túh₁ [tuh] det yonder kia 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction


tuh [tuːh] det yonder; way over there kia [Longer vowel than túh for greater distance.] 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction

tou he

tou nháng


tou cư

tou cư [tṵː kɯː] pro I myself chính tôi pc dial.: mêng 9.2.3. Pronouns (cmpd)



peday [pɛːdaj] pro 1PL; we; us; our (quotation form) chúng tôi [Reduction of ape_day. ] syn: he sg: day 9.2.3. Pronouns

pe day

pe day [pɛː daj] pro 1PL reported; we; our in-group chúng ta [Exclusive of outsiders.] 9.2.3. Pronouns (cmpd)



nha án


ngngai [ʔəŋ.ŋaːj] pro.poss theirs của họ cf: ndo. 9.2.3. Pronouns




ngcốh₁ [ʔəŋkoh] 1det that one there; that place; there cái đó He át dáng dúng ngcốh. We live at that house. [Deictic or anaphoric.; N- is speculated to have been grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] 2pro that one; that place cái đó Icáq tông, “Ngcốh ân may râu?” His grandmother said, “That (is) what you’re sad about?” [Deictic or anaphoric.; N- is speculated to have been grammaticalized from n= clitic of the relativizer ân. ] pc dial.: kếh; pa pk dial.: ki cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction. Demonstrative pronouns



ngâh₁ [ŋɤh] pro 1unspecified subject (UNS), may indicate anyone or everyone in general, or someone the speaker doesn’t know or doesn’t want to name Ma ân idoq táq thét ma lâyq ngâh iyư. But what UNS had done wrong UNS didn’t remember. Carna ngâh tumóung. The way one lives. [Ngâh is usually replaced by clitic i= before one syllable verbs, as in the first example. Can be used in a clause modifying a noun where English would use a ‘to’ or ‘for’ purpose clause:; Ngâh precedes a one-syllable verb when an adverbial occurs between it and the verb, as in the example below.] contr: i= 9.2.3. Pronouns 22nd person in commands and wishes A–i dơi bâl boup tông achưng acư, ngâh iyư tốq nô ra! Mother kept instructing me, (you) remember in the future. Ngâh cachan hoc hanh o hôi uráq u–ar. (You) eagerly study so capable of writing. [A name or 2nd person pronoun is rarely used in a command.]



ngai₂ [ŋaːj] pro they; them; their; 3PL remote họ; người đó Tốq bar kixay cư át icốh ngai dyoun cư chou thám icốh. After I stay like that two months they let me return visit like that. [Unknown or treated as unknown; contrasts with ape ‘they-known’.; Also used as classifier ngai_ticuôi; ‘people’.] cf: mu. 9.2.3. Pronouns


ntrah [ʔəntraːh] pro that one beside ở bên cạnh [Further than ntráh. ] cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns



ntúh [ʔəntuh] pro yonder; way over there [Head of NP as pronoun, modifier of head as REL.CL.] cf: ntóh., ntíh. 9.2.3. Pronouns. 8.5.2. Direction


ntoh [ʔəntɔːh] pro that ở sau; ở dưới xa hơn [Further back than ntóh. ] cf: ntíh., ntóh. 9.2.3. Pronouns