ka-1Vpfx1heKachitogola chose.He likes all of us.Dektari kanisaidiya. / Kanisaidiya.The doctor cured me. / He/she cured me.Baba nakasana bundo.Grandfather engineered bridges.Ka- is the third person singular subject marker referencing NG1 in the aorist, definite past in na-, negatives; a- marks third person singular subjects in the definite (progressive) present in a- (a- + a- > a-), in the future in na-, and in relative clauses and commands.2sheKatogola nyumba ino.She likes this house.3itKabuga kadya kaguluka. / Kaguluka.That rabbit ran away. / It ran away.Nasikadya.I ate it (rabbit).Kabuga kadya nikadire. / Nikadire.That rabbit, I will eat it. / I will eat it.Nankakadya.I was eating it (rabbit).This is third person singular subject and object marker referencing N6.
ka-2NG7pfxNG7 singular diminutive markerKatogola kabuga kano ke msanga na hatogole kabuga kadya kakungala.She likes this brown rabbit but doesn't like that white rabbit.Kabuga kano, nasikadya.This rabbit, I ate it.Kabuga kaguluka. / Kaguluka.The rabbit ran away. / It ran away.Kabuga kano ni kakulu.This rabbit is big.A kabuga sikadya miye.I was the one who has eaten the rabbit.Kanyau kano kana wakombe watali.This kitty has long little claws.This prefix marks singular NG7 nouns, adjectives, pronouns, demonstratives and quantifiers. It also references both subjects and objects on verbs.
ka-3V > Vpfx1goKanitagire!Go sell for me!Kagone!Go sleep!Kadye!Go eat!Kasome!Go study!Kakoze!Go pee!Nderi ineza, nachikahande naho.When the rainy season comes, we'll go plant again.Katowe kona ya u kumoso!Go take the corner on the left!Afrika aho kale nahaina mihaka, kwa ivo wantru nawakadyenderana. (Arbow)Before in Africa there weren't any borders, so people would go visit each other.Tafadhali, hita kanisoere gari dyangu.Please, go get my car for me.Sakumlombeza.I went there and seduced her.Dyero sakudahuira leni imwenga ya maswischad.Today I went there to cut dead leaves off one row of Swiss chard.Sakudya Nampa.I went and ate there in Nampa.Sakugula masanamu wanangu wasezigire.I went there to buy toys for my kids to play with.ka- + ku- 'there' > aku- 'went there' Ka- occurs after the subject prefix and before the object prefix, if any. It requires the subjunctive suffix -e when in commands or the future (see: kwita).2keep (on)Ukalonga!Keep (on) talking!Ukadya!Keep (on) eating!Ukakoza!Keep peeing!Sono ukahembereza kama mvere!Don't keep on pleading like a woman!Ukadyenda mwendo!Keep (on) walking fast!Nadaha nkaduka kila siku kwa sabu nna imani yake.I can keep praying every day because I have faith in it.Mkafosa!Keep leaving!When meaning 'keep on', ka- governs the indicative unmarked suffix -a.3used toNanikaputa.I used to smoke.Nanikanywa.I used to drink.Nanikamgambiriziza.I used to translate for her.This marks past habitual. It is indistinguisable from the past progressive in ka-, except by context.
