giN-gfprefSomeone or something was acted upon by someone else.A substantive with agent focus, indicated by a ma 1 class verb, is focused as a goal, indicated by an -un class causative verb. Compare the two following sentences, both with a focus on someone who does something.Nang ginsiru' na 'aku, 'ūna gid hay 'ang 'ākun dugu' gingsiru' kung pila.When I was examined, my blood pressure was looked at as to how much [it was].Gingbaligya' ku 'ang dūta' nga gingsubli' ku sa 'ākun tatay.I sold the land which was inherited by me from my father.Nagkā'un na kami 'ina' kay yāra' na 'ang naghatud nang 'āmun 'ihāpun.We ate then because the one who brought our supper was there.Kumadtu 'aku kag ginpakā'un 'aku ninda.I went there and I was caused to eat by them.syn-in-1 -in-1 cf-a -a -a ginagina- gina- giN-a giN-a gina-agina-agina-an ginabuyung2giN-an 'i- 'i-1'ika--in-1-in-1-in-1-in-1-in-1ma-1 ma'i-ma'i-na-na'i-pag-a pag-a pag'i-pag-unpag-unpag-un-un -un gfprefA causative affix converts an intransitive verb into a transitive verb; it is inflected by an -un class affix. Compare the two following sentences, both with a focus on someone who sat.Waya' nagahigda' si Maridyun; nagpungku' siya nagasandig sa dingding.Mary June was not lying down; she sat down leaning against a wall.Gindaya niya 'ini sa kabukīran nga waya' ning manga bayay kag didtu ginpapungku' 'ini niya.He brought him to a mountain where there were no houses and he was allowed by him to sit down.acfprefSomeone or something was an accessory to an action by someone else.A causative affix converts a 'become' verb, with agent focus inflected by a ma- 1 class affix, into a causative 'become' verb, inflected by an -un class affix. For an example, see -un.syn-in-1cfgina- giN-a na-pag-a -un acfprefGiN- 1b is an 'i- class verb affix.'Ang 'ākun pangabuhī'an diri ginta'u ku na sa 'inda nga manga 'unga' ku.My source of livelihood (i.e., property) here was given to my children by me.Ginbanyus ni Sidru 'ang pintūra sa dingding.The paint was applied by Sidru onto the wall.acfprefThe range of meaning of this accessory focus prefix includes what is generally called instrumental focus.'Ang binisyu da kunu 'adtu nang 'āmun lūla sa kahadluk, ginbūkut 'ang 'iya banig.That done by our grandmother in fear, [was that] her mat was used to cover [her].acfprefA substantive with goal focus, indicated by an -un class verb, is focused as an accessory, indicated by an 'i- class causative verb. Compare the two following sentences, both with a focus on food eaten.Pag'abut ku diri sa San 'Agustin ginagūtum na gid 'aku kay ka'isut lang 'ākun ginkā'un sa Lusīna.When I arrived in San Agustin I was already very hungry because only a little [food] was eaten by me in Lucena.Nang sinda hay nagpariprisku 'ang 'inda ginpakā'un sa manga dalāga hay sūpas, makarūni kag karni nang manuk.When they had their refreshments, that which was caused to be eaten by the unmarried ladies was soup macaroni and chicken meat.acfprefNote that ginpakā'un which occurs in this sentence is an 'i- class causative verb in contrast to ginpakā'un which occurs in the sentence in giN- 1a above which is an -un class causative verb.syn-in-1cfgina- 'i-1na'i-

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *