a-1ʔaː1n.kin.pfxprefix for kin termsAvóuq: Vóuq Hiên cốh ivóuq Dưc tưi.Grandfather: Grandfather Hien is Dưc’s grandfather too.As seen in the example, the parvóuq 'grandfather title' drops the a- while the possessive form replaces it with i-. Kinterms usually occur with a-, except when they are used as titles, or when replaced by i- indicating possession.2n.pfxprefix for body partsAnáq dyoat dyưng, lâyq châm tarlúq; anáq apúq ti lâyq châm tarteic,...Although crippled leg, so can't pull each other; although swollen arm so can't carry each other,...Most nouns that begin with a- never drop the a-, making it questionable whether it is a prefix for them. However, others, such as kinterms and body parts often do, but never as citation forms. Some rules for dropping a- still need to be worked out.
a-2ʔa:v.pfxcausative prefixVaih > Avaih.Appear > Create (cause to appear).Cf. abôn ‘get’ with bôn ‘have’synpa-
a-4ʔa:v.pfxnegationMay ính cha lâyq? Abéinh.You want to eat? No.Cf. avaih ‘PA neg’ with vaih ‘appear’
a=1ʔaːpro.clitdative to/forIdóng ado cun kin amêng cun kin.They give to him half and to me half.Mêng pachou, mêng bôn amêng.Self takes home, self takes to-one’s-self.Precedes one-syllable pronoun. ado precedes two-syllable pronouns.; Sometimes found written separately in texts, as either a or o. acưunspec. comp. formʔakɯːproto meDyoun acư au.Give to me.1SG dative.cfaday9.2.3Pronounsamayunspec. comp. formʔamajproto you2SG Dative9.2.3Pronouns
a=2ʔaːadv.clitso as; resultative state; adverbializerA–o i–at au; A–o ipôc au!Stay well! Go well!Lư ahôi téng.Keep on really well.Contraction/clitic form of o before one-syllable verbs.
a aliaqʔaː ʔaliəhvtaccuse; denounceÊ lư callong ngai tông a rliaq may.They accuse you of many things.