ka-4Connpfx1and (then)Chita kutanga, chakaona ntrwiga.We went to the farm, and we saw a giraffe.Neza nikasebeduka(sebeduka) kwasabu silewa.I'm coming and staggering because I'm drunk.Chitungulu sumu chanda kukachwa, chikadyerigwa mwe mboga.First, garlic is to be ground up, and then put in the soup.Kompyuta danda kuhanguswa izi programu zose, dikatagwa.The computer is first to be wiped clean of all its programs, and then it's sold.This prefix occurs after the subject prefix and before an object prefix, if any.2whenChikabula nawakadya.When we arrived, they were eating.Nawakalonga chikawaona.They were talking when we saw them.Wazana nawagona, wakenulwe ni izi nguto.The kids were already sleeping, when they were awakened by the noises.Akaguluke, kamzengera nyumbe yake.When she ran away, he was building her house for her.Ukasoma, wafikiri mbwani?When you're reading, what are you thinking about?Ukakoza, tumbala!When you pee, squat!Mame kaniona mbazi nikalumwe ni chisuse.Mom felt sorry for me when I got stung by a scorpion.Ukagona na mvere tumiya mipira!When you sleep with a woman, use condoms!Nyumba ikazengwa yaunga mphanda.When a house is being built, it needs vertical supports with crotches.Simwinukira baba akeze kwetu.I stood up for grandpa when he came to our place.Kaziye katumbula ndiro akagambirwe fire ya baba yake.Kaziye started to mourn when he was told about the death of his grandfather.Sichafuka nikengire mwe di kolongo.I got dirty when I entered the hole.Sishigitika wakati tate akafe / akafa.I felt terrible when dad died / was dying.Kegogomera na kambala, mpaka akafa.He choked himself with a rope until (when) he died.Mkafosa, solani mislae!When you're leaving, take arrows!Mkafose, maadui yeza kwa uwingi.When you left, the enemies came in great numbers.When clauses in ka- usually take the subjunctive final suffix -e, when they follow the main verb.3whileSimbwira ghafla akahaka mazi.I ran into her suddenly while she was bathing.Ukagona, wadyamanya mbwani?While you're sleeping, what are you doing?Kudyenda ukadya.You're walking while (you're) eating.Sidyinkha kasira kadodo nikaita Nampa.I passed on a little road while (I was) going to Nampa.Sihaza wabwanga waidi nawakakoshana.I scolded two guys while they were fighting.
ka-5Vpfx1past progressiveNankadya wali udya. / Wali udya nanikadya.I was eating that rice. / That rice, I was eating it.Nawakagomba.They were fighting.Ulimi wangu nokaluma gulo.My tongue was hurting yesterday.Migola yake nekaluma.Her ankles were hurting.Nawakakomana.They were killing each other.Nanikogoha.I was being afraid.Chikabula nawakadya.When we arrived, they were eating.Nawakalonga chikawaona.They were talking when we saw them.Nakazenga nyumba.He was building a house.Akaguluke, kamzengera nyumba yake.When she ran away, he was building her her house.Nanikamgambiriziza.I was translating for her.Nanikaputa.I was smokingNanikanywa.I was drinking.Nanikatumiya.I was using it.ka + ka > ka; ka- + ku- > aku-This prefix occurs after the subject prefix and before an object prefix, if any. See: a-2???Kwa dyiri ya Mnungu nadaha nikakusaidiya.For the sake of God, I can help you.Pande dya roti dyadaha dikegusa wantru kumi.A big piece of bread can satisfy ten people.Nimba hukasa kukoza?Why haven't you peed?Ka- used in the examples above are a mystery. -- Possibly ka- 'when'.
Kaba< ArbNG5Kaaba (shrine in Mecca)Wazunguluka i Kaba.They circumambulated the Kaaba.
kabanda (wabanda)NG7hut (little)Mbwa yangu siizengera kabanda he haranti yangu.My dog, I built a little hut for it in my yard.See: banda.
kabasi (wabasi)1NG7minivan busHafa ino yaunga kabasi kwa sabu wanafunzi wake ni wadodo.This neighborhood needs a minivan bus because it only has a few students.See: basi.
kabasi (wabasi)2NG71splinterSitungwa ni kabasi mwe di dole.I got pierced with a splinter in the finger.2chip3little piece of woodSee: basi.
kabehera (wabehera)NG71kidMwana mbuzi akonka etangwa kabehera.A baby goat when it begins is called a kid.Kazana mbuzi ketangwa kabehera.A baby goat is called a kid.2lambMwana ngoto akonka etangwa kabehera.A baby sheep when it begins is called a lamb.
