-ineg locfsufA person, place or thing is not or was not the location of an action performed by someone.Kung waya' mu siya banta'i nga 'īmu siya patyun, waya' naglāyas 'ang 'ākun 'unga'.If she had not been threatened by you that she would be killed by you, my daughter would not have run away.cf- an gina-an gina-an gina-i giN-an -in-an4pag-an pag-an pag-i imper locfsufSomeone or something must or should be the location of an action performed by someone!The range of meaning of this imperative locative focus affix includes what is generally called beneficiary focus.Higuti 'ābi 'ang 'īmu manga bābuy kay nagakinadtu sa 'ākun ning 'uma.Please, your pigs should be tethered because they keep on going into my upland field.Daku'daku'i 'ābi 'ang pabīlu nang murun kag birabirahun ma'āyu 'ang pabīlu, pāra makatākud sa hāngin.The wick of the bottle torch should please be made very big and the wick should be carefully pulled out little by little so that it will be able to survive in the wind.Milba, humani ning dūyan 'ang 'īmu 'unga' kag pakatuyūgun!Melba, your child should have a hammock made for [her] and should be allowed to sleep!imper locfsufWith causative stem.Mahal kung 'asāwa, kung 'ikaw na ma'unga' paday'i gid 'akuy sūlat, kay dūgay pa 'aku kabālik.Dear wife, when you give birth I should be sent a letter because it will take long for me to come back.Sīgi na! Palapiti na kay 'ūras na nang 'āras!Go ahead! [He] should now be approached because it is time for the espousal ceremony!cf- an gina-i pag-an pag-i
-in-1varni-1gfinfixSomeone or something was acted upon by someone else.Past tense -in- is affixed to stems with the extensive prefix paN- (with no other affixation). The resultant affix combination consists of two separate affixes with distinct functions and not the prefix variant pinaN- described in paN-2.Kadaku'dāku' gid 'ang 'uyan; kadāmu' nga bayay 'ang binaha' pakadtu sa dāgat.The rain was very heavy; there were many houses that were flooded going to the sea.Kinūgus si Buy nang 'iya lūla.Boy was carried in the arms by his grandmother.Nahāngit 'ang 'uning; nilagud siya pīru ma'abtik 'ang 'ambu'.The cat got angry; [the rat] was chased but the rat was quick [in running].'Aba, pinanggan'ut 'aku pagkatāpus ku ning kā'un.Oh, I was extensively soaked by perspiration upon my completion of eating.Ngāni' 'āmun na pinangsaylu tanan 'ang daya sa pinakamalapit nga pirtāhan.So all the things were all transferred by us to the nearest doorway.acfinfixSomeone or something was an accessory to an action by someone else.Past tense -in- is affixed to stems derived with the prefix paN- e.g., pangasāwa. The resultant affix combination is not the prefix variant pinaN- described in paN-2.Kay Tāta Dīnu na 'aku nagbāhuy hasta nga pinangasāwa.I grew up with Uncle Dino until [I] was courted.Dinaya niya pabālik 'ang kaban bīsan waya' siya dāwi nga 'isda'.The clothes trunk was taken by him going back even though he had not caught fish.syngiN- cfgina- na--un n dervinfixIndicates a noun resulting from an operation performed on something.The range of meaning of this accessory focus prefix includes what is generally called instrumental focus.'Ang subra nga kwarta binakay nāmun ning kawāyan nga gamītun sa huhumanun nga tabūnan.As for the extra money, it was used by us to buy bamboo which will be used in repeatedly making deep sea fish traps.'Ang hambay niya sa 'ākun hay matīpun 'ānay kami kwarta kay kahuga' 'ang nagapamilya nga waya' tinipun nga kwarta.He said to me that we will first save money because it is difficult having a family when there are no money savings.'Ang manga tinābas, hay ginatambitambi kag ginahuman nga punda nang 'uyūnan.As for remnant cloths, [they] are all joined together and made into a pillowcase for a pillow.syngiN- cfgina- 'i-1na'i-n dervinfixExamples of other nouns derived with -in- or variant ni-: kilis washes rice, kinilis rice wash water; līkid is cylindrically rolled, linikid, nilikid a cylindrically rolled object; sābag is roasted, sinābag roasted food; sāya' is strained, sināya' a strained liquid; tū'um is cooked in a banana leaf over live coals, tinu'um food cooked in a banana leaf over live coals.
