á1particleEnglishtopic marker; subject markerThis is often, but not always, like the English 'the', usually marking a noun or noun phrase that is known information in the context. The first example illustrates the subject first mentioned and marked by i, then subsequently by á.
Tamelo imuda a soi ái kauh a tu sangar sang i kán pakta. Tungu sár a soi, má onin ákte sehel no má i pokon. A ngoro a tu kápil sang á kán pakta.That watermelon back there the boy planted its size/growth is going quickly indeed. Just previously he planted it, and now it has crawled all over the place/garden. It is like its size is really quick to grow.A mon á máhngun á purpur min a tomtom.This flower has a smell that is fragrant.Ngo di oboi kubau i ran má dik oloi kámnah on, ki di ákáu á erei.When they put wood in the mumuing pit and make a fire with it, then that is (the meaning of) ákáu.
Pokon minái a tari singing ái tata má ái á pokon iau lu kis áklis ái.This place my father gave to me and it is the place where I live permanently.Kalilik di mil kápdite namnam má ngin pasi aru á kalang. Di álai namnam má dan ngorer suri náng kuluk á kándi mingal i pákánbung er da tari.The dancers do not eat and drink for two months. They abstain from food and water like that so that their dance will be good when they present it.i1ái
-á2Englishsuffix indicating sequential or resultThis suffix occurs on non-singular subject pronouns ending in a consonant.Nabung giur láklák tangrai sál ái Aupa má giurá mákái kesi kálámul a láklák tilamudi.Yesterday Aupa and I were walking along the road and we saw a person who was walking from upcoast.Goion kalik erei, pákánbung a káhái ái mámán a tu kámkámlán, kápate sut, pasi gitá mákái kán pakta ngo kápate maras kuluk.That infant child, when his mother birthed him he was just not properly developed/stunted, he was not fat/healthy, resulting in we see his growth that he is not growing well.-kgitarágitulágithatágitágiurágimtulágimhatágimágaurágamtulágamhatágamádiarádituládihatá
ábáninalienable nounEnglishbank of a river; earthen bank; sides of a canoe or shipDan a tibin máng kasi risán malar ák lala pakta i ábán má dan ák lala idi lal sang, pasi tan kalilik di lu hom on.The river flooded and dug beside the village so the riverbank was very high and the river was very much lower, resulting in the children were playing on it.1.7Nature, environmentnature
ái11pronounEnglishthird person singular (free)This free pronoun is usually used for emphasis to refer back to a previously mentioned person, thing, or topic. It is also used to speak of locations, and tends to refer to a general area rather than a particular spot.Má kak lala nemnem a ngoromin: ngo ina mánán i Karisito, ngorer ina áslai kán rakrakai er a salaptur kalengnai tili minat, má ina áslai mul i matngan rangrangas er a áslai má ina han mat keleh ngoro ái sang. (Pil 3.10)And my great desire is like this: that I will know Christ, therefore I will experience his power that resurrected him from death, and I will experience also that suffering he experienced and I will possibly die like him.Ái Abaram a longrai ngorer má kápate mánán i pokon na han ur ái, mái sár ái Abaram a ruruna pagas i Káláu, má ngorer a aptur mák han. (Eba 11.8)Abraham heard that and/but he did not know the place he would go to there (where he would be going), however Abraham believed-remaining in God, and therefore he got up and he went.on1a1ai...áiái sárhol on ngo ái má2particleEnglishproper name markerThis typically marks proper names as a subject and/or topic marker, and names the person referred to in a possessive construction or a non-singular pronoun.Parpara agas áklis uri narsán ái Káláu! A támin! (Gal 1.5)Praise forever to God! Amen!Má i pákánbung iau ami Ierusalem, kápte kesi apostolo mul iau banai, ái Petero masik sár diar ái Iakobo tuán ái Konom Iesu. (Gal 1.19)And when I was up in Jerusalem, there was not one other apostle I met up with, only Peter alone they two James (only Peter and James) the Lord Jesus's brother.á1i1mái
ái sárconjunctionEnglishrather; instead; howeverit onlyOften mái_sár and ái_sár occur in free variation. At times, however, ái_sár seems to provide the stronger contrast of the two.Lain him a lu longoi ái dokta, ái sár ngo pákánbung tan kálámul di lu han mai tan sasam i katbán libung, ki káp a tini pán suri mákái sasam. A lu monai sang uri kábungbung, ki nák mákái á sasam.The doctor does good work, however when people come with sicknesses in the middle of the night, then he does not awaken to see (to their) sickness. He waits for the morning, then he will see (to their) sickness.Ái turara a atri him uri Bung Lim ngo matananu da han suri longoi rákrák si pasta, ái sár tan kálámul dik han bul dik rui lamas kán lotu má dik sisi uri paiaman.The church work supervisor set work for Friday that people would go make the pastor's new garden, but rather people went instead (and) they collected the church's coconuts and cut out the flesh for the drying shed.mái sár
