doq2dɔːʔauxperfective (PFV); completiveCốh acay doq cammáng tốq xéiq nôra.So child left/kept listened (instructions) until grown.Ngai doq treang ngáh hóng.They had blocked the mouth of the hole.Icounh idứh doq nhóung nưm.Their father just took a look.When occurring before another verb, doq could be translated literally, and in the case of semantic compound, it must. However, the sheer frequency before other verbs indicates a grammatical function. In most instances it could be translated as past tense, but past is normally unmarked. Occasionally ‘perfect’ would work well, as in Ngcốh_cư doq_dyoun_ado_ipe… ‘Now I have given to you…’ However, it seems best to consider doq to mark ‘perfective’ or ‘completive’ in contrast to ‘imperfective’ or ‘continuative’ marked by át. There is usually a sense of finality. What is true of past action must also be true of future action, e.g,

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