-in-2varni-2measinfixSomething is bought, sold, carried, measured out, paid by a particular unit of measure.A few measure nouns are variously prefixed with ni-.binaskitby the basketbināsuby the glassdinupaby arms spanginalunby the gallonGinbaligya' ku 'ang niyug ning binu'uk.The coconuts were sold by me by the whole piece.Nagabakay 'aku ning lāna nga binutilya.I buy cooking oil by the bottle.lināta, nilātaby the utility canFor units of measure, see Appendices 18, 19
-in-4varni-3dur affsufIndicates that the action of a verb is always, continuously or regularly done, or keeps on being done.This affix is accompanied by length on verb roots which are otherwise without length. It occurs on verbs, infinitives and gerunds.'Ini 'ang 'uning hay may 'anītu nga kung 'īmu kunu 'ini digūsun 'ang 'uning kag ngitlan hay magapanglinti' kag maga'inūyan.As for cats there is a taboo belief in which if you bathe a cat and laugh at it, [it] will lightning and will continuously rain.Bāsi' nagnilūpuk na didtu sa Parayan?Why was it that [an explosive device] kept on exploding there in Parayan?May yāra' nga nagapanamkun nga ginahagkut kāda hāpun, kag maskin 'āga pa hay gustu na magkinatūyug.There are some who have pregnancy cravings who feel cold every afternoon, and even though it is already morning [they] like to continually sleep.dur affsufPinang- consists of pang- plus -in-.'Imaw 'ina' 'ang dyunyur; gāni' hay 'imaw 'ang nagmāna sa pagpinangli'li'.That one is the junior [of father and son, so] he is the one who inherited [the habit of his father of] always investigating [things].Nagahinīpus lang 'ina' si Suylu kag magpinamāti' sa 'iya tatay.Zoilo just always keeps silent and always listens to his father.cfCV- D paN-2
-in-an1varni-anlocf affsufA person, place or thing was the location of an action performed by someone.Commonly this affix occurs on stems beginning with paN- or variant paN-. This latter affix marks the form as a verb; e.g., pangāku' + -in-an = pinangakū'an.Si Minda hay binayā'an na ni Birtu kay nabu'uy na 'ang 'iya pagkababāyi.As for Minda, [she] was already left behind by Berto because her feminine purity was already taken [by him].Kinupkupan si Birtu nang 'iya nanay; dūgay gid siya kupkup.Berto was embraced by his mother; he was embraced for a long time.Nagahitsūra sinda ning 'ati'āti kay 'ina' hay 'imaw 'ina' 'ang 'inda pinangakū'an nga dibusyun.They look like made-up Negrito-like people because as for them that is the devotion that was promised by them [to the Holy Infant].syngiN-an cf- an gina-an na-anrecip agf affsufMarks a gerund, infinitive or verb for reciprocal action or state; two or more do something to or witheach other.var-an2Stem kita' with agent focus verb prefix nag-.Kalīpay na kami 'ina' niyan sa bayay kay nagkinita'an na naman kami.We were happy then at home because we had found each other again.recip agf affsufStem higda' with agent focus verb prefix nag- and an extensive verb prefix paN-2.Pag'abut nāmun didtu sa Kabulūtan, nagpanghigdā'an kami ning 'isa ka gab'i.Upon arriving there at Kabulutan we slept away from home one night.recip agf affsufStem singgit' with agent focus verb prefix naga-.'Indi' pagpakalīngun nang nubya sa pagbutang sa butāngan nang pāri' pāra 'indi' kunu sinda pirmi mag'ināway nga nagasininggītan kag nagalinīngaw.[The ring and money] should not be allowed by the fiancée to jingle in putting [them] into the place where [they] will be put by the priest so that, they say, they will not always be quarreling in which [they] shout at each other and always make noise.recip agf affsufStem būlig with infinitive prefix mag-.Sinda hay nakatu'ip nga magbinuligan kung sin'u 'ang nagakahinangyan ning būlig.As for them, they learned to help each other, whoever needed help.recip agf affsufStem 'irgu with gerund prefix pag-.Birta luwas 'ānay dira'; 'igwa kitay manga bisīta; kahinangyānun ka diri sa pag'inirgūhan nāmun.Bertha, please come outside; we have visitors; you are needed here in our discussing with each other.recip agf affsufOther reciprocal forms: binuyagan (stem buyag) separate from each other; hinangitan (stem hangit) become angry with each other; hinarū'an (stem haru') kiss each other; kinupkūpan (stem kupkup) embrace each other; tinumbūyan (stem tumbuy) reprove each other.syn-an3