Search results for "Pronouns"

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aday [ʔadaj] pro to me (in reported speech) cho tôi [1SG Dative-quoted] cf: acư. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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ado ape [ʔadɔː ʔapɛː] pro to them; to a known group cho họ [3PL Dative specific] cf: angai. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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ahe [ʔahɛː] pro to us cho chúng ta/tôi [1PL dative] report: peday 9.2.3. Pronouns
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angai [ʔaŋaːj] pro to them; to people cho họ [3PL Dative remote] cf: ado ape. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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[kɯː] pro I, me, my; 1SG tôi [Can depend on kin or social relationship, but much less than in Vietnamese, e.g., parents address child as acay ‘child’ or may ‘you’.] syn: day du: nháng; report: day; refl: tou 9.2.3. Pronouns acư Dyoun acư au. Give to me.
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do [dɔː] pro he, she, it; 3SG nó; ngươi [However do is normal, not derogatory as VN is.; Do ân ‘he/she/they that’ does not distinguish number.] syn: u= contr: da ‘in certain combinations, e.g., damo or da_mo ‘whoever’’, u=; du: anha; pl: ape, ngai 9.2.3. Pronouns
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inha₁ [ʔiɲaː] pro you two; 2DU cl: náq cf: anha., ipe. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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inha₃ [ʔiɲaː] pk pro you (dual and plural) các người pl dial.: inha, ipe 9.2.3. Pronouns
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may [maj] pro you; 2SG mày Tốq mmo may pôc? Where are you going? [But Pacoh may can be used in normal address, not speaking down like mày. ] syn: mâh du: inha; pl: ipe 9.2.3. Pronouns amay
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mmay [ʔəm.maj] pro.poss yours của mày, anh, chị, v.v. [Singular.] cf: ndo. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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mu ki [muː kiː] pk pro they; 3PL họ [3DU is not distinguished in PK] pl dial.: anha, ape 9.2.3. Pronouns (cmpd)
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néh [nɛh] dem here nầy Do néh; dáng néh, tốq néh. This one; at here; to here. [Only found in do_néh or dáng_néh tốq_néh. The former is considered to be a contraction of do_nnéh. In the locative phrases nnéh is a pronoun.] def: nnéh cf: tóh., tacốh., cốh., tíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction
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ntoh [ʔəntɔːh] pro that ở sau; ở dưới xa hơn [Further back than ntóh. ] cf: ntíh., ntóh. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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ntúh [ʔəntuh] pro yonder; way over there [Head of NP as pronoun, modifier of head as REL.CL.] cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction
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ntrah [ʔəntraːh] pro that one beside ở bên cạnh [Further than ntráh. ] cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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ngai₂ [ŋaːj] pro they; them; their; 3PL remote họ; người đó Tốq bar kixay cư át icốh ngai dyoun cư chou thám icốh. After I stay like that two months they let me return visit like that. [Unknown or treated as unknown; contrasts with ape ‘they-known’.; Also used as classifier ngai_ticuôi; ‘people’.] cf: mu. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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ngâh₁ [ŋɤh] pro 1unspecified subject (UNS), may indicate anyone or everyone in general, or someone the speaker doesn’t know or doesn’t want to name Ma ân idoq táq thét ma lâyq ngâh iyư. But what UNS had done wrong UNS didn’t remember. Carna ngâh tumóung. The way one lives. [Ngâh is usually replaced by clitic i= before one syllable verbs, as in the first example. Can be used in a clause modifying a noun where English would use a ‘to’ or ‘for’ purpose clause:; Ngâh precedes a one-syllable verb when an adverbial occurs between it and the verb, as in the example below.] contr: i= 9.2.3. Pronouns 22nd person in commands and wishes A–i dơi bâl boup tông achưng acư, ngâh iyư tốq nô ra! Mother kept instructing me, (you) remember in the future. Ngâh cachan hoc hanh o hôi uráq u–ar. (You) eagerly study so capable of writing. [A name or 2nd person pronoun is rarely used in a command.]
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ngcốh₁ [ʔəŋkoh] 1det that one there; that place; there cái đó He át dáng dúng ngcốh. We live at that house. [Deictic or anaphoric.; N- is speculated to have been grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] 2pro that one; that place cái đó Icáq tông, “Ngcốh ân may râu?” His grandmother said, “That (is) what you’re sad about?” [Deictic or anaphoric.; N- is speculated to have been grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] pc dial.: kếh; pa pk dial.: ki cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction. 9.2.3.5. Demonstrative pronouns
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ngngai [ʔəŋ.ŋaːj] pro.poss theirs của họ cf: ndo. 9.2.3. Pronouns
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pe day [pɛː daj] pro 1PL reported; we; our in-group chúng ta [Exclusive of outsiders.] 9.2.3. Pronouns (cmpd)
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peday [pɛːdaj] pro 1PL; we; us; our (quotation form) chúng tôi [Reduction of ape_day. ] syn: he sg: day 9.2.3. Pronouns
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tou cư [tṵː kɯː] pro I myself chính tôi pc dial.: mêng 9.2.3. Pronouns (cmpd)
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tuh [tuːh] det yonder; way over there kia [Longer vowel than túh for greater distance.] 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction
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túh₁ [tuh] det yonder kia 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction
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