kaberenge (waberenge)NG71cataract (little)See: berenge.2cross eyes, cross-eyedMwana yuno kerekwa na kaberenge.This child was born with cross eyes.
kabhufo (wabhufo)NG7little belly buttonKabhufo kake ni kadodo.Her little belly buttton is tiny.
kabhundo (wabhundo)NG7little bridgeHasi ha kabhundo kadya hadyinkha mazi machafu.Under that little bridge there passes dirty water.See: bhundo.
kabila (makabila)NG5tribe(s)Miye ni kabila fulani.I am from such-and-such tribe.Wazigula ni kabila.Kiziguans are a tribe.Miye kabila yangu ni Zigula.My tribe is Zigula.Kabila yetu isindikiswa mwe siyasa ye ishi.Our tribe was pushed out of the politics of the country.Dengereko ni kabila ya chi Bantu.Dengereko is a Bantu tribe.See: ukabila
kabisaAdvIntns1completelySileka kabisa kazi.I completely quit work.Utumwa chulemera kabisa mnaero chilagano ni ino. (Arbow: 8)Slavery, we completely reject it, therefore this is farewell.2totallySileka kabisa.I quit totally.Ino niyo iwasetule a wazehe kabisa. (Arbow: 8)This is what awakened the elders totally.Mwana yudya ywe chiziwanda ni mtundu kabisaThat child, the last born, is totally naughty.3absolutelyNi yeye kabisa!It's absolutely him!4exactly5yeahThis term is used to indicate agreement with another in conversation.
kablaConjbeforeNkhonde zinaiva kabla hawanati kudya a mamphemba, nawakabwirana he di yuwe dimwenga dikwitangwa Chiringo haguhi no mzi wa Suwa. (Arbow: 7)When the farms were ready before they were done eating corn on the cob, they would gather on the knoll called Chiringo near the town of Suwa.
kabla yaPrepbeforeYesu nani mchume kabla ya Mohamed.Jesus was a prophet before Muhammad.Nguwo zangu sizikamula kabla ya kuzidyereka mo u kambala.My clothes, I wrang them out before putting them on the clothes line.Chapua yatowigwa kabla ya msondo.The high pitched drum is played before the bass drum.
kaboi (waboi)NG7little servantBaba nani kaboi ka warabu.Grandpa was a little Arab servant.See: boi.
kabrale (makabrale)< It capraleNG11supervisorNi kabrale mwe di shirika dino.I'm the supervisor in this company.2foremanNi kabrale wa watumwa mwe nkhonde.I'm the foreman of the serfs on the farm.
kabsaraleni< SomNG51corianderKatogola mboga ina kabsaraleni.She likes soup that has coriander in it.2cilantroChihanda kabsaraleni mwe honde.We've grown cilantro on the farm.
kabuga (wabuga)NG7rabbitKatogola kabuga kano ke msanga na hatogole kabuga kadya kakungala.He likes this brown rabbit, and he doesn't like that white rabbit.Kabuga kadya kaguluka.That rabbit ran awayKabuga kano ni kakulu.This rabbit is big.Kabuga kano kaneneha.This rabbit is fat.Kabuga ke meso.The rabbit is alive.Kabuga ke hano.The rabbit is here.See: buga.
kabwanga (wabwanga)NG71little guyKabwanga kangu kaniletera nyama ya mbago.My little guy has brought me some meat from the forest.See: mbwanga, bwanga.2little buddyYuno ni kabwanga kangu.This is my little buddy.3boy (little)Dyero sitowa kabwanga mwe sira.Today I hit a little boy in the street.
kachentra (wachentra)NG71turd (tiny)Sikosha dharabhu; sinya kachentra kamwenga kwa siku shano.I'm constipated; I've pooped [only] one tiny turd in five days.See: chenta.2stool (tiny)