pampuypəmpujof buffalo fighting fiercely against the ring and rope from nose when first tied or of buffalo fighting each otherTiriaq carxau pampuy.Buffalo struggle fiercely.
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achít1ʔacitsp. var.AchítTenthNdo Achít bôn péinh llám araiq, cốh ma ndo Achít ntâm dyê bôn péinh, cốh bôn chou axuôi, át pân ape. Cốh tốq ape, Tông, "Mmo Achít dyê?" Achít tông, "Nnéh day". Tenth got to shoot a big grasshopper, but Tenth had shot his early, then had returned first and waited for them. Then they arrived and said, "Where is Tenth?" Tenth said, "Here I am."Capitalized to refer to the number ten son.8.1.1Number
aviʔawiːnot happen; not at allLáh may axuôi, day avaih cha avi.If you arrive first, I won't eat (you) at all.Tốq mo vi day toiq, bưih avi ngai dyôn aday.Where can I steal, no way will anyone give to me.Only used in negative context.
cadângkadɤŋholdNgai tâc tốq yang ngai a–eq itun cadâng acay két aham axiêt.They sacrifice to spirit, taboo to follow holding a bloody small child.Campay tôm pứq, cư cadâng campay tua két.The first wife is provided for well, but I provide little for the last wife.
díhdih1conjandDo nhiêm díh tông, “….”He cried and said, “….”2quantplus; moreHe dông asuôi liêh máh práq ngki, alứng dông díh práq ính tớiq chơng liêh crpng tanna tưi.We brought first again all that money, with brought more money to buy food again also.
hámhamthreaten; warn to othersNám cáh itiq acân ngai mán ma hám dâu ipôc ma inâh mout tốq mong tốq kếh.If not one submits, later they work magic and threaten first to go and like this enter into the living room there.Not directly to the person threatened.synaráp crứngcfarápnomi:parráp; redup:rráp ráp
idếhʔidehlike thatIdếh kếh dơi yo ndo campay tôm.Like-that?? so it’s still because it belongs to the first wife.Kếh ngai pour chưm adâh llong ngkếh, a–úh idếh.So they helped provide for that tree, a derelict like that.
tarpíh píhtər.pih pihtaking away; fighting over something, e.g., things or positions; competingNgéq cantóuh akeaih idứh tarpíh píh xâr.All nine were fighting to be first to climb.Âp lư ngai tartáq ngai tarveng, tarpíh píh ính táq xaxai.They fought each other a lot, taking away from each other in order to become chief.syntarpíh tarpour4.8.2Fight
tôngtoːŋsayBabor tông ado a–aq, tông, “May tran day anhuôi, au.”Babor bird said to crow, said, “You paint me first, okay.”Cốh ape tông ado Achít, “May mout tapun acho.”So they said to No.10, “You go in after dog.”Any speech following tông is direct speech.cfpiredup:papi papoi; caus:papi; nomi:parpi; recp:tarpi; invol:tapitacang1rt-n: cang; recp: tarcangtammông3.5.1Say
âh1ʔɤhforementioned; anaphoric pronoun ‘our’Kếh ixear táq âh bar lám ngcán ân kéiq culay priêng.Then they went down and fought the forementioned two women that picked fruit.Acay âh icounh tuyê ngcốh ân a–ay.The forementioned children’s monster father was sick.Imoq âh ldup lkhoung lâyq yốh hôi bôn ticu.His forementioned sister was flat on her back and couldn’t sit up.Nhóung icounh két âh táq tangcóng icóung, o lư tanh.Look at our little man acting like a married man, weaving so nicely.Tư chou tốq tíh te nen cán ape Arứm íh âh ape Cavaq.From returning there from land of Arưm women, they are not the forementioned of Cavaq.Ngai cúm adyưng anha cloi ati âh dáng xic.They clamped feet and tied hands of forementioned with chains.Do pôc lâng, xua ixai âh Ximôn.He went immediately to find his forementioned brother, Simon.Vi mâh náq nốh âh Dyon.There was one, name of forementioned, John.Cốh campay do âh Êli-xabêt át caréiq.Then his forementioned wife, Elizabeth, was hiding.This âh occurs at the end of a noun phrase. In the first example below, it appears that âh is the head of a noun phrase, or is a noun phrase followed by an appositional noun phrase. (Meaning not clear.)cfamâh2anhâhcl: náqapâhcl: náqdâh2idứh 19.2.3Pronouns
chuôtcuətcaught on thorn, etc.; stuck by nail or something sharp; caught in trap; spring a trapAbíl chuôt xing.The mouse caught in the trap.Cư doq pi axuôi ado ipe abưih ipe chuôt cang parnai ngai.I told you ahead lest you be caught/trapped by their speech.Khoiq chuaq llám ayoun.One rabbit is already caught.Ayoun chuôt callo ngai, ma lâyq cray.A rabbit sprung someone’s trap but not caught.Also by words/speech.; It appears to me that first example is active while the second appears to be middle voice.6.4.2Trap
DUP.Ca1Cacollective; all inclusivePape ngcốh dye cha.All three of those have already eaten.This prefix reduplicates the first C (consonant) of a one-syllable number and adds the concept of ‘all of’ to the number. (The quantifier ca ‘all’ is used for this function preceding two-syllable numbers.)cfca= 1
DUP.CVN-CəNrepetitive, general, habitual actionHe pôc papéinh nno tang-hiêng nno ngai chanchóng.We went hunting in the summer the season when they burn.This prefix generally reduplicates the first C (consonant) and V (vowel) or CC and V of a one-syllable verb. In some cases, the prefixed vowel is different from the main syllable vowel, e.g., xot reduplicates as xixot, probably because /s/ has a palatal quality that favors /i/. Other cases are probably due to various histories. The N (nasal) in reduplications such as tantéich ‘selling’ and chanchơng ‘buying’ may also be buried in history for an etymologist to unearth.; This prefix occurs on active verbs rather than stative verbs.; Previously labeled Ra-.cfchichatatáqrt-v: táq
ngâh4ŋɤh1unspecified subject (UNS), may indicate anyone or everyone in general, or someone the speaker doesn’t know or doesn’t want to nameMa ân idoq táq thét ma lâyq ngâh iyư.But what UNS had done wrong UNS didn’t remember.Carna ngâh tumóung.The way one lives.Ngâh is usually replaced by clitic i= before one syllable verbs, as in the first example. Can be used in a clause modifying a noun where English would use a ‘to’ or ‘for’ purpose clause:; Ngâh precedes a one-syllable verb when an adverbial occurs between it and the verb, as in the example below.9.2.3Pronouns22nd person in commands and wishesA–i dơi bâl boup tông achưng acư, ngâh iyư tốq nô ra!Mother kept instructing me, (you) remember in the future.Ngâh cachan hoc hanh o hôi uráq u–ar.(You) eagerly study so capable of writing.A name or 2nd person pronoun is rarely used in a command.
nốh ngâh paxoulnoh ŋɤh pasṵːlrelationships for address and referenceSee chart in Part One 6.2.3 Terms of Address.; It isn’t good to use may ‘you’ when addressing a person for the first time in an exchange. One should use the person’s name or kin relationship (real or extended). The same is true of reference--don’t use do ‘he/she’ the first time.