leq nomi: parpeq; recp: tarpeq; invol: tapeq cf: lóuc., leq. 7.5.2.4. Remove, take apart
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ril [riːl] vt take corn off cob róc caus: paril; nomi: parril; recp: tarril; invol: taril cf: plóung. 5.2.1.2.1. Remove shell, skin
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tammaih [təm.maːs] n boar, male pig heo đực, không thiến [Not castrated.] spec: alic tammaih 1.6.7. Male and female animals. 1.6. Animal
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