áir1intransitive verbEnglishbuild a fenceTok PisinbanisimThis is a generic term, but usually refers to fencing with bamboo.Matananu di áir kári malar mai got suri koion na sol á bor nák hom sara i malar.The people fenced off the village with bamboo so that pigs would not get in and play around (defecate) in the village.suk án áir2alienable nounEnglishfence typeTok PisinbanisThis is typically a fence built with bamboo that surrounds a garden to keep pigs out.Types of fencesáirlártaunmin6.2.1Growing cropsgarden
ákángpronounEnglishthird person singular (realis sequential)Pákánbung iau hutngin hut main, káp iau te mánán ngo ai a kis ái á rumán huhul. Má ngorer ák lam tar iau ái Wili uri pokon a mon ái á rumán huhul mák tus tari singing.When I newly/first came here, I did not know where the store was located. And so Wili led/showed me to the place where the store was and pointed it out to me.a1ákte-kmák2
ákáklisintransitive verbEnglishevery day; forever and everIau lu upmaiat ákáklis pasi isu uri kak sirsira.I go fishing every day to get fish for my marketing.Ákáklis i bos bos bung, ái koner kán tu bibialol sár má káp a tini haunges til on.Every day without end, he just wanders around and he does not stop doing it.áklisákáklisnai; áklisnai
ákáklisna-itransitive verbEnglishunendingKán tatalen án bibialol ái koner a lu long ákáklisnai i bohboh bung má kápate lu haunges on.That fellow's way of wandering around he does it unendingly every day and never stops.ákáklisáklisáklisnai
ákástransitive verbSurlus palai til on; long palai tili nián akakaEnglishremove one thing from anotherTok Pisinrausim long hukThis verb does not occur on its own, but only as a non-final member of a serial verb construction. It can refer to removing something from a hook or removing clothing from one's own body.Gama ákás pasi táp namnam imuni nián akaka dák ani á kalilik.Get that basket of food off the hook so the guys can eat it.Una ákás palai lusán er má nák sol on á kálámul munang.Take off that shirt and that man over there will put it on.áksá palai; kátsá palai; long palai; lusáiáksá-iáksái
ákáuáláuintransitive verbEnglishlay wood on the fire for mumuingTok Pisinwokim paia bilong mumuNgo di oboi kubau i ran má dik oloi kámnah on, ki di ákáu á erei.When they put wood in the mumuing pit and make a fire with it, then that is (the meaning of) ákáu.
ákdá-iátdáitransitive verb1Surekesi tipar palai; han gátna pasi má mos on má tiptipar on tilatung a kis áiEnglishchase awayTan kalilik di ákdái bor a las tili malar ki ák han rokoi má bor erei iamuni bos.The children chased a domesticated pig from the village and it became a wild pig up in jungle.7.2Movemotion2Englishconfront in angerThis sense often includes the idea of chasing something or someone away in anger.Ái Pita ngo a mánán pasi kálámul ngo a sipki kán pokon, ki ák lala mos, má ngorer ák han ák ákdái kálámul erei a siksikip.Peter when he realized which man stole from his garden, then he was very angry, and so he went and confronted that man who had stolen.sinar pasi
áklisintransitive verbEnglisheverlasting; permanent; always; foreverTok PisinoltaimPokon minái a tari singing ái tata má ái á pokon iau lu kis áklis ái.This place my father gave to me and it is the place where I live permanently.Ngo gita ruruna pagas i Iesu Karisito, ki gita liu áklis mai ami bát.If we will remain believing in Jesus Christ, then we will live forever with him in heaven.ásnginekesiákáklishiru áklisliu muswan er a kis áklispokon án hiru áklisákáklisnai; áklisnai
áklisna-itransitive verbEnglishalwaysA kuluk ngo tan wák da lu mur áklisnai tatalen án armámna uri narsán kándi tan pup.Women should always follow loving ways toward their husbands.ákáklisáklisákáklisnai
áksá pala-itransitive serial verbEnglishremove (clothing); undresshang removeákáskátsá palai; long palai; lusáiáksái; áksá pasiáksái
áksá pas-itransitive serial verbEnglishput on (clothing); clothehang getáksái; kátsá pasi; kátsáiáksá palaiáksái
áksá-itransitive verbSurakai; sol i lusánEnglishhang or put one thing on anotherThis can be hanging something on a hook or a beam, or putting clothing on one's body.Tan kalilik di áksái tan tigán namnam imuni torson bang suri na káp ani á pap.The young men hung the leftover food up on the men's house posts so that the dogs would not eat it.Pákánbung di eran suri saksak á tan kalilik, di áksái kándi mermer er a tukesi matngan páplun sur di no da tukesi mákmák sár.When the men were preparing to sing, they put on their clothing that was the same colour so that all of them would have just the same appearance.áksá pasi; kátsá pasi; kátsáiákásáksá palai