Dictionary Entries explained


Headwords in Romblomanon dictionary are generally roots. The description of verbs is divided according to their affixation to indicate primary role relationships they have with substantives. Glosses will be provided in this rank order: agent, accessory, instrument, goal, beneficiary, and location.

Following the gloss of each lexical meaning is the lexical citation and example of an affixed verb that indicates not only the role relationship between that verb and a substantive, but also features of tense. Verbs with past tense affixes are cited and illustrated first, followed by present tense verbs, future tense verbs and finally neutral tense verbs. Verbs with various features of aspect are cited and illustrated under each tense.

Variants of lexical forms are indicated within parentheses, e.g., (var blýki). Homophones (words with the same pronunciation and spellings but with unrelated meanings) are distinguished from each other by the use of subscript numbers. Sub-entries (run-on entries) are either derivatives, idioms or set expressions. They occur at the end of the entry to illustrate the involvement of the entry form with these forms, which occur as main entries elsewhere in the dictionary. For each there is a citation followed by a simple lexical gloss.

ma-1agfprefSomeone or something will do something.Indicates a future action associated with a potential substantive with agent focus.Kung pwīdi hay mapānaw ꞌānay ꞌaku sa malayuꞌ.If it is possible, I will just go far away.Mapriparar sinda ning bāyun nga dayꞌun sa langūyan.They will prepare a carried lunch which will be brought to the swimming place.cfka-1mag- mag- mag- mag- magka- magka- magka- maka-4nag- nag- nag- nag- naga- naga- naga- naga- naka-2 naka-2 -um- -um- -um- -um-
gf ablprefSomeone or something is or will be able to be acted upon by someone else.This agent focus prefix inflects causative verbs.Pagkatāpus ning syam ka ꞌadlaw hay mapakāꞌun ka sa ꞌīmu manga kalāpit.After nine days [of prayers] you will let your neighbors eat [the food which you prepared].ꞌAdtung ꞌātun gingkasugtānan, kung ꞌadtu hay maꞌaprubahan, diri na kita hay mapahuman ning ꞌisa nga pruyiktu nga tūbiꞌ.That upon which an agreement was made by us, if [it] will be approved, this is the time that, as for us, [we] will let a water project be constructed.Dāpat hay hugāsan mu ꞌang planggāna pāra mabuꞌuy ꞌadtu ꞌang kabāhuꞌ.It should be that you will wash the basin so that the bad smell will be able to be removed.Kung ꞌīmu sukātun ꞌang sīhiꞌ, dāpat pakut ꞌang ꞌīmu gamītun kay ꞌagud hay ꞌindiꞌ mabuꞌak ꞌang ꞌiya ning balayan.cfgiN- giN-1agina- gina-a-in-1-in-1mag- na-nag- naga- -um- -un
gf ablprefAbilitative aspect includes actions that happen to be done or are accidentally, casually or unintentionally done.If the mollusk meat is pried out by you, what should be used by you is a safety pin so that its shell will not be accidentally broken.cfgina- na-
ma-2adj dervprefDerives an adjective.Didtu sa wātir ꞌirya, hay dāti ꞌadtu hay may kaꞌīngin kag kadamūꞌan didtu hay niyug nga mabābaw lang ꞌang gamut.There in the water area, previously, there was an upland field and for the most part there, as for the coconut trees, the roots were shallow.Mapungkuk ꞌang ꞌiya kurti kag ꞌang ꞌiya tukaꞌ hay kulur ꞌūbi.Its shape (i.e., the height of a chestnut manikin bird) is short and its beak is violet in color.synka-2ka-2na-na-
ma-anabl locf affA person, place or thing is able to be the location of an action performed by someone.Abilitative aspect includes actions that happen to be or are accidentally, casually or unintentionally the location of an action.Kaꞌūnun mu na lang ꞌābir pānit pāra masudlan ꞌang ꞌīmu tyan ning pagkāꞌun.Even [vegetable] peelings would just be eaten by one so that one's stomach would be able to have food put inside.Kung matimakan mu ꞌini sigurādu gid nga pilas ꞌang ꞌīmu siki.If these [cocks comb oysters] happen to be stepped on by you, it is sure that your feet will be cut.synka-an1cfgiN-an -in-an4ka-an1ka-an1ma-ina-i nasayangan1pag-i abl locf affThe range of meaning of this locative focus affix includes what is generally called beneficiary focus.Makadtu siya sa ꞌiya manīnuy pāra mabakyan naman siya ning ꞌisa nga bāka.He will go to his godfather so that he would be able to have another cow bought for [him by his godfather].synka-an2 cfgina-an mama-ina-an

Example Sentences
Example sentences are used to illustrate typical grammatical, semantic and cultural contexts of specific senses of lexical forms being described. Almost all examples are from natural texts. Some examples are slightly adapted from their occurrence in natural textual context. This is considered necessary to allow them to stand alone, to aid in sentence understanding, or to limit sentence length. Only words that do not seem to affect the grammatical structure or basic meaning of the sentence have either been added or omitted. For the most part additions involve substituting proper nouns for personal pronouns. In cases where it seemed that the English translation of sentences would not be clearly understood, or to conform to English grammar, additions in the translation were included within square brackets, based on the textual context from which the examples were taken.

