w-1Vpfx1itMtwi wangu waluma. / Waluma.My head hurts. / It hurts.W- is used befoe vowels only; see u- and wa-.This prefix references third person subject and object NG2 singulars, and NG1 and NG7 plurals.2they(Wowo) wadya a matunda.They are eating the fruits.3them
w-2Vpfxyou (sg)Wachigutira mbwani?Why are you yelling at us?Sikudyeza wogere mo u mto dyero.I dare you to swim in the river today.u- > w- / ___V
-w(a)V > VPsfxpassive derivational extensionkulawwato be come out ofkupikwato be cookedkupikirwato be cooked forkusekezwato be made to laughkuhonezwato be healedkusolwato be taken / marriedkusoleswato be taken / married too muchkuzengwato be builtkuzengerwato be built for / to be used to buildOn some verbs the form is -igw(a), apparently used to break up difficult consonant clusters.In Chizigula, the passive suffix can be added to virtually all transitive, benefactive, instrumental, and causative verbs but also even to some intransitives -- if the meaning makes sense in context.
wa-11VpfxtheyWazengerana.They built it for each other.Wanitogola.They like me.wa- > w- before vowelsThis prefix references third person subject and object NG1 and NG7 plurals on verbs.2VpfxthemSiwatogola (wowo).I like them.I ate them (rabbits)Wawatogola.They like them.Wawapenda.They love themWawakoma.They killed them.3Vpfxyou (pl)Siwatogola nyose.I like you all.Wa- also references a second person plural object on verbs.4NG1pfxNG1 plural markerThis prefix marks NG1 and NG7 plurals on nouns, adjectives, demonstratives and pronouns.
wa-2NG7pfxNG7 plural diminutive markerNasidya wabuga. / Nasiwadya.I ate rabbits. / I ate them.Wabuga waguluka. / Waguluka.The rabbits ran away. / They ran away.Chitogola wabuga wano we msanga na hachitogole wabuga wadya wakungala.We like these brown rabbits but we don't like those white rabbits.This prefix references NG7 plurals on nouns, pronouns, adectives and demonstratives; it also references NG7subject and object plurals on verbs.
-wa (~ -igwa)VT > VPsfxpassive suffixThis suffix derives passive verbs (VPs) from virtually all transitive verbs (VTs), but also from a few intransitive verbs (kufigwa < kufa).
wa (-a, we)PrepNG1/2/6/71ofWabharbharo na wandere wa siku zino watogola ngono.The young men and young women of these times like sex.Siona u mwiri wa mtru.I saw the body of a person.Mtwi wa kabuga u chimsanga.The head of the rabbit is brown.mwana wa kwanzafirst child = child of firstmwana wa kumitenth child = child of tenmwangazo wa zuwabrightness of the sunmoro wa ng'ombe / mphunda / ngamira / mbuzi / ngoto herd of cattle / donkeys / camels / goats / sheepmnomo wa degebeak = mouth of birdtate wa mbuyangufather of my friendwatate wa mbuyangufathers of my friendsmame wa mbuyangumother of my friendwana / wazana wa nyumbachildren of the housewa + i > weAs a preposition for NG1 singular, wa can be replaced by ywa.2forUfiyosa ni wa kumiziza mamira.The bulb syringe is for sucking mucus (out of the nose).Chaunga uchumi wa kila isi.We need stability for every country.Mwe kazi yangu sigaluka mbavi wa kusola lalushi.At my work I became a thief for taking bribes.3fromSilekerwa wasiya wa baba.I was left a legacy from grandfather.Sikuhitadyi usaidizi wa mtru.I don't need help from anyone.4withLuvi kuna mtowano wa wantru waidi, Muhammad Ali na George Logan.Tomorrow there is a fight with two people, Muhammad Ali and George Logan.5untilChi wapenzi wa kudugana.We are lovers until burying each other (= until death do us part).
waabhayo (abhayo)NG1sisters (older)Miye nna waabhayo wedi.I have nice older sisters.Waabhayo zangu ni watana.My big sisters are gorgeous.In rapid speech aa > a.
waabhobho (abhobho)NG1brothers (older)Miye nna waabhobho waidi.I have good older brothers.In rapid speech aa > a.
waabiriya (abiriya)NG1passengersBasi dyangu dyasola waabiriya mbokolo ntratu.My bus is carrying three hundred passengers.Waabiriya wa markebu ya "Titanic" wahonywa na ndoni ndodo.The passengers on the ship Titanic were rescued by little boats.