Maskin ˆang ˆãkun nadangãtan hay kahugaˆ kag makakahuyaˆ nga ˆikspiryinsya hay maˆãyu da gihãpun. Even though what was experienced by me was difficult and [it was] an embarrassing experience [of being examined by a male doctor], [it] was still good.
The addition [of being examined by a male doctor] is textual context involving a woman being examined by a male doctor. The additions [it was] and [it] are included in consideration of English grammar.

The lexical form being illustrated within the Romblomanon sentence is boldfaced. The English translation of that lexical form is also boldfaced within the sentence translation. This is done to identify the translation of the lexical form being illustrated. Boldfacing the translation of the lexical form also demonstrates agreement between that translation and the gloss proper of the lexical gloss that is also boldfaced. (See above, Translation Equivalents and Lexical Descriptions, last paragraph.)
Usage and Context
Grammatical notes are added within square brackets to aid in identifying the natural grammatical context for the lexical form being described.
nãtun poss adj pron ... [Post-noun or post-gerund possessive pronoun. For pre-noun or pre-gerund possessive pronoun, see ˆãtun 1a.]
Semantic and cultural notes are added within braces to aid in an understanding of how the lexical item is used within the semantic and cultural contexts.
Semantic note:
býyuk nang niyug n an unopened coconut inflorescence {Enclosed within a spathe ˆuyu with male and female flowers, stem tangãya 1a and branches byayýbay.}
Cultural notes:
panagˆãraw n second-crop season ....{The season for planting, tending and harvesting second-crop rice.}
Senses of lexical items are semantic rather than grammatical features. Some nouns, adjectives and/or verbs are described within a single sense and others involve sense differences. For example kagwãpa is either a noun “beauty” or an adjective “beautiful”. Both functions are described under a single sense. In contrast hãbaˆ is a noun: “the length of something”. It is also a verb: “An object becomes long”. In this case the noun and verb are separated as two senses.

Numbers and letters are used to identify contrastive senses of lexical forms. These contrasts may be accompanied by modification of the entry form, though not necessarily so. Indicating senses is a somewhat subjective matter. The intent is to group under a single sense semantic usage of the form that has a relatively uniform meaning and to exclude meanings that are judged sufficiently different to warrant indication of a separate sense. If two senses are judged to be quite close in meaning, they are separated by, for example, 1a and 1b. If they are judged not to be close in meaning, they are separated by 1, 2, etc.
pintýra 1a n paint 1b v A surface is painted by someone.
dãhan 1 v Someone does something carefully, slowly, is careful in doing something. 2 v Someone is given care or respect by someone.
plÿti 1a v Someone pays the fare for or rents something. 1bpagplÿti (varplÿti) nafareforridingonor carrying something on a vehicle
When the first sense is a generic and the second is some modification of it, the first sense is indicated by a number and the second sense by a number-letter combination.
pýkut 1 n a fishnet 1a naylun nga pýkut n a nylon line fishnet

Senses of concrete meanings generally occur within the entry before senses of abstract meanings, and senses of simpler forms occur before those of more complex forms. Senses of derivations generally occur before those of idioms and set expressions.

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words
Synonyms are words with the same lexical meaning, though they may vary in some feature of grammatical, semantic or cultural context.
pantyun n a burial vault syn nitsu
Antonyms are words that are judged to be more-or-less opposite in meaning.
buyag 1a v Someone or something leaves someone or something else; people or things separate from each other. ant nunut
nunut v Someone accompanies someone else or joins someone else in an activity. ant buyag la

Words too semantically different to be labeled synonyms but which share some close meaning relationship are cross referenced for purposes of meaning comparisons. Read “cf” as “compare”.
sapaˆ 1 n a seasonal creek cf subaˆ
subaˆ n a river; a marshy area cf sapaˆ 1
No attempt has been made to indicate origins of words not clearly of Romblomanon origin. The language has borrowed heavily from Spanish. Other language sources include other Bisayan languages, Tagalog and English.