Waafrika (M'afrika)NG1AfricansUkristo ni wingi mwe zi isi za waafrika.There is a lot of Christianity in the countries of Africans.Waafrika wahurishwa bada ya kolonya ya miyaka mingi.Africans have been freed after many years of colonization.In rapid speech the long aa may coalesce into short a.
waaskari (askari)NG11soldiersWaaskari wadya ni wakali.Those soldiers are brave (ones).In rapid speech aa > a.See maaskari.2police(men)Waaskari wose wengira mwe di gari dimwengaAll the policemen went in the same car.
waatiyoNG1uncles (maternal)Nna waatiyo wengi.I have many uncles.In rapid speech aa > a.
wabaaNG1guysWabaa Mhidyi wabaa Dowo walapira walihe halo ya wababa zawo. The Mhidyi guys and Dowo guys swore to pay revenge for their ancestors.This is a short form of wabwanga used only in sentential contexts, never said alone.
wababa (baba)NG11grandfathersWababa wabwirana he di dyavi.Grandfathers gathered together on the floormat.Kitambo mviko wa ukala nani mikutano ya wababa zetu na wawau zetu.Long ago the ritual of "ukala" was a meeting of our grandfathers and our grandmothers.2grandpasWababa zangu wose wasekeza.Both my grandpas are funny.3ancestorsChatongera wasiya wa wababa zetu.We are obtaining the legacy of our ancestors.Naendeleza kazi ikongigwe ni wababa zetu.I'm continuing work that was started by our ancestors.
wababa na wawauNG1ancestorswababa zetu na wawau zetuour ancestorsNote the unexpected possessive; the expected wetu is questionable at best here.
Wabadyuni (Mbadyuni)NG1BajunisWabadyuni ni wadyeche mwe Bhoize.There are few Bajunis in Boise.Badyuni ni viruwa va Wabadyuni.Bajun are islands of the Bajunis.Wabadyuni watanganyikana na Wamalesiya.Bajunis have mixed with Malaysians.Ulowadyi sihinywa ni Wabadyuni.I was taught fishing by Bajunis.
wabakadyi (mbakadyi)NG1rapistsSono ukadyenda nachiro; kaya ino imema wabakadyi!Don't go walking at night; this town is full of rapists!
wabala (mbala)NG11clever (people)Wana wa mwe kalasi ino ni wabala.Kids in this class are clever.2shrewd (people)Maraisi mengi ni wabala.Many presidents are shrewd.3cunning (people)Wabwanga wano ni wabala.These guys are cunning.
wabalangadyi (mbalanga(dyi))NG11destroyersWabalangadyi kazi yawo ni kubalanga.The destroyers' work is to destroy.2perpetratorsWabalanga ni wowo; waombwa naho.They are the perpetrators; they are also the ones pleaded with.
Wabamira (Mbamira)NG1Bamira clansmenWandugu zangu, nyuwe mu Wabamira.My brothers, you are Bamiras.
wabanda (kabanda)NG7huts (little)Sizenga wabanda waidi mwe haranti yangu.I've built two little huts in my yard.
wabandikadyi (mbandika(dyi))NG11schedulersWabandikadyi wose wadyereka masanduku me moto yawo.All the schedulers are carrying wooden boxes on their motorcycles.2postersWabandikizadyi wakawa kubandikiza mahanshi dyero.The posters have delayed posting papers today.
Wabantu (Mbantu)NG1BantusMna Wabantu wengi mwe Afrika.There are lots of Bantus in Africa.Wabantu watogola chirimo.Bantus like agriculture.Wabantu mwe Somaliya nani wabawigwa.Bantus in Somalia were victims of theft.Wabantu watogola kufenyezana wavere.Bantus like to brag to